The Non Aqueous Drilling Fluids Handbook

The Non Aqueous Drilling Fluids Handbook
Author: Fred Growcock
Publsiher: Gulf Professional Publishing
Total Pages: 480
Release: 2020-06
ISBN 10: 9780128201985
ISBN 13: 0128201983
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Non Aqueous Drilling Fluids Handbook Book Review:

The Non-Aqueous Drilling Fluids Handbook: Understanding and Managing Oil-Based Muds is the first to deliver critical information on NADFs, covering their design, management and optimization. Discussing the history of NADFs, their properties, and benefits to various types of complex operations aids petroleum engineers in knowing when and how to use this valuable product. Advantages and disadvantages are examined, along with environmental considerations, including safety and human health hazards. Written by a well-respected author and supporting cast of contributors, this book equips today's petroleum engineer with a systematic and practical collection of protocols and solutions to more complicated drilling operations. Provides the first reference to focus solely on non-aqueous drilling fluids Packed with properties and operational functions, such as wellbore hydraulics, downhole losses and formation stability Includes a glossary, engineering data and detailed testing methods specific to NADFs

Composition and Properties of Drilling and Completion Fluids

Composition and Properties of Drilling and Completion Fluids
Author: Ryen Caenn,HCH Darley,George R. Gray
Publsiher: Gulf Professional Publishing
Total Pages: 720
Release: 2011-09-29
ISBN 10: 0123838592
ISBN 13: 9780123838599
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Composition and Properties of Drilling and Completion Fluids Book Review:

The petroleum industry in general has been dominated by engineers and production specialists. The upstream segment of the industry is dominated by drilling/completion engineers. Usually, neither of those disciplines have a great deal of training in the chemistry aspects of drilling and completing a well prior to its going on production. The chemistry of drilling fluids and completion fluids have a profound effect on the success of a well. For example, historically the drilling fluid costs to drill a well have averaged around 7% of the overall cost of the well, before completion. The successful delivery of up to 100% of that wellbore, in many cases may be attributable to the fluid used. Considered the "bible" of the industry, Composition and Properties of Drilling and Completion Fluids, first written by Walter Rogers in 1948, and updated on a regular basis thereafter, is a key tool to achieving successful delivery of the wellbore. In its Sixth Edition, Composition and Properties of Drilling and Completion Fluids has been updated and revised to incorporate new information on technology, economic, and political issues that have impacted the use of fluids to drill and complete oil and gas wells. With updated content on Completion Fluids and Reservoir Drilling Fluids, Health, Safety & Environment, Drilling Fluid Systems and Products, new fluid systems and additives from both chemical and engineering perspectives, Wellbore Stability, adding the new R&D on water-based muds, and with increased content on Equipment and Procedures for Evaluating Drilling Fluid Performance in light of the advent of digital technology and better manufacturing techniques, Composition and Properties of Drilling and Completion Fluids has been thoroughly updated to meet the drilling and completion engineer's needs. Explains a myriad of new products and fluid systems Cover the newest API/SI standards New R&D on water-based muds New emphases on Health, Safety & Environment New Chapter on waste management and disposal

A Practical Handbook for Drilling Fluids Processing

A Practical Handbook for Drilling Fluids Processing
Author: Samuel Bridges,Leon Robinson
Publsiher: Gulf Professional Publishing
Total Pages: 622
Release: 2020-02-15
ISBN 10: 0128213426
ISBN 13: 9780128213421
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

A Practical Handbook for Drilling Fluids Processing Book Review:

A Practical Handbook for Drilling Fluids Processing delivers a much-needed reference for drilling fluid and mud engineers to safely understand how the drilling fluid processing operation affects the drilling process. Agitation and blending of new additions to the surface system are explained with each piece of drilled solids removal equipment discussed in detail. Several calculations of drilled solids, such as effect of retort volumes, are included, along with multiple field methods, such as determining the drilled solids density. Tank arrangements are covered as well as operating guidelines for the surface system. Rounding out with a solutions chapter with additional instruction and an appendix with equation derivations, this book gives today’s drilling fluid engineers a tool to understand the technology available and step-by-step guidelines of how-to safety evaluate surface systems in the oil and gas fields. Presents practical guidance from real example problems that are encountered on drilling rigs Helps readers understand multiple field methods and drilled solids calculations with the help of practice questions Gives readers what they need to master each piece of drilling fluid processing equipment, including mud cleaners and safe mud tank arrangements

Drilling Fluids Processing Handbook

Drilling Fluids Processing Handbook
Author: Dipti Mishra
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 247
Release: 2015-03-01
ISBN 10: 9781681173566
ISBN 13: 1681173565
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Drilling Fluids Processing Handbook Book Review:

Drilling fluid is used to aid the drilling of boreholes into the earth. Often used while drilling oil and natural gas wells and on exploration drilling rigs, drilling fluids are also used for much simpler boreholes, such as water wells. Liquid drilling fluid is often called drilling mud. The three main categories of drilling fluids are water-based muds (which can be dispersed and non-dispersed), non-aqueous muds, usually called oil-based mud, and gaseous drilling fluid, in which a wide range of gases can be used. The main functions of drilling fluids include providing hydrostatic pressure to prevent formation fluids from entering into the well bore, keeping the drill bit cool and clean during drilling, carrying out drill cuttings, and suspending the drill cuttings while drilling is paused and when the drilling assembly is brought in and out of the hole. The drilling fluid used for a particular job is selected to avoid formation damage and to limit corrosion.

