Wild Germplasm for Genetic Improvement in Crop Plants

Wild Germplasm for Genetic Improvement in Crop Plants
Author: Muhammad Tehseen Azhar,Shabir Hussain Wani
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 406
Release: 2021-03-15
ISBN 10: 0128221704
ISBN 13: 9780128221709
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Wild Germplasm for Genetic Improvement in Crop Plants Book Review:

Wild Germplasm for Genetic Improvement in Crop Plants addresses the need for an integrated reference on a wide variety of crop plants, facilitating comparison and contrast, as well as providing relevant relationships for future research and development. The book presents the genetic and natural history value of wild relatives, covers what wild relatives exist, explores the existing knowledge regarding specific relatives and the research surrounding them and identifies knowledge gaps. As understanding the role of crop wild relatives in plant breeding expands the genetic pool for abiotic and biotic stress resistance, this is an ideal reference on this important topic. Provides a single-volume resource to important crops for accessible comparison and research Explores both conventional and molecular approaches to breeding for targeted traits and allows for expanded genetic variability Guides the development of hybrids for germplasm with increased tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses

Molecular Breeding for Sustainable Crop Improvement

Molecular Breeding for Sustainable Crop Improvement
Author: Vijay Rani Rajpal,S. Rama Rao,S.N. Raina
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 478
Release: 2016-02-02
ISBN 10: 3319270907
ISBN 13: 9783319270906
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Molecular Breeding for Sustainable Crop Improvement Book Review:

The world population is estimated to reach to more than 10 billion by the year 2050. These projections pose a challenging situation for the agricultural scientists to increase crops productivity to meet the growing food demands. The unavailability and/or inaccessibility to appropriate gene pools with desired traits required to carry out genetic improvement of various crop species make this task formidable for the plant breeders. Incidentally, most of the desired genes reside in the wild genetic relatives of the crop species. Therefore, exploration and characterization of wild genetic resources of important crop species is vital for the efficient utilization of these gene pools for sustainable genetic improvements to assure food security. Further, understanding the myriad complexities of genic and genomic interactions among species, more particularly of wild relatives of crop species and/or phylogenetically distant germplasm, can provide the necessary inputs to increase the effectiveness of genetic improvement through traditional and/or genetic engineering methods. This book provides comprehensive and latest insights on the evolutionary genesis of diversity, access and its utilization in the evolution of various crop species. A comprehensive account of various crops, origin, exploitation of the primary, secondary and tertiary gene pools through breeding, biosystematical, cytogenetical and molecular phylogenetical relationships, and genetic enhancement through biotechnological interventions among others have been provided as the necessary underpinnings to consolidate information on the effective and sustainable utilization of the related genetic resources. The book stresses upon the importance of wild germplasm exploration, characterization and exploitation in the assimilation of important crop species. The book is especially intended for students and scientists working on the genetic improvement of crop species. Plant Breeders, Geneticists, Taxonomists, Molecular Biologists and Plant Biotechnologists working on crop species are going to find this book very useful.

Gene Pool Diversity and Crop Improvement

Gene Pool Diversity and Crop Improvement
Author: Vijay Rani Rajpal,S. Rama Rao,S.N. Raina
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 484
Release: 2016-02-02
ISBN 10: 3319270966
ISBN 13: 9783319270968
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Gene Pool Diversity and Crop Improvement Book Review:

The world population is estimated to reach to more than 10 billion by the year 2050. These projections pose a challenging situation for the agricultural scientists to increase crops productivity to meet the growing food demands. The unavailability and/or inaccessibility to appropriate gene pools with desired traits required to carry out genetic improvement of various crop species make this task formidable for the plant breeders. Incidentally, most of the desired genes reside in the wild genetic relatives of the crop species. Therefore, exploration and characterization of wild genetic resources of important crop species is vital for the efficient utilization of these gene pools for sustainable genetic improvements to assure food security. Further, understanding the myriad complexities of genic and genomic interactions among species, more particularly of wild relatives of crop species and/or phylogenetically distant germplasm, can provide the necessary inputs to increase the effectiveness of genetic improvement through traditional and/or genetic engineering methods. This book provides comprehensive and latest insights on the evolutionary genesis of diversity, access and its utilization in the evolution of various crop species. A comprehensive account of various crops, origin, exploitation of the primary, secondary and tertiary gene pools through breeding, biosystematical, cytogenetical and molecular phylogenetical relationships, and genetic enhancement through biotechnological interventions among others have been provided as the necessary underpinnings to consolidate information on the effective and sustainable utilization of the related genetic resources. The book stresses upon the importance of wild germplasm exploration, characterization and exploitation in the assimilation of important crop species. The book is especially intended for students and scientists working on the genetic improvement of crop species. Plant Breeders, Geneticists, Taxonomists, Molecular Biologists and Plant Biotechnologists working on crop species are going to find this book very useful.

