The Orexin Hypocretin System

The Orexin Hypocretin System
Author: Seiji Nishino,Takeshi Sakurai
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 416
Release: 2007-11-22
ISBN 10: 1592599508
ISBN 13: 9781592599509
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Orexin Hypocretin System Book Review:

Impairment of orexin/hypocretin signaling causes narcolepsy-cataplexy in animals and humans. Most human narcolepsy-cataplexy cases are associated with orexin/hypocretin ligand deficiency, which can be detected clinically using cerebrospinal orexin/hypocretin measures and may lead to future treatments with orexin/hypocretin replacement therapy. In The Orexin/Hypocretin System: Physiology and Pathophysiology, leading researchers and clinicians review these exciting developments to set the stage for further research on the loss of orexin/hypocretin neurons in humans, regulation of sleep and wakefulness by the orexin/hypocretin system, and the role of the orexin/hypocretin system in many other physiological processes, including feeding, autonomic regulation, and neuroendocrine regulation. Topics of interest include an assessment of the functions and the physiology of orexin/hypocretin, its pathophysiology in human narcolepsy-cataplexy, and possible pharmacological treatments. The authors also introduce several experimental methods for orexin/hypocretin research, and, using multidisciplinary approaches, explain their uses and limitations. Authoritative and state-of-the-art, The Orexin/Hypocretin System: Physiology and Pathophysiology will aid scientists in the search for novel bioactive peptides and their receptors, as well as novel physiological insights and opportunities for the clinical treatment of not only narcolepsy, but also a broad range of diseases associated with endocrine, feeding, and body weight regulation.

Hypocretins

Hypocretins
Author: Luis De Lecea,J. Gregor Sutcliffe
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 441
Release: 2007-04-25
ISBN 10: 0387254463
ISBN 13: 9780387254463
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Hypocretins Book Review:

The first report that rapid eye movements occur in sleep in humans was published in 1953. The research journey from this point to the realization that sleep consists of two entirely independent states of being (eventually labeled REM sleep and non-REM sleep) was convoluted, but by 1960 the fundamental duality of sleep was well established including the description of REM sleep in cats associated with “wide awake” EEG patterns and EMG suppression. The first report linking REM sleep to a pathology occurred in 1961 and a clear association of sleep onset REM periods, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis was fully established by 1966. When a naïve individual happens to observe a full-blown cataplexy attack, it is both dramatic and unnerving. Usually the observer assumes that the loss of muscle tone represents syncope or seizure. In order to educate health professionals and the general public, Christian Guilleminault and I made movies of full-blown cataplectic episodes (not an easy task). We showed these movies of cataplexy attacks to a number of professional audiences, and were eventually rewarded with the report of a similar abrupt loss of muscle tone in a dog. We were able to bring the dog to Stanford University and with this as the trigger, we were able to develop the Stanford Canine Narcolepsy Colony. Breeding studies revealed the genetic determinants of canine narcolepsy, an autosomal recessive gene we termed canarc1. Emmanuel Mignot took over the colony in 1986 and began sequencing DNA, finally isolating canarc1 in 1999.

The Orexin Hypocretin System

The Orexin Hypocretin System
Author: Jim R. Fadel,Joshua A. Burk
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 188
Release: 2019-01-03
ISBN 10: 0128137525
ISBN 13: 9780128137529
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Orexin Hypocretin System Book Review:

The Orexins/Hypocretins System: Functional Roles and Therapeutic Potential summarizes research on both the physiological functioning of orexins, their impact on homeostatic processes, and related disorders. The book encompasses the effects on appetite, sleep, substance abuse, cognition, and anxiety. Additionally, it examines new therapeutic approaches utilizing orexins, including utilization of orexin receptors for drug development. It is essential reading for neuroscience researchers interested in brain-behavior relationships, as well as psychiatrists, endocrinologists and pharmacologists. Provides an overview of new research on orexins/hypocretins Includes an overview of intracellular signaling and orexin physiology Discusses the effects on arousal, appetite, cognition, addiction and anxiety Examines orexin based therapies and their potential use in disorders Explores orexin receptors for drug development

