Sustainable Human Nature Relations

Sustainable Human   Nature Relations
Author: Giuseppe T. Cirella
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2020-04-03
ISBN 10: 9811530491
ISBN 13: 9789811530494
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Sustainable Human Nature Relations Book Review:

This book addresses sustainability thinking and the bigger picture, by taking into consideration how and from where contemporary schools of thought emerged approximately a quarter-century ago. Evidence from the literature illustrates a number of key concepts and techniques that have been tested and continue to be tested, within various multi-disciplinary fields, on societal functionality. Research into sustainable societies needs to be sound, ethical, and creative. A cross-sectoral, interdisciplinary examination of challenges and strategies is used to interlink sustainability thinking and human-nature relations. With an ever-growing number of people now concentrated within urban areas, providing not only environmental quality and livable space, but also security and resilient urban systems, is becoming increasingly important. This urbanization trend has overlapped with environmental degradation, consumption of natural resources, habitat loss, and overall ecosystem change. Consequently, the goal is for cleaner, safer societies – with higher standards of living – to excel in support of current and future generational communities. The book tackles these challenges by integrating environmental scholarship, economic evaluation, and urban strategies under one umbrella of thought. The relational paradigms presented include examples that correlate developed and developing countries, socioeconomics and community development, and governance of knowledge and education. As such, the book argues, furthering of knowhow should be accessible and shared in order to achieve maximum innovation and benefit. Sustainability thinking, after all, is a metric for intrinsic human-nature relations in terms of past performance, present development, and future goals. This book discusses this metric and offers novel approaches to growing societies and what we can do next.

Sustainable Interdisciplinarity

Sustainable Interdisciplinarity
Author: Giuseppe T. Cirella,Alessio Russo
Publsiher: MDPI
Total Pages: 188
Release: 2020-01-23
ISBN 10: 303928116X
ISBN 13: 9783039281169
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Sustainable Interdisciplinarity Book Review:

Sustainable interdisciplinarity focuses on human–nature relations and a multitude of contemporary overlapping research between society and the environment. A variety of disciplines have played a large part in better understanding sustainable development since its high-profile emergence approximately a quarter of a century ago. At present, the forefront of sustainability research is an array of methods, techniques, and growing knowledge base that considers past, present, and future pathways. Specific multidisciplinary concentrations within the scope of societal changes, urban landscape transformations, international environmental comparative studies, as well as key theories and dynamics relating to sustainable performance are explored. Specializations in complex sustainability issues address international governance arrangements, rules, and organizations—both public and private—within the scope of four themes: sustainability, human geography, environment, and interdisciplinary societal studies. This book contains eleven thoroughly refereed contributions concerning pressing issues that interlink sustainable interdisciplinarity with the presented themes in terms of the human–nature interface.

Towards Sustainable Human Nature Relations

Towards Sustainable Human Nature Relations
Author: Bernhard Glaeser,Marion Glaser
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 500
Release: 2020-03
ISBN 10: 9780128181942
ISBN 13: 012818194X
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Towards Sustainable Human Nature Relations Book Review:

Towards Sustainable Human-Nature Relations: Coastal Management Revisited reviews changing societal needs and scientific outlooks in human/nature relations, including conflict resolution, governance issues and disaster management, and most recently, the link between social and ecological factors through typologies of coastal and marine social-ecological systems. Theoretical aspects are embedded and grounded in empirical case studies taken from economically developed countries (such as Sweden and Germany) and from economically developing countries in tropical zones (including Brazil and Indonesia). Beginning with a concise introductory chapter, the text explores both theoretical perspectives and methods, including empirical analysis throughout. Finally, the concluding chapter identifies emerging issues, synergies and outcomes for theory, practice and research. This broad and multidisciplinary approach makes the book a must read for graduate and postgraduate students as well as researchers in the fields of geography, anthropology, human ecology, social ecology, anthroecology, coastal and ocean management, disaster management and planning, environmental and development studies.