Rediscovery of Landraces as a Resource for the Future

Rediscovery of Landraces as a Resource for the Future
Author: Oscar Grillo
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 204
Release: 2018-09-12
ISBN 10: 1789237246
ISBN 13: 9781789237245
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Rediscovery of Landraces as a Resource for the Future Book Review:

In recent years, all over the world, the attention paid to local and traditional productions is growing, especially in the agro-food sector. Maybe, it is not only due to the impact of globalization and the social and economic changes but also due to the increased consideration to health and nutritional aspects of food. Hence, for economic, social, historical, and nutritional reasons, this trend has led to the rediscovery and reuse of landraces of many different crops, responding to requests for more and more demanding market. This volume collects examples of local crops and old landraces of different areas of the planet that testify the extreme importance of the relation existing among a land, the local productions, the historical traditions, the conservation of biodiversity, the health benefits, the environmental impact and the local economies, also including the significance to dedicate resources to scientific researches in local crops.

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement
Author: Mohar Singh,Hari D. Upadhyaya,I. S. Bisht
Publsiher: Newnes
Total Pages: 322
Release: 2013-07-18
ISBN 10: 0123984947
ISBN 13: 9780123984944
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement Book Review:

Grain legumes, including common-bean, chickpea, pigeonpea, pea, cowpea, lentil and others, form important constituents of global diets, both vegetarian and non-vegetarian. Despite this significant role, global production has increased only marginally in the past 50 years. The slow production growth, along with a rising human population and improved buying capacity has substantially reduced the per capita availability of food legumes. Changes in environmental climate have also had significant impact on production, creating a need to identify stable donors among genetic resources for environmentally robust genes and designing crops resilient to climate change. Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement is the first book to bring together the latest resources in plant genetics and genomics to facilitate the identification of specific germplasm, trait mapping and allele mining to more effectively develop biotic and abiotic-stress-resistant grains. This book will be an invaluable resource for researchers, crop biologists and students working with crop development. Explores origin, distribution and diversity of grain legumes Presents information on germplasm collection, evaluation and maintenance Offers insight into pre-breeding/germplasm enhancement efforts Integrates genomic and genetic resources in crop improvement Internationally contributed work

Genetic and Genomic Resources for Grain Cereals Improvement

Genetic and Genomic Resources for Grain Cereals Improvement
Author: Mohar Singh,Hari D. Upadhyaya
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 384
Release: 2015-11-10
ISBN 10: 0128020377
ISBN 13: 9780128020371
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Genetic and Genomic Resources for Grain Cereals Improvement Book Review:

Genetic and Genomic Resources For Cereals Improvement is the first book to bring together the latest available genetic resources and genomics to facilitate the identification of specific germplasm, trait mapping, and allele mining that are needed to more effectively develop biotic and abiotic-stress-resistant grains. As grain cereals, including rice, wheat, maize, barley, sorghum, and millets constitute the bulk of global diets, both of vegetarian and non-vegetarian, there is a greater need for further genetic improvement, breeding, and plant genetic resources to secure the future food supply. This book is an invaluable resource for researchers, crop biologists, and students working with crop development and the changes in environmental climate that have had significant impact on crop production. It includes the latest information on tactics that ensure that environmentally robust genes and crops resilient to climate change are identified and preserved. Provides a single-volume resource on the global research work on grain cereals genetics and genomics Presents information for effectively managing and utilizing the genetic resources of this core food supply source Includes coverage of rice, wheat, maize, barley, sorghum, and pearl, finger and foxtail millets

Genetic Improvement of Vegetable Crops

Genetic Improvement of Vegetable Crops
Author: G. Kalloo,B.O. Bergh
Publsiher: Newnes
Total Pages: 846
Release: 2012-12-02
ISBN 10: 0080984665
ISBN 13: 9780080984667
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Genetic Improvement of Vegetable Crops Book Review:

Genetic improvement has played a vital role in enhancing the yield potential of vegetable crops. There are numerous vegetable crops grown worldwide and variable degrees of research on genetics, breeding and biotechnology have been conducted on these crops. This book brings together the results of such research on crops grouped as alliums, crucifers, cucurbits, leaf crops, tropical underground and miscellaneous. Written by eminent specialists, each chapter concentrates on one crop and covers cytology, genetics, breeding objectives, germplasm resources, reproductive biology, selection breeding methods, heterosis and hybrid seed production, quality and processing attributes and technology. This unique collection will be of great value to students, scientists and vegetable breeders as it provides a reference guide on genetics, breeding and biotechnology of a wide range of vegetable crops.