The Orexin hypocretin System

The Orexin hypocretin System
Author: Anantha Shekhar
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 196
Release: 2012
ISBN 10: 0444594892
ISBN 13: 9780444594891
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Orexin hypocretin System Book Review:

"In The Orexin/Hypocretin System: Physiology and Pathophysiology, leading researchers and clinicians set the stage for further research on the loss of orexin/hypocretin neurons in humans, regulation of sleep and wakefulness by the orexin/hypocretin system, and the role of the orexin/hypocretin system in many other physiological processes, including feeding, autonomic regulation, and neuroendocrine regulation. Topics of interest include an assessment of the functions and the physiology of orexin/hypocretin, its pathophysiology in human narcolepsy-cataplexy, and possible pharmacological treatments. The authors also introduce several experimental methods for orexin/hypocretin research, and, using multidisciplinary approaches, explain their uses and limitations." "Authoritative and state-of-the-art, The Orexin/Hypocretin System: Physiology and Pathophysiology will aid scientists in the search for novel bioactive peptides and their receptors, as well as novel physiological insights and opportunities for the clinical treatment of not only narcolepsy, but also a broad range of diseases associated with endocrine, feeding and body weight regulation."--Résumé de l'éditeur.

The Orexin System Basic Science and Role in Sleep Pathology

The Orexin System  Basic Science and Role in Sleep Pathology
Author: M.A. Steiner,M. Yanagisawa,M. Clozel
Publsiher: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
Total Pages: 154
Release: 2021-05-28
ISBN 10: 3318068446
ISBN 13: 9783318068443
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Orexin System Basic Science and Role in Sleep Pathology Book Review:

The orexin system, discovered in 1998, has emerged as a crucial player in regulating the sleep and wake balance inside our brain. This discovery has sparked a burst of novel and dynamic research on the physiology and pathology of sleep. The Orexin System: Basic Science and Role in Sleep Pathology honors this research and the authors share their ideas and perspectives on the novel developments within the field. The book examines the intricate role of the orexin system in regulating sleep and wake, and its interaction with other wake-regulating systems. The orexin system is dissected at the cellular and molecular level to explore the diversity of the orexin-producing neurons, their projections, and their signaling pathways. Additionally, the book discusses the diseases which are associated with a dysfunctional orexin system, such as narcolepsy, insomnia, substance abuse, and Alzheimer’s disease, and explores the new potential therapeutic applications derived from the burst of research around this fascinating system. This publication is essential reading for neurobiologists, neurologists, psychopharmacologists, sleep researchers, and other researchers and clinical scientists interested in sleep, sleep research, insomnia, and medicine in general.

The Role of the Orexin hypocretin System in the Incubation of Alcohol Craving in Rats

The Role of the Orexin hypocretin System in the Incubation of Alcohol Craving in Rats
Author: Olivia Gilman Mallari
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 73
Release: 2016
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:959971111
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Role of the Orexin hypocretin System in the Incubation of Alcohol Craving in Rats Book Review:

Behavioral Neuroscience of Orexin Hypocretin

Behavioral Neuroscience of Orexin Hypocretin
Author: Andrew J Lawrence,Luis de Lecea
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 322
Release: 2017-05-29
ISBN 10: 331957535X
ISBN 13: 9783319575353
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Behavioral Neuroscience of Orexin Hypocretin Book Review:

This issue of Current Topics in Behavioral Neuroscience focuses on the neuropeptide orexin (hypocretin) and brings together scientists from around the world who will provide a timely discussion of how this peptide regulates behavior. This is a fast-moving field, and with the incorporation of novel technologies, new breakthroughs are likely to continue. For example, the use of optogenetic approaches has enabled the identification of the role of orexin-containing neurons in arousal states, critical for higher order functioning. From a clinical perspective, genetic polymorphisms in hypocretin/orexin and orexin receptors are implicated in a number of psychiatric disorders. In addition, advanced clinical trials are currently underway for orexin receptor antagonists in the treatment of insomnia and sleep disorders. We aim to capture a broad audience of basic scientists and clinicians.