Human nature Interactions in the Anthropocene

Human nature Interactions in the Anthropocene
Author: Marion Glaser
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 231
Release: 2012
ISBN 10: 0415510007
ISBN 13: 9780415510004
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Human nature Interactions in the Anthropocene Book Review:

"Routledge studies in environment, culture, and science"--Cover.

Psychology of Sustainable Development

Psychology of Sustainable Development
Author: Peter Schmuck
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 327
Release: 2002-04-30
ISBN 10: 9781402070129
ISBN 13: 1402070128
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Psychology of Sustainable Development Book Review:

Human activity overuses the resources of the planet at a rate that will severely compromise the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Changes toward sustainability need to begin within the next few years or environmental deterioration will become irreversible. Thus the need to develop a mindset of sustainable development - the ability of society to meet its needs without permanently compromising the earth's resources - is pressing. The Psychology of Sustainable Development clarifies the meaning of the term and describes the conditions necessary for it to occur. With contributions from an international team of policy shapers and makers, the book will be an important reference for environmental, developmental, social, and organizational psychologists, in addition to other social scientists concerned with the impact current human activity will have on the prospects of future generations.

Sustainable Governance and Management of Food Systems

Sustainable Governance and Management of Food Systems
Author: Eija Vinnari,Markus Vinnari
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 364
Release: 2019-09-19
ISBN 10: 9789086863419
ISBN 13: 9086863418
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Sustainable Governance and Management of Food Systems Book Review:

This book focuses on the role of governance and management in the food chain. These methods are now especially important as the current food system has been found to inflict unsustainable environmental pressures on our planet. These include, but are not limited to, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity loss, excessive water usage and problems with nutrition cycles. In addition, issues such as the treatment of farm animals has attracted considerable media and public attention from the ethical point of view. Therefore, the prominent questions discussed in this book are:- What are the most important ethical issues in our fisheries, agriculture and food systems?- How should we govern food systems when sustainability is a key goal?- What kind of management tools are available for this purpose?- Who is responsible for making the agriculture and food system more sustainable?

Ontology and Closeness in Human Nature Relationships

Ontology and Closeness in Human Nature Relationships
Author: Neil H. Kessler
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 343
Release: 2018-10-10
ISBN 10: 3319992740
ISBN 13: 9783319992747
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Ontology and Closeness in Human Nature Relationships Book Review:

In Ontology and Closeness in Human-Nature Relationships, Neil H. Kessler identifies the preconceptions which can keep the modern human mind in the dark about what is happening relationally between humans and the more-than-human world. He has written an accessible work of environmental philosophy, with a focus on the ontology of human-nature relationships. In it, he contends that large-scale environmental problems are intimate and relational in origin. He also challenges the deeply embedded, modernist assumptions about the relational limitations of more-than-human beings, ones which place erroneous limitations on the possibilities for human/more-than-human closeness. Diverging from the posthumanist literature and its frequent reliance on new materialist ontology, the arguments in the book attempt to sweep away what ecofeminists call “human/nature dualisms. In doing so, conceptual avenues open up that have the power to radically alter how we engage in our daily interactions with the more-than-human world all around us. Given the diversity of fields and disciplines focused on the human-nature relationship, the topics of this book vary quite broadly, but always converge at the nexus of what is possible between humans and more-than-human beings. The discussion interweaves the influence of human/nature dualisms with the limitations of Deleuzian becoming and posthumanism’s new materialism and agential realism. It leverages interhuman interdependence theory, Charles Peirce’s synechism of feeling and various treatments of Theory of Mind while exploring the influence of human/nature dualisms on sustainability, place attachment, common worlds pedagogy, emergence, and critical animal studies. It also explores the implications of plant electrical activity, plant intelligence, and plant “neurobiology” for possibilities of relational capacities in plants while even grappling with theories of animism to challenge the animate/inanimate divide. The result is an engaging, novel treatment of human-nature relational ontology that will encourage the reader to look at the world in a whole new way.