Wild Relatives of Cultivated Plants in India

Wild Relatives of Cultivated Plants in India
Author: Anurudh Kumar Singh
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 309
Release: 2017-08-14
ISBN 10: 981105116X
ISBN 13: 9789811051166
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Wild Relatives of Cultivated Plants in India Book Review:

This book provides a comprehensive overview of the wild relatives of crops and cultivated species found in India, covering their distribution, phylogenetic relationships with cultivated species, traits that are of economic and breeding value, and the perceived threats. It highlights the opportunities the wild relatives of cultivated species offer in terms of new genes and allelic variability, as well as several other exploitable economic and environmental benefits that can be harnessed with their conservation and cultivation. This helps facilitate their use – both directly and as part of the breeding program for related cultivated species, filling the gaps of genetic variability in the primary gene pool. It also discusses how they can be used in breeding programs using conventional technologies and the biotechnological approaches of recombinant DNA. Transfer of natural genes using recombinant DNA, known as “Cisgenesis,” can accelerate the process of incorporating these natural genes without genetic drag of undesirable features and biosafety concerns, and beyond taxonomic boundaries, in response to the demand for new cultivars to meet the challenges of climate change and ever-growing human population.

Rice Improvement

Rice Improvement
Author: Jauhar Ali,Shabir Hussain Wani
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 498
Release: 2021-05-05
ISBN 10: 3030665305
ISBN 13: 9783030665302
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Rice Improvement Book Review:

This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. By 2050, human population is expected to reach 9.7 billion. The demand for increased food production needs to be met from ever reducing resources of land, water and other environmental constraints. Rice remains the staple food source for a majority of the global populations, but especially in Asia where ninety percent of rice is grown and consumed. Climate change continues to impose abiotic and biotic stresses that curtail rice quality and yields. Researchers have been challenged to provide innovative solutions to maintain, or even increase, rice production. Amongst them, the ‘green super rice’ breeding strategy has been successful for leading the development and release of multiple abiotic and biotic stress tolerant rice varieties. Recent advances in plant molecular biology and biotechnologies have led to the identification of stress responsive genes and signaling pathways, which open up new paradigms to augment rice productivity. Accordingly, transcription factors, protein kinases and enzymes for generating protective metabolites and proteins all contribute to an intricate network of events that guard and maintain cellular integrity. In addition, various quantitative trait loci associated with elevated stress tolerance have been cloned, resulting in the detection of novel genes for biotic and abiotic stress resistance. Mechanistic understanding of the genetic basis of traits, such as N and P use, is allowing rice researchers to engineer nutrient-efficient rice varieties, which would result in higher yields with lower inputs. Likewise, the research in micronutrients biosynthesis opens doors to genetic engineering of metabolic pathways to enhance micronutrients production. With third generation sequencing techniques on the horizon, exciting progress can be expected to vastly improve molecular markers for gene-trait associations forecast with increasing accuracy. This book emphasizes on the areas of rice science that attempt to overcome the foremost limitations in rice production. Our intention is to highlight research advances in the fields of physiology, molecular breeding and genetics, with a special focus on increasing productivity, improving biotic and abiotic stress tolerance and nutritional quality of rice.

Rediscovery of Genetic and Genomic Resources for Future Food Security

Rediscovery of Genetic and Genomic Resources for Future Food Security
Author: Romesh Kumar Salgotra,Sajad Majeed Zargar
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 364
Release: 2020-01-28
ISBN 10: 9811501564
ISBN 13: 9789811501562
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Rediscovery of Genetic and Genomic Resources for Future Food Security Book Review:

This book describes how the latest genomic resources techniques can be efficiently used in plant breeding programmes to achieve food security in the future. It also shares insights on how to utilize the untapped and unexplored genetic diversity of wild species, wild relatives and landraces for crop improvement. Moreover, the book offers an impressive array of balanced analyses, fresh ideas and perspectives, and thoughtful and realistic proposals regarding the sustainable utilization of plant genetic resources with modern biotechnological techniques. The first book to address the importance of plant genetics and genomic resources for food security, it brings together a group of plant breeders and biotechnologists to investigate the use of genomic resources techniques in plant breeding programmes. Providing essential information on the efficient utilization of genomic resources in precision breeding, it offers a valuable asset for undergraduate and graduate students, teachers and professionals engaged in related fields.