Involvement of the Orexin hypocretin System in Ethanol conditioned Behavior

Involvement of the Orexin hypocretin System in Ethanol conditioned Behavior
Author: Charlene M. Voorhees
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 50
Release: 2009
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:465505441
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Involvement of the Orexin hypocretin System in Ethanol conditioned Behavior Book Review:

Neural Circuit Modelling of the Orexin Hypocretin System with Implications for Clinical Depression

Neural Circuit Modelling of the Orexin Hypocretin System with Implications for Clinical Depression
Author: Alok Joshi
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2014
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:1065278397
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Neural Circuit Modelling of the Orexin Hypocretin System with Implications for Clinical Depression Book Review:

Orexin and Sleep

Orexin and Sleep
Author: Takeshi Sakurai,S.R. Pandi-Perumal,Jaime M. Monti
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 410
Release: 2015-09-22
ISBN 10: 3319230786
ISBN 13: 9783319230788
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Orexin and Sleep Book Review:

This volume is intended for neuropharmacologists, psychopharmacologists, pharmacologists, pharmacists, sleep researchers, translational neuroscience researchers, and other basic researchers and clinical scientists interested in an interdisciplinary approach to sleep medicine. The level of the book is aiming at CNS researchers, drug development scientists, basic and clinical sleep researchers, as well as senior medical students and fellows in psychiatry and neurology. Orexin and Sleep provides a unique resource, giving a comprehensive and highly readable summary of the basic concepts in orexin biology and pharmacology along with clinical applications in sleep medicine in general, and narcolepsy in particular.

The Genetic Basis of Sleep and Sleep Disorders

The Genetic Basis of Sleep and Sleep Disorders
Author: Paul Shaw,Mehdi Tafti,Michael J. Thorpy
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 432
Release: 2013-10-24
ISBN 10: 1107435617
ISBN 13: 9781107435612
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Genetic Basis of Sleep and Sleep Disorders Book Review:

The first comprehensive book on the subject, The Genetic Basis of Sleep and Sleep Disorders covers detailed reviews of the general principles of genetics and genetic techniques in the study of sleep and sleep disorders. The book contains sections on the genetics of circadian rhythms, of normal sleep and wake states and of sleep homeostasis. There are also sections discussing the role of genetics in the understanding of insomnias, hypersomnias including narcolepsy, parasomnias and sleep-related movement disorders. The final chapter highlights the use of gene therapy in sleep disorders. Written by genetic experts and sleep specialists from around the world, the book is up to date and geared specifically to the needs of both researchers and clinicians with an interest in sleep medicine. This book will be an invaluable resource for sleep specialists, neurologists, geneticists, psychiatrists and psychologists.

Narcolepsy

Narcolepsy
Author: Christian R. Baumann,Claudio L. Bassetti,Thomas E. Scammell
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 428
Release: 2011-07-01
ISBN 10: 9781441983909
ISBN 13: 1441983902
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Narcolepsy Book Review:

The field of narcolepsy has developed enormously within the last 10 years. Indeed the understanding of the basics of sleep-wake regulation and the discovery of new neurotransmitter systems (the hypocretins) has boosted research and key findings in the field, providing important insights into how sleep is regulated. Consequently narcolepsy now receives a great deal of attention from both clinicians and scientists throughout the world. Narcolepsy: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment not only offers an engaging and comprehensive treatment of a fascinating disorder but also includes a DVD that offers a unique and large collection of movies displaying the symptoms of narcolepsy in people and animals. Written by some of the best experts in the field, the book focuses on the pathophysiology of the problem and also provides critical, up-to-date insights on the key clinical issues: how to diagnose the disorder, how to treat it, and how to best manage psychosocial problems. The first and only guide to span the latest advances in narcolepsy, this reference provides sections in etiology, neurochemistry, the role of the hypocretins in sleep-wake regulation, animal models in narcolepsy, the key role of the hypothalamus, REM-sleep dysregulation, diagnosis and classification, and treatment. Compiled by an international group of more than 30 authors, Narcolepsy: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment is an indispensable resource for all clinicians and scientists with an interest in narcolepsy.

Sleep Hormones

Sleep Hormones
Author: Gerald Litwack
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 370
Release: 2012
ISBN 10: 0123946239
ISBN 13: 9780123946232
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Sleep Hormones Book Review:

First published in 1943, Vitamins and Hormones is the longest-running serial published by Academic Press. The Editorial Board now reflects expertise in the field of hormone action, vitamin action, X-ray crystal structure, physiology and enzyme mechanisms. Under the capable and qualified editorial leadership of Dr. Gerald Litwack, Vitamins and Hormones continues to publish cutting-edge reviews of interest to endocrinologists, biochemists, nutritionists, pharmacologists, cell biologists and molecular biologists. Others interested in the structure and function of biologically active molecules like hormones and vitamins will, as always, turn to this series for comprehensive reviews by leading contributors to this and related disciplines. This volume focuses on sleep hormones. Contributions from leading authorities Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field

Hypothalamus in Health and Diseases

Hypothalamus in Health and Diseases
Author: Stavros Baloyannis,Jan Gordeladze
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 142
Release: 2018-12-05
ISBN 10: 1789844444
ISBN 13: 9781789844443
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Hypothalamus in Health and Diseases Book Review:

The human hypothalamus, a small structure at the base of the brain, has strategic importance for the harmonic function of the human body. It controls the autonomic nervous system, neuroendocrine function, circadian and circannual rhythms, somatic activities, and behavior, and is situated at the borders between the brain and the body and the brain and the soul, meeting points for mind and body. The hypothalamus is involved in a wide range of higher mental functions, including attention, learning and reinforcement of mnemonic processes, emotional control, mood stability, and cognitive-emotional interactions. It also has a role to play in behavioral disorders, panic reactions, cluster headache, gelastic epilepsy, mental deficiency, periodic disorders, depression, autism, and schizophrenia, and in a substantial number of neurodegenerative diseases. It enlarges greatly the dimensions of the hypothalamic contribution in controlling psychosomatic equilibrium and retaining internal unity of the human existence.

Insomnia and beyond Exploring the therapeutic potential of orexin receptor antagonists

Insomnia and beyond   Exploring the therapeutic potential of orexin receptor antagonists
Author: Michel Alexander Steiner,Christopher J Winrow
Publsiher: Frontiers E-books
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2014-11-11
ISBN 10: 2889193306
ISBN 13: 9782889193301
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Insomnia and beyond Exploring the therapeutic potential of orexin receptor antagonists Book Review:

Orexin/hypocretin neuropeptides, produced by a few thousand neurons in the lateral hypothalamus, are of critical importance for the control of vigilance and arousal of vertebrates, from fish to amphibians, birds and mammals. Two orexin peptides, called orexin-A and orexin-B, exist in mammals. They bind with different affinities to two distinct, widely distributed, excitatory G-protein- coupled receptors, orexin receptor type 1 and type 2 (OXR-1/2). The discovery of an OXR mutation causing canine narcolepsy, the narcolepsy-like phenotype of orexin peptide knockout mice, and the orexin neuron loss associated with human narcoleptic patients laid the foundation for the discovery of small molecule OXR antagonists as novel treatments for sleep disorders. Proof of concept studies from Glaxo Smith Kline, Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd. and Merck have now consistently demonstrated the efficacy of dual OXR antagonists (DORAs) in promoting sleep in rodents, dogs, non-human primates and humans. Some of these antagonists have completed late stage clinical testing in primary insomnia. Orexin drug discovery programs have also been initiated by other large pharmaceutical companies including Hoffmann La Roche, Novartis, Eli Lilly and Johnson & Johnson. Orexins are increasingly recognized for orchestrating the activity of the organism’s arousal system with appetite, reward and stress processing pathways. Therefore, in addition to models of insomnia, pharmacological effects of DORAs have begun to be investigated in rodent models of addiction, depression and anxiety. The first clinical trials in diabetic neuropathy, migraine and depression have been initiated with Merck’s MK-6096 (www.clinicaltrials.gov). Whereas the pharmacology of DORAs is established for their effects on wakefulness, pharmacological effects of selective OXR-1 or OXR-2 antagonists (SORAs) have remained less clear. From an evolutionary point of view, the OXR-2 was expressed first in most vertebrate lineages, whereas the OXR-1 is believed to result from a gene duplication event, when mammals emerged. Yet, both receptors do not have redundant function. Their brain expression pattern, their intracellular signaling, as well as their affinity for orexin-A and orexin-B differs. During the past decade most preclinical research on selective OXR-1 antagonism was performed with SB-334867. Only in recent years, other selective OXR-1 and OXR-2 antagonists with optimized selectivity profiles and pharmacokinetic properties have been discovered, and phenotypes of OXR-1 and OXR-2 knockout mice were described. The present Research Topic (referred to in the Editorial as “special topics issue”) comprises submissions of original research manuscripts as well as reviews, directed towards the neuropharmacology of OXR antagonists. The submissions are preclinical papers dealing with dual and/or selective OXR antagonists that shed light on the differential contribution of endogenous orexin signaling through both OXRs for cellular, physiological and behavioral processes. Some manuscripts also report on convergence or divergence of DORA vs. SORA effects with phenotypes expressed by OXR-1 or OXR-2 knockout animals. Ultimately these findings may help further define the potential of DORAs and SORAs in particular therapeutic areas in insomnia and beyond insomnia.

Brain Research in Addiction

Brain Research in Addiction
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 284
Release: 2017-10-27
ISBN 10: 0128135026
ISBN 13: 9780128135020
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Brain Research in Addiction Book Review:

Brain Research in Addiction, Volume 235, the latest volume in this groundbreaking series on addiction, presents the neurobiological, pathological, cognitive and evolutionary aspects of addiction, with new chapters covering the Neurobiology of drug intake escalation, the Role of the orexinergic system in reward, Mental time travel and addictive behaviors, An evolutionary perspective on addiction- Addiction is the price we pay for innovation and adaptability, and how Cocaine exposure affects object-place recognition memory in non-human primates. Chapters in this serial are presented by leading researchers from North America, South America, Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia, who present addiction research from the bottom up, including how addiction evolved, basic research on animal models, and the psychiatric, psychological and cognitive characteristics of addictive behaviors in humans. Presents chapters written by global leaders in research on brain research and its relation to addiction Provides an interdisciplinary approach that will be of interest to many professionals Includes sections on the evolution of addiction, the effects of substance use on primate cognition, and addictive behaviors in humans

Narcolepsy and Hypersomnia

Narcolepsy and Hypersomnia
Author: Claudio Bassetti,Michel Billiard,Emmanuel Mignot
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 736
Release: 2006-12-21
ISBN 10: 9780849337154
ISBN 13: 0849337151
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Narcolepsy and Hypersomnia Book Review:

Compiled by an international group of more than 40 authors, this reference book supplies an engaging and comprehensive review of the major topics and key issues associated with narcolepsy and hypersomnia. Spanning the latest advances in the field, this source covers current diagnostic procedures, genetic developments, explorations of animal models, new definitions and criteria, and improved epidemiological surveys to reflect the explosion of research in this evolving science.