Hope and Grief in the Anthropocene

Hope and Grief in the Anthropocene
Author: Lesley Head
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 182
Release: 2016-02-22
ISBN 10: 1317576446
ISBN 13: 9781317576440
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Hope and Grief in the Anthropocene Book Review:

The Anthropocene is a volatile and potentially catastrophic age demanding new ways of thinking about relations between humans and the nonhuman world. This book explores how responses to environmental challenges are hampered by a grief for a pristine and certain past, rather than considering the scale of the necessary socioeconomic change for a 'future' world. Conceptualisations of human-nature relations must recognise both human power and its embeddedness within material relations. Hope is a risky and complex process of possibility that carries painful emotions; it is something to be practised rather than felt. As centralised governmental solutions regarding climate change appear insufficient, intellectual and practical resources can be derived from everyday understandings and practices. Empirical examples from rural and urban contexts and with diverse research participants - indigenous communities, climate scientists, weed managers, suburban householders - help us to consider capacity, vulnerability and hope in new ways.

Strongly Sustainable Societies

Strongly Sustainable Societies
Author: Karl Johan Bonnedahl,Pasi Heikkurinen
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 316
Release: 2018-09-27
ISBN 10: 1351173626
ISBN 13: 9781351173629
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Strongly Sustainable Societies Book Review:

The response of the international community to the pressing socio-ecological problems has been framed around the concept of ‘sustainable development’. The ecological pressure, however, has continued to rise and mainstream sustainability discourse has proven to be problematic. It contains an instrumental view of the world, a strong focus on technological solutions, and the premise that natural and human-made ‘capitals’ are substitutable. This trajectory, which is referred to as ‘weak sustainability’, reproduces inequalities, denies intrinsic values in nature, and jeopardises the wellbeing of humans as well as other beings. Based on the assumptions of strong sustainability, this edited book presents practical and theoretical alternatives to today’s unsustainable societies. It investigates and advances pathways for humanity that are ecologically realistic, ethically inclusive, and receptive to the task’s magnitude and urgency. The book challenges the traditional anthropocentric ethos and ontology, economic growth-dogma, and programmes of ecological modernisation. It discusses options with examples on different levels of analysis, from the individual to the global, addressing the economic system, key sectors of society, alternative lifestyles, and experiences of local communities. Examining key topics including human–nature relations and wealth and justice, this book will be of great interest to students and scholars of environmental and development studies, ecological economics, environmental governance and policy, sustainable business, and sustainability science.

Ontology and Closeness in Human Nature Relationships

Ontology and Closeness in Human Nature Relationships
Author: Neil H. Kessler
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 343
Release: 2018-10-10
ISBN 10: 3319992740
ISBN 13: 9783319992747
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Ontology and Closeness in Human Nature Relationships Book Review:

In Ontology and Closeness in Human-Nature Relationships, Neil H. Kessler identifies the preconceptions which can keep the modern human mind in the dark about what is happening relationally between humans and the more-than-human world. He has written an accessible work of environmental philosophy, with a focus on the ontology of human-nature relationships. In it, he contends that large-scale environmental problems are intimate and relational in origin. He also challenges the deeply embedded, modernist assumptions about the relational limitations of more-than-human beings, ones which place erroneous limitations on the possibilities for human/more-than-human closeness. Diverging from the posthumanist literature and its frequent reliance on new materialist ontology, the arguments in the book attempt to sweep away what ecofeminists call “human/nature dualisms. In doing so, conceptual avenues open up that have the power to radically alter how we engage in our daily interactions with the more-than-human world all around us. Given the diversity of fields and disciplines focused on the human-nature relationship, the topics of this book vary quite broadly, but always converge at the nexus of what is possible between humans and more-than-human beings. The discussion interweaves the influence of human/nature dualisms with the limitations of Deleuzian becoming and posthumanism’s new materialism and agential realism. It leverages interhuman interdependence theory, Charles Peirce’s synechism of feeling and various treatments of Theory of Mind while exploring the influence of human/nature dualisms on sustainability, place attachment, common worlds pedagogy, emergence, and critical animal studies. It also explores the implications of plant electrical activity, plant intelligence, and plant “neurobiology” for possibilities of relational capacities in plants while even grappling with theories of animism to challenge the animate/inanimate divide. The result is an engaging, novel treatment of human-nature relational ontology that will encourage the reader to look at the world in a whole new way.