Biodiversity and Crop Improvement

Biodiversity and Crop Improvement
Author: Shabir Hussain Wani
Publsiher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. USA
Total Pages: 418
Release: 2015-05-31
ISBN 10: 1618960695
ISBN 13: 9781618960696
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biodiversity and Crop Improvement Book Review:

Plant breeding during its evolution has been utilizing biodiversity for producing better crops. Nowadays everyone is concerned about saving the biodiversity. Intensive agricultural practices, climate change and Industrialization are having a straight impact on biodiversity. Use of single new improved varieties of crops for large areas is a big threat for crop biodiversity. Modern breeding approaches are also suggesting going back towards the land races and farmer’s varieties for gene hunting for resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. This book includes the description about biodiversity and crop improvement. It also addresses the utilization of plant genetic resources and crop wild relatives for crop improvement through application of traditional plant breeding techniques as well as molecular and genomic approaches. Through this multi authored book an effort has been made to assimilate the most topical results about biodiversity and crop improvement with contemporary plant breeding approaches. Eleven chapters written by leading scientists involved in crop Improvement research worldwide provide sufficient coverage of the major factors impacting utilization of biodiversity for crop improvement.

Alien Gene Transfer in Crop Plants Volume 2

Alien Gene Transfer in Crop Plants  Volume 2
Author: Aditya Pratap,Jitendra Kumar
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 424
Release: 2014-02-03
ISBN 10: 1461495725
ISBN 13: 9781461495727
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Alien Gene Transfer in Crop Plants Volume 2 Book Review:

Genetic engineering and biotechnology along with conventional breeding have played an important role in developing superior cultivars by transferring economically important traits from distant, wild and even unrelated species to the cultivated varieties which otherwise could not have been possible with conventional breeding. There is a vast amount of literature pertaining to the genetic improvement of crops over last few decades. However, the wonderful results achieved by crop scientists in food legumes’ research and development over the years are scattered in different journals of the World. The two volumes in the series ‘Alien Gene Transfer in Crop Plants’ address this issue and offer a comprehensive reference on the developments made in major food crops of the world. These volumes aim at bringing the contributions from globally renowned scientists at one platform in a reader-friendly manner. The second volume entitled, “Alien Gene Transfer in Crop Plants: Achievements and Impact” will deal more with the practical aspects. This volume will cover achievements of alien gene transfer in major food crops of the world and their impact on development of newer genetic variability and additional avenues for selection; development of superior cultivars for increased yield, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, improved nutritional and industrial quality; innovation of new techniques and positive as well as negative environmental implications. This volume has been divided into four groups with an aim to cover all major cereals, pulses, oilseeds and other crops (vegetable and horticultural crops) which are of economic importance.

Crop Wild Relatives

Crop Wild Relatives
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Bioversity International
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2021
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: 9182736450XXX
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Crop Wild Relatives Book Review:

Millets and Pseudo Cereals

Millets and Pseudo Cereals
Author: Mohar Singh,Salej Sood
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 218
Release: 2020-09-20
ISBN 10: 0128204052
ISBN 13: 9780128204054
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Millets and Pseudo Cereals Book Review:

Millets and Pseudo Cereals is the first comprehensive resource to focus on the potential crop improvements through genetic enhancements. The choice of food crop for a region is primarily determined by the conditions of climate and soil. Once labelled as orphan crops, millets and pseudo-cereals are now known as miracle grains due to their adaptation to harsh conditions and high nutritional quality. Small millets and pseudo-cereals are now seen to occupy special niches through their ability to adapt to challenging conditions. These crops have a comparative advantage in marginal lands where they withstand stress conditions and contribute to sustainable production. They also contribute to the diversity-richness and production stability of agro-ecosystems. Millets include sorghum, pearl millet, finger millet, foxtail millet, proso millet, barnyard millet, little millet and kodo millet while the other group which are not cereals but consumed as cereals and generally referred as pseudo-cereals comprises of grain amaranths, buckwheat and chenopods. Millets and Pseudo Cereals presents current information on the genetic architecture of important economic traits and the genomic resources for gene enabled breeding. This compilation contains information on the global status, available germplasm resources, nutritional value, breeding advancements, genomics applications and sustainability of agriculture through millets and pseudo-cereals cultivation. This book is a valuable resource for those conducting research and exploring new areas for advancing crop genetic understanding. Explores the current challenges of pseudo-cereal production and how that can be overcome by developing genetic and breeding resources using appropriate germplasm Provides holistic information on millets and pseudo-cereals Features global perspectives from an international contributing team of authors