The Role of Neuropeptides in Addiction and Disorders of Excessive Consumption

The Role of Neuropeptides in Addiction and Disorders of Excessive Consumption
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 304
Release: 2017-10-31
ISBN 10: 0128124741
ISBN 13: 9780128124741
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Role of Neuropeptides in Addiction and Disorders of Excessive Consumption Book Review:

The Role of Neuropeptides in Addiction and Disorders of Excessive Consumption, Volume 136 in the International Review of Neurobiology series, provides an overview of the top candidate neuropeptides in the modulation of alcohol and drug abuse, also covering eating disorders and obesity. Topics covered in this latest release include Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF) and Addictive Behaviors, Dynorphin/Kappa Opioid Receptor Signaling in Pre-clinical Models of Alcohol, Drug, and Food Addiction, The Role of Ghrelin Signaling in Additive Behaviors, The Role of the Melanocortin System in Drug and Eating Disorders, Substance P and the Neurokinin-1 Receptor: The New CRH, and the Role of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in Drug and Eating Disorders. The book uniquely highlights the overlapping central mechanisms that contribute to both drug and alcohol abuse and eating disorders. Presents a recent overview of some of the top candidate neuropeptides in the modulation of alcohol and drug abuse, and in eating disorders and obesity Highlights the overlapping central mechanisms that contribute to both drug and alcohol abuse and eating disorders Contains chapters that focus on a specific neuropeptide

Narcolepsy

Narcolepsy
Author: Meeta Goswami,Seithikurippu Ratnas Pandi-Perumal,Michael J. Thorpy
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 330
Release: 2011-04-08
ISBN 10: 1441908552
ISBN 13: 9781441908551
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Narcolepsy Book Review:

Narcolepsy serves as a prototype of how the interaction of high quality clinical research and groundbreaking basic science can collaborate to defne the cause of a disease and change forever how we evaluate and treat it. There is scarcely a topic in this book that would have been covered in the same way 10 years ago as it is d- cussed today. We are also fortunate that many of the players in this dramatic tu- around have contributed to this volume, so that the result is a tapestry of the events that have transformed the feld over the last decade that is both authentic and detailed. The frst section of the book provides much of the basic science background. As described in the frst two chapters, the dramatic convergence of lines of evidence from two different laboratories frst demonstrated in 1999 that narcolepsy is a disease of loss of neurotransmission by lateral hypothalamic neurons making the peptides that have been called orexins or hypocretins. These fndings did much to clarify and unify a feld that had puzzled for decades over the fundamental nature of this puzzling disease, as refected in the chapters that review its epidemiology and neuroanatomical and imaging fndings.

Anesthetic Pharmacology

Anesthetic Pharmacology
Author: Alex S. Evers,Mervyn Maze,Evan D. Kharasch
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2011-03-10
ISBN 10: 1139497022
ISBN 13: 9781139497022
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Anesthetic Pharmacology Book Review:

In recent years our understanding of molecular mechanisms of drug action and interindividual variability in drug response has grown enormously. Meanwhile, the practice of anesthesiology has expanded to the preoperative environment and numerous locations outside the OR. Anesthetic Pharmacology: Basic Principles and Clinical Practice, 2nd edition, is an outstanding therapeutic resource in anesthesia and critical care: Section 1 introduces the principles of drug action, Section 2 presents the molecular, cellular and integrated physiology of the target organ/functional system and Section 3 reviews the pharmacology and toxicology of anesthetic drugs. The new Section 4, Therapeutics of Clinical Practice, provides integrated and comparative pharmacology and the practical application of drugs in daily clinical practice. Edited by three highly acclaimed academic anesthetic pharmacologists, with contributions from an international team of experts, and illustrated in full colour, this is a sophisticated, user-friendly resource for all practitioners providing care in the perioperative period.