Communism in the 21st Century 3 volumes

Communism in the 21st Century  3 volumes
Author: Shannon Kurt Brincat
Publsiher: Praeger
Total Pages: 791
Release: 2013-12-12
ISBN 10: 1440801266
ISBN 13: 9781440801266
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Communism in the 21st Century 3 volumes Book Review:

A compelling three-volume exploration of the philosophical, social, and political facets of the theory and practice of communism within the conditions of 21st-century world politics and late capitalism. • Presents viewpoints from leading Marxist philosophers, economists, and historians alongside those from experts critical of communist ideas to provide a balanced, diverse collection on modern communism • Re-examines established debates within communist and radical politics to show how these discussions have been reconfigured to how communism is currently situated in world politics and may develop in the future • Explores Marx's vision from various interpretive backgrounds, including the socialist, economic, humanist, cosmopolitan, post-modern, feminist, environmental, and cultural, to engage a wide readership: students, academics, activists, and laypersons

Human Environment Relations

Human Environment Relations
Author: Emily Brady,Pauline Phemister
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 166
Release: 2012-02-02
ISBN 10: 9400728247
ISBN 13: 9789400728240
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Human Environment Relations Book Review:

This fresh and innovative approach to human-environmental relations will revolutionise our understanding of the boundaries between ourselves and the environment we inhabit. The anthology is predicated on the notion that values shift back and forth between humans and the world around them in an ethical communicative zone called ‘value-space’. The contributors examine the transformative interplay between external environments and human values, and identify concrete ways in which these norms, residing in and derived from self and society, are projected onto the environment.

Non Human Nature in World Politics

Non Human Nature in World Politics
Author: Joana Castro Pereira,André Saramago
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 352
Release: 2020-08-26
ISBN 10: 3030494969
ISBN 13: 9783030494964
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Non Human Nature in World Politics Book Review:

This book explores the interconnections between world politics and non-human nature to overcome the anthropocentric boundaries that characterize the field of international relations. By gathering contributions from various perspectives, ranging from post-humanism and ecological modernization, to new materialism and post-colonialism, it conceptualizes the embeddedness of world politics in non-human nature, and proposes a reorientation of political practice to better address the challenges posed by climate change and the deterioration of the Earth’s ecosystems. The book is divided into two main parts, the first of which addresses new ways of theoretically conceiving the relationship between non-human nature and world politics. In turn, the second presents empirical investigations into specific case studies, including studies on state actors and international organizations and bodies. Given its scope and the new perspectives it shares, this edited volume represents a uniquely valuable contribution to the field.

One Health The Well being Impacts of Human nature Relationships

One Health  The Well being Impacts of Human nature Relationships
Author: Eric Brymer,Elizabeth Louise Freeman,Miles Richardson
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 220
Release: 2019-11-07
ISBN 10: 2889632261
ISBN 13: 9782889632268
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

One Health The Well being Impacts of Human nature Relationships Book Review:

In recent years there has been a growing body of evidence from fields such as public health, architecture, ecology, landscape, forestry, psychology, sport science, psychiatry, geography suggesting that nature enhances psychological health and wellbeing. Physical activity in the presence of nature, feelings of connection to nature, engagement with nature, specific environmental features (e.g. therapeutic, water and trees) and images of real and virtual nature have all been posited as important wellbeing facilitators. Thus, the association between natural environments and health outcomes might be more complex than initially understood (Pritchard, Richardson, Sheffield, & Mcewan, 2019). Despite the number of studies showing improvements in psychological health and wellbeing through nature-based physical activities or feelings of connection to nature the exact role and influence of the natural environment in this process is still rather unclear (Brymer, Davids, & Mallabon, 2014; Karmanov & Hamel, 2008). Research is also beginning to consider the importance of individual differences, meaning and the person-environment relationship (Freeman, Akhurst, Bannigan & James, 2016; Freeman & Akhurst, 2015) in the development of wellbeing and health outcomes. Furthermore traditional theoretical notions, such as Biophilia, topophilia, restoration theories and stress reduction theories typically used to interpret findings are also being critiqued. Often one of the main barriers for practitioners is the vast array of theories that claim to effectively explain research findings but that tend to be only partially relevant (e.g. for Physical activity or restoration), focus on the characteristics of the person (e.g. nature relatedness) and only some features of the landscape (e.g. therapeutic landscapes). This special edition therefore brings together cutting edge ideas and research from a wide set of disciplines with the purpose of exploring interdisciplinary or trans-disciplinary approaches to understanding the psychological health and wellbeing benefits of human-nature interactions.