Broadening the Genetic Base of Crop Production

Broadening the Genetic Base of Crop Production
Author: H. David Cooper,Charlie Spillane,T. Hodgkin
Publsiher: CABI
Total Pages: 452
Release: 2001-01-01
ISBN 10: 0851994113
ISBN 13: 9780851994116
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Broadening the Genetic Base of Crop Production Book Review:

This book focuses on the previously neglected interface between the conservation of plant genetic resources and their utilization. Only through utilization can the potential value of conserved genetic resources be realized. However, as this book shows, much conserved germplan has to be subjected to long term pre-breeding and genetic enhancement before it can be used in plant breeding programs. The authors explore the rationale and approaches for such pre-breeding efforts as the basis for broadening the genetic bases of crop production. Examples from a range of major food crops are presented and issues are analyzed by leading authorities from around the world.

Genetics and Genomics of the Triticeae

Genetics and Genomics of the Triticeae
Author: Catherine Feuillet,Gary J. Muehlbauer
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 700
Release: 2009-06-10
ISBN 10: 9780387774893
ISBN 13: 0387774890
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Genetics and Genomics of the Triticeae Book Review:

Sequencing of the model plant genomes such as those of A. thaliana and rice has revolutionized our understanding of plant biology but it has yet to translate into the improvement of major crop species such as maize, wheat, or barley. Moreover, the comparative genomic studies in cereals that have been performed in the past decade have revealed the limits of conservation between rice and the other cereal genomes. This has necessitated the development of genomic resources and programs for maize, sorghum, wheat, and barley to serve as the foundation for future genome sequencing and the acceleration of genomic based improvement of these critically important crops. Cereals constitute over 50% of total crop production worldwide (http://www.fao.org/) and cereal seeds are one of the most important renewable resources for food, feed, and industrial raw materials. Crop species of the Triticeae tribe that comprise wheat, barley, and rye are essential components of human and domestic animal nutrition. With 17% of all crop area, wheat is the staple food for 40% of the world’s population, while barley ranks fifth in the world production. Their domestication in the Fertile Crescent 10,000 years ago ushered in the beginning of agriculture and signified an important breakthrough in the advancement of civilization. Rye is second after wheat among grains most commonly used in the production of bread and is also very important for mixed animal feeds. It can be cultivated in poor soils and climates that are generally not suitable for other cereals. Extensive genetics and cytogenetics studies performed in the Triticeae species over the last 50 years have led to the characterization of their chromosomal composition and origins and have supported intensive work to create new genetic resources. Cytogenetic studies in wheat have allowed the identification and characterization of the different homoeologous genomes and have demonstrated the utility of studying wheat genome evolution as a model for the analysis of polyploidization, a major force in the evolution of the eukaryotic genomes. Barley with its diploid genome shows high collinearity with the other Triticeae genomes and therefore serves as a good template for supporting genomic analyses in the wheat and rye genomes. The knowledge gained from genetic studies in the Triticeae has also been used to produce Triticale, the first human made hybrid crop that results from a cross between wheat and rye and combines the nutrition quality and productivity of wheat with the ruggedness of rye. Despite the economic importance of the Triticeae species and the need for accelerated crop improvement based on genomics studies, the size (1.7 Gb for the bread wheat genome, i.e., 5x the human genome and 40 times the rice genome), high repeat content (>80%), and complexity (polyploidy in wheat) of their genomes often have been considered too challenging for efficient molecular analysis and genetic improvement in these species. Consequently, Triticeae genomics has lagged behind the genomic advances of other cereal crops for many years. Recently, however, the situation has changed dramatically and robust genomic programs can be established in the Triticeae as a result of the convergence of several technology developments that have led to new, more efficient scientific capabilities and resources such as whole-genome and chromosome-specific BAC libraries, extensive EST collections, transformation systems, wild germplasm and mutant collections, as well as DNA chips. Currently, the Triticeae genomics "toolbox" is comprised of: - 9 publicly available BAC libraries from diploid (5), tetraploid (1) and hexaploid (3) wheat; 3 publicly available BAC libraries from barley and one BAC library from rye; - 3 wheat chromosome specific BAC libraries; - DNA chips including commercially available first generation chips from AFFYMETRIX containing 55’000 wheat and 22,000 barley genes; - A large number of wheat and barley genetic maps that are saturated by a significant number of markers; - The largest plant EST collection with 870’000 wheat ESTs, 440’000 barley ESTs and about 10’000 rye ESTs; - Established protocols for stable transformation by biolistic and agrobacterium as well as a transient expression system using VIGS in wheat and barley; and - Large collections of well characterized cultivated and wild genetic resources. International consortia, such as the International Triticeae Mapping Initiative (ITMI), have advanced synergies in the Triticeae genetics community in the development of additional mapping populations and markers that have led to a dramatic improvement in the resolution of the genetic maps and the amount of molecular markers in the three species resulting in the accelerated utilization of molecular markers in selection programs. Together, with the development of the genomic resources, the isolation of the first genes of agronomic interest by map-based cloning has been enabled and has proven the feasibility of forging the link between genotype and phenotype in the Triticeae species. Moreover, the first analyses of BAC sequences from wheat and barley have allowed preliminary characterizations of their genome organization and composition as well as the first inter- and intra-specific comparative genomic studies. These later have revealed important evolutionary mechanisms (e.g. unequal crossing over, illegitimate recombination) that have shaped the wheat and barley genomes during their evolution. These breakthroughs have demonstrated the feasibility of developing efficient genomic studies in the Triticeae and have led to the recent establishment of the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC) (http//:www.wheatgenome.org) and the International Barley Sequencing Consortium (www.isbc.org) that aim to sequence, respectively, the hexaploid wheat and barley genomes to accelerate gene discovery and crop improvement in the next decade. Large projects aiming at the establishment of the physical maps as well as a better characterization of their composition and organization through large scale random sequencing projects have been initiated already. Concurrently, a number of projects have been launched to develop high throughput functional genomics in wheat and barley. Transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics analyses of traits of agronomic importance, such as quality, disease resistance, drought, and salt tolerance, are underway in both species. Combined with the development of physical maps, efficient gene isolation will be enabled and improved sequencing technologies and reduced sequencing costs will permit ultimately genome sequencing and access to the entire wheat and barley gene regulatory elements repertoire. Because rye is closely related to wheat and barley in Triticeae evolution, the latest developments in wheat and barley genomics will be of great use for developing rye genomics and for providing tools for rye improvement. Finally, a new model for temperate grasses has emerged in the past year with the development of the genetics and genomics (including a 8x whole genome shotgun sequencing project) of Brachypodium, a member of the Poeae family that is more closely related to the Triticeae than rice and can provide valuable information for supporting Triticeae genomics in the near future. These recent breakthroughs have yet to be reviewed in a single source of literature and current handbooks on wheat, barley, or rye are dedicated mainly to progress in genetics. In "Genetics and Genomics of the Triticeae", we will aim to comprehensively review the recent progress in the development of structural and functional genomics tools in the Triticeae species and review the understanding of wheat, barley, and rye biology that has resulted from these new resources as well as to illuminate how this new found knowledge can be applied for the improvement of these essential species. The book will be the seventh volume in the ambitious series of books, Plant Genetics and Genomics (Richard A. Jorgensen, series editor) that will attempt to bring the field up-to-date on the genetics and genomics of important crop plants and genetic models. It is our hope that the publication will be a useful and timely tool for researchers and students alike working with the Triticeae.