Proceedings of the 5th International Coastal Marine Tourism Congress

Proceedings of the 5th International Coastal   Marine Tourism Congress
Author: Michael Lück
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 658
Release: 2007
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: UCSD:31822034443648
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Proceedings of the 5th International Coastal Marine Tourism Congress Book Review:

Sustainable Human Resource Management

Sustainable Human Resource Management
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 313
Release: 2020
ISBN 10: 9811556563
ISBN 13: 9789811556562
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Sustainable Human Resource Management Book Review:

This book provides a multi-stakeholder perspective on sustainable HRM for the policymakers, managers and academics, addressing issues, approaches, research studies/frameworks and emerging patterns relating to the subject. It discusses various aspects of sustainability, such as making HR more responsible for ensuring sustainability focusing on the triple bottom line, characteristics of sustainable HRM, psychological contracts, emotional intelligence, and psychological capital. The book also explores organizational citizenship behavior, employment relations, employee engagement, sustainable leadership, disruptive HR practices, sustaining employee motivation, educational sustainability, sustainable career management, sustainable environment, employer and employee branding, sustainable organizations, organization culture, training for sustainability, sustainable employee performance, business sustainability and sustainable employability. It provides an update on the concept, processes, issues and emerging paradigms from multidimensional and cross-country perspectives to showcase sustainable HR practices, and appeals to the academics, practitioners and policymakers in the area of HRM.

Fundamentals of Sustainable Development

Fundamentals of Sustainable Development
Author: Niko Roorda
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 402
Release: 2020-09-30
ISBN 10: 1000200671
ISBN 13: 9781000200676
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fundamentals of Sustainable Development Book Review:

Fundamentals of Sustainable Development is an accessible and interdisciplinary textbook that introduces the concept of sustainable development to students from across the disciplines from economics, management, teacher education, arts and humanities to the natural and social sciences. The impact of development needs to be considered beyond the narrow focus of economic, ecological or social concerns. This new edition builds upon the second edition’s user-friendly and comprehensive overview of the challenges linked to striving for a sustainable, holistic approach to development. Providing a multifaceted approach to the subject in order to encompass what is referred to as ‘people, planet and profit’, this third edition provides a complete update of the text, with an emphasis on topics including the Sustainable Development Goals, the circular economy, climate and energy, and sustainable and future-focused entrepreneurship. This stimulating book is an invaluable resource for students and lecturers in all disciplines who have an interest in the sustainability of our planet, and our human society and economy.

Sustainable Agriculture and Food

Sustainable Agriculture and Food
Author: Jules N. Pretty
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 1944
Release: 2008
ISBN 10: 9781844074082
ISBN 13: 1844074080
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Sustainable Agriculture and Food Book Review:

'Jules Pretty brings together the most comprehensive and carefully selected collection of writings available about sustainable agriculture. Together with an excellent overview chapter, the collected works provide the best available source for an enlightened analysis and debate about sustainability in agriculture. The four volumes will serve both as an excellent reader for students and a unique reference for all with an interest in the pursuit of sustainabiity in the food system' Professor Per Pinstrup-Andersen, Cornell University, former Chair of CGIAR Science Council and World Food Prize Laureate, 2001 'This is the single most comprehensive overview of sustainable agriculture, from ancient beginnings to the most topical modern issues. Jules Pretty has assembled a marvellous collection of the most seminal papers that are driving sustainable agriculture in all parts of the world.' Jeffrey A. McNeely, Chief Scientist, IUCN-The World Conservation Union 'Showing that, after all, humans can learn from experience, Jules Pretty has woven together the best of the old with the best of what is new and visionary. He gives us a solid, knowledge-based foundation for a badly needed new paradigm - that of an agriculture which sustains all life into the longer term. The impressive list of contributors ensures that all relevant areas have been competently assessed... A unique reference work for teachers, students and practitioners.' Hans R. Herren, World Food Prize Laureate, 1995 'An ambitious and deeply insightful series that unites the great minds not just of the agricultural, nutrition and environmental sciences, but also history, culture, economics, technology, learning and communications, policy, regulatory and institutional approaches. It will be a major reference work for all interested in the future of humanity and sustainable food and agricultural systems.' Parviz Koohafkan, Director, Environment, Climate Change and Bioenergy Division, FAO, Italy 'This work presents a body of knowledge that has come of age. It takes into account not only the science but also human behaviour, institutions and politics. It will be an invaluable support for practices that are rapidly gaining significance.' Professor Neils R�ling, formerly of Wageningen University, The Netherlands This 4-volume set, edited by the world's leading expert on agricultural sustainability, brings together and interprets the most influential, important and time-tested international scholarship across the fields of agriculture and food production with a set overview and individual volume introductions that make sense of this diverse and complex field. Volume I covers the history of agriculture from its ancient origins through successive technological and institutional revolutions to the present. Volume II examines the relationship between agriculture and the environment including agricultural contamination, greenhouse gases and climate change, environmental improvements and sustainability, integrated farming, eco-agriculture and agro-ecology, landscape restoration and environmental goods and services. Volume III provides full coverage of the modern industrialized global food system, corporate control, poverty, hunger and international successes, failures and challenges, diet and health, consumer behaviour and local alternatives to industrialization. Volume IV addresses how we think about land and our relationship to it, governance and stewardship of the rural commons, systems thinking, ecological literacy, social connections and a sustainable rural life, supportive and perverse agricultural subsidies and policies that shape food poverty and sustain agriculture into the future.

Social Science and Sustainability

Social Science and Sustainability
Author: Heinz Schandl,Iain Walker
Publsiher: CSIRO PUBLISHING
Total Pages: 329
Release: 2017
ISBN 10: 1486306411
ISBN 13: 9781486306411
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Social Science and Sustainability Book Review:

Pathways to Urban Sustainability

Pathways to Urban Sustainability
Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Policy and Global Affairs,Science and Technology for Sustainability Program,Committee on Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 192
Release: 2016-10-11
ISBN 10: 030944456X
ISBN 13: 9780309444569
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Pathways to Urban Sustainability Book Review:

Cities have experienced an unprecedented rate of growth in the last decade. More than half the world's population lives in urban areas, with the U.S. percentage at 80 percent. Cities have captured more than 80 percent of the globe's economic activity and offered social mobility and economic prosperity to millions by clustering creative, innovative, and educated individuals and organizations. Clustering populations, however, can compound both positive and negative conditions, with many modern urban areas experiencing growing inequality, debility, and environmental degradation. The spread and continued growth of urban areas presents a number of concerns for a sustainable future, particularly if cities cannot adequately address the rise of poverty, hunger, resource consumption, and biodiversity loss in their borders. Intended as a comparative illustration of the types of urban sustainability pathways and subsequent lessons learned existing in urban areas, this study examines specific examples that cut across geographies and scales and that feature a range of urban sustainability challenges and opportunities for collaborative learning across metropolitan regions. It focuses on nine cities across the United States and Canada (Los Angeles, CA, New York City, NY, Philadelphia, PA, Pittsburgh, PA, Grand Rapids, MI, Flint, MI, Cedar Rapids, IA, Chattanooga, TN, and Vancouver, Canada), chosen to represent a variety of metropolitan regions, with consideration given to city size, proximity to coastal and other waterways, susceptibility to hazards, primary industry, and several other factors.