Alien Gene Transfer in Crop Plants Volume 1

Alien Gene Transfer in Crop Plants  Volume 1
Author: Aditya Pratap,Jitendra Kumar
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 319
Release: 2013-11-01
ISBN 10: 1461485851
ISBN 13: 9781461485858
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Alien Gene Transfer in Crop Plants Volume 1 Book Review:

Genetic engineering and biotechnology along with conventional breeding have played an important role in developing superior cultivars by transferring economically important traits from distant, wild and even unrelated species to the cultivated varieties which otherwise could not have been possible with conventional breeding. There is a vast amount of literature pertaining to the genetic improvement of crops over last few decades. However, the wonderful results achieved by crop scientists in food legumes’ research and development over the years are scattered in different journals of the World. The two volumes in the series ‘Alien Gene Transfer in Crop Plants’ address this issue and offer a comprehensive reference on the developments made in major food crops of the world. These volumes aim at bringing the contributions from globally renowned scientists at one platform in a reader-friendly manner. The 1st volume entitled, ‘Alien Gene Transfer in Crop Plants: Innovations, Methods and Risk Assessment” will deal exclusively with the process and methodology. The contents of this volume have been designed to appraise the readers with all the theoretical and practical aspects of wide hybridization and gene transfer like processes and methods of gene transfer, role of biotechnology with special reference to embryo rescue, genetic transformation, protoplast fusion and molecular marker technology, problems such as cross incompatibility and barriers to distant hybridization and solutions to overcome them. Since wild and weedy relatives of crop plants may have negative traits associated with them, there are always possibilities of linkage drag while transferring alien alleles. Therefore, problems and limitations of alien gene transfer from these species will also be discussed in this series. Further, the associated risks with this and assessment of risks will also be given due weightage.

Genetics and Genomics of the Triticeae

Genetics and Genomics of the Triticeae
Author: Catherine Feuillet,Gary J. Muehlbauer
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 700
Release: 2009-07-20
ISBN 10: 9780387774886
ISBN 13: 0387774882
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Genetics and Genomics of the Triticeae Book Review:

Sequencing of the model plant genomes such as those of A. thaliana and rice has revolutionized our understanding of plant biology but it has yet to translate into the improvement of major crop species such as maize, wheat, or barley. Moreover, the comparative genomic studies in cereals that have been performed in the past decade have revealed the limits of conservation between rice and the other cereal genomes. This has necessitated the development of genomic resources and programs for maize, sorghum, wheat, and barley to serve as the foundation for future genome sequencing and the acceleration of genomic based improvement of these critically important crops. Cereals constitute over 50% of total crop production worldwide (http://www.fao.org/) and cereal seeds are one of the most important renewable resources for food, feed, and industrial raw materials. Crop species of the Triticeae tribe that comprise wheat, barley, and rye are essential components of human and domestic animal nutrition. With 17% of all crop area, wheat is the staple food for 40% of the world’s population, while barley ranks fifth in the world production. Their domestication in the Fertile Crescent 10,000 years ago ushered in the beginning of agriculture and signified an important breakthrough in the advancement of civilization. Rye is second after wheat among grains most commonly used in the production of bread and is also very important for mixed animal feeds. It can be cultivated in poor soils and climates that are generally not suitable for other cereals. Extensive genetics and cytogenetics studies performed in the Triticeae species over the last 50 years have led to the characterization of their chromosomal composition and origins and have supported intensive work to create new genetic resources. Cytogenetic studies in wheat have allowed the identification and characterization of the different homoeologous genomes and have demonstrated the utility of studying wheat genome evolution as a model for the analysis of polyploidization, a major force in the evolution of the eukaryotic genomes. Barley with its diploid genome shows high collinearity with the other Triticeae genomes and therefore serves as a good template for supporting genomic analyses in the wheat and rye genomes. The knowledge gained from genetic studies in the Triticeae has also been used to produce Triticale, the first human made hybrid crop that results from a cross between wheat and rye and combines the nutrition quality and productivity of wheat with the ruggedness of rye. Despite the economic importance of the Triticeae species and the need for accelerated crop improvement based on genomics studies, the size (1.7 Gb for the bread wheat genome, i.e., 5x the human genome and 40 times the rice genome), high repeat content (>80%), and complexity (polyploidy in wheat) of their genomes often have been considered too challenging for efficient molecular analysis and genetic improvement in these species. Consequently, Triticeae genomics has lagged behind the genomic advances of other cereal crops for many years. Recently, however, the situation has changed dramatically and robust genomic programs can be established in the Triticeae as a result of the convergence of several technology developments that have led to new, more efficient scientific capabilities and resources such as whole-genome and chromosome-specific BAC libraries, extensive EST collections, transformation systems, wild germplasm and mutant collections, as well as DNA chips. Currently, the Triticeae genomics "toolbox" is comprised of: - 9 publicly available BAC libraries from diploid (5), tetraploid (1) and hexaploid (3) wheat; 3 publicly available BAC libraries from barley and one BAC library from rye; - 3 wheat chromosome specific BAC libraries; - DNA chips including commercially available first generation chips from AFFYMETRIX containing 55’000 wheat and 22,000 barley genes; - A large number of wheat and barley genetic maps that are saturated by a significant number of markers; - The largest plant EST collection with 870’000 wheat ESTs, 440’000 barley ESTs and about 10’000 rye ESTs; - Established protocols for stable transformation by biolistic and agrobacterium as well as a transient expression system using VIGS in wheat and barley; and - Large collections of well characterized cultivated and wild genetic resources. International consortia, such as the International Triticeae Mapping Initiative (ITMI), have advanced synergies in the Triticeae genetics community in the development of additional mapping populations and markers that have led to a dramatic improvement in the resolution of the genetic maps and the amount of molecular markers in the three species resulting in the accelerated utilization of molecular markers in selection programs. Together, with the development of the genomic resources, the isolation of the first genes of agronomic interest by map-based cloning has been enabled and has proven the feasibility of forging the link between genotype and phenotype in the Triticeae species. Moreover, the first analyses of BAC sequences from wheat and barley have allowed preliminary characterizations of their genome organization and composition as well as the first inter- and intra-specific comparative genomic studies. These later have revealed important evolutionary mechanisms (e.g. unequal crossing over, illegitimate recombination) that have shaped the wheat and barley genomes during their evolution. These breakthroughs have demonstrated the feasibility of developing efficient genomic studies in the Triticeae and have led to the recent establishment of the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC) (http//:www.wheatgenome.org) and the International Barley Sequencing Consortium (www.isbc.org) that aim to sequence, respectively, the hexaploid wheat and barley genomes to accelerate gene discovery and crop improvement in the next decade. Large projects aiming at the establishment of the physical maps as well as a better characterization of their composition and organization through large scale random sequencing projects have been initiated already. Concurrently, a number of projects have been launched to develop high throughput functional genomics in wheat and barley. Transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics analyses of traits of agronomic importance, such as quality, disease resistance, drought, and salt tolerance, are underway in both species. Combined with the development of physical maps, efficient gene isolation will be enabled and improved sequencing technologies and reduced sequencing costs will permit ultimately genome sequencing and access to the entire wheat and barley gene regulatory elements repertoire. Because rye is closely related to wheat and barley in Triticeae evolution, the latest developments in wheat and barley genomics will be of great use for developing rye genomics and for providing tools for rye improvement. Finally, a new model for temperate grasses has emerged in the past year with the development of the genetics and genomics (including a 8x whole genome shotgun sequencing project) of Brachypodium, a member of the Poeae family that is more closely related to the Triticeae than rice and can provide valuable information for supporting Triticeae genomics in the near future. These recent breakthroughs have yet to be reviewed in a single source of literature and current handbooks on wheat, barley, or rye are dedicated mainly to progress in genetics. In "Genetics and Genomics of the Triticeae", we will aim to comprehensively review the recent progress in the development of structural and functional genomics tools in the Triticeae species and review the understanding of wheat, barley, and rye biology that has resulted from these new resources as well as to illuminate how this new found knowledge can be applied for the improvement of these essential species. The book will be the seventh volume in the ambitious series of books, Plant Genetics and Genomics (Richard A. Jorgensen, series editor) that will attempt to bring the field up-to-date on the genetics and genomics of important crop plants and genetic models. It is our hope that the publication will be a useful and timely tool for researchers and students alike working with the Triticeae.

Genetic Improvement of Tomato

Genetic Improvement of Tomato
Author: G. Kalloo
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 358
Release: 2012-12-06
ISBN 10: 3642842755
ISBN 13: 9783642842757
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Genetic Improvement of Tomato Book Review:

The esculent Lycopersicon esculentum, long thought to be poisonous, has become a major U. S. food crop and source of vitamins and minerals, thanks largely to genetic modification and new production technology Rick (1978) Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. ) is one of the most important solana ceous vegetable crops grown worldwide under outdoor and indoor conditions. It has become an important commercial crop so far as the area, production, industrial values and its contribution to human nutrition is concerned. During the past few decades tremendous developments have contributed to the knowledge and understanding of various areas of genetics, breeding and biotechnology and voluminous literature has been generated. The purpose of preparing this monograph is to give a comprehensive up-to-date treatment to the various aspects of genetic improvement of tomato. The emphasis has been placed on cytology, classical and molecular genetics, reproductive biology, germplasm resources, hybrid seed production, use of wild taxa, selection/ breeding methods, breeding for abiotic and biotic stresses, processing and quality breeding, improvement for mechanical harvesting, and biotechnology: tissue culture, protoplast fusion, and genetic transformation. These topics are presented in 22 different chapters. However, a few aspects have been discussed in more than one chapter. For example, seed production is treated in chapters 1, 4 and 8; molecular biology/genetic engineering in chapters 3 and 22 and heterosis in chapters 8 and 16.

Biology and Breeding of Food Legumes

Biology and Breeding of Food Legumes
Author: Aditya Pratap,Jitendra Kumar
Publsiher: CABI
Total Pages: 418
Release: 2011
ISBN 10: 184593766X
ISBN 13: 9781845937669
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biology and Breeding of Food Legumes Book Review:

Food legumes are important constituents of the human diet and animal feed where they are crucial to a balanced diet, supplying high quality proteins. These crops also play an important role in low-input agricultural production systems by fixing atmospheric nitrogen. Despite systematic and continuous breeding efforts through conventional methods, substantial genetic gains have not been achieved. With the rise in demand for food legumes/pulses and increased market value of these crops, research has focused on increasing production and improving the quality of pulses for both edible and industrial purposes. "Biology and Breeding of Food Legumes" covers the history, origin and evolution, botany, breeding objectives and procedures, nutritional improvement, industrial uses and post-harvest technology and also recent developments made through biotechnological intervention.