Practical Wellbore Hydraulics and Hole Cleaning

Practical Wellbore Hydraulics and Hole Cleaning
Author: Mark S. Ramsey
Publsiher: Gulf Professional Publishing
Total Pages: 340
Release: 2019-01-22
ISBN 10: 0128170891
ISBN 13: 9780128170892
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Practical Wellbore Hydraulics and Hole Cleaning Book Review:

Practical Wellbore Hydraulics and Hole Cleaning presents a single resource with explanations, equations and descriptions that are important for wellbore hydraulics, including hole cleaning. Involving many moving factors and complex issues, this book provides a systematic and practical summary of solutions, thus helping engineers understand calculations, case studies and guidelines not found anywhere else. Topics such as the impact of temperature and pressure of fluid properties are covered, as are vertical and deviated-from-vertical hole cleaning differences. The importance of bit hydraulics optimization, drilling fluid challenges, pressure drop calculations, downhole properties, and pumps round out the information presented. Packed with example calculations and handy appendices, this book gives drilling engineers the tools they need for effective bit hydraulics and hole cleaning operation design. Provides practical techniques to ensure hole cleaning in both vertical and deviated wells Addresses errors in predictive wellbore hydraulic modeling equations and provides remedies Teaches how to improve the economic efficiencies of drilling oil and gas wells using calculations, guidelines and case studies

A Practical Handbook for Drilling Fluids Processing

A Practical Handbook for Drilling Fluids Processing
Author: Samuel Bridges,Leon Robinson
Publsiher: Gulf Professional Publishing
Total Pages: 628
Release: 2020-02-15
ISBN 10: 0128213418
ISBN 13: 9780128213414
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

A Practical Handbook for Drilling Fluids Processing Book Review:

A Practical Handbook for Drilling Fluids Processing delivers a much-needed reference for drilling fluid and mud engineers to safely understand how the drilling fluid processing operation affects the drilling process. Agitation and blending of new additions to the surface system are explained with each piece of drilled solids removal equipment discussed in detail. Several calculations of drilled solids, such as effect of retort volumes, are included, along with multiple field methods, such as determining the drilled solids density. Tank arrangements are covered as well as operating guidelines for the surface system. Rounding out with a solutions chapter with additional instruction and an appendix with equation derivations, this book gives today's drilling fluid engineers a tool to understand the technology available and step-by-step guidelines of how-to safety evaluate surface systems in the oil and gas fields. Presents practical guidance from real example problems that are encountered on drilling rigs Helps readers understand multiple field methods and drilled solids calculations with the help of practice questions Gives readers what they need to master each piece of drilling fluid processing equipment, including mud cleaners and safe mud tank arrangements

Petroleum Engineer s Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids

Petroleum Engineer s Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids
Author: Johannes Fink
Publsiher: Gulf Professional Publishing
Total Pages: 808
Release: 2011-05-13
ISBN 10: 9780123838452
ISBN 13: 0123838452
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Petroleum Engineer s Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids Book Review:

Petroleum Engineer's Guide to Oil Field Chemicals and Fluids is a comprehensive manual that provides end users with information about oil field chemicals, such as drilling muds, corrosion and scale inhibitors, gelling agents and bacterial control. This book is an extension and update of Oil Field Chemicals published in 2003, and it presents a compilation of materials from literature and patents, arranged according to applications and the way a typical job is practiced. The text is composed of 23 chapters that cover oil field chemicals arranged according to their use. Each chapter follows a uniform template, starting with a brief overview of the chemical followed by reviews, monomers, polymerization, and fabrication. The different aspects of application, including safety and environmental impacts, for each chemical are also discussed throughout the chapters. The text also includes handy indices for trade names, acronyms and chemicals. Petroleum, production, drilling, completion, and operations engineers and managers will find this book invaluable for project management and production. Non-experts and students in petroleum engineering will also find this reference useful. Chemicals are ordered by use including drilling muds, corrosion inhibitors, and bacteria control Includes cutting edge chemicals and polymers such as water soluble polymers and viscosity control Handy index of chemical substances as well as a general chemical index

Standard Handbook of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering

Standard Handbook of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering
Author: William Lyons,Gary J Plisga, BS,Michael Lorenz
Publsiher: Gulf Professional Publishing
Total Pages: 1822
Release: 2015-12-08
ISBN 10: 0123838479
ISBN 13: 9780123838476
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Standard Handbook of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering Book Review:

Standard Handbook of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering, Third Edition, provides you with the best, state-of-the-art coverage for every aspect of petroleum and natural gas engineering. With thousands of illustrations and 1,600 information-packed pages, this handbook is a handy and valuable reference. Written by dozens of leading industry experts and academics, the book provides the best, most comprehensive source of petroleum engineering information available. Now in an easy-to-use single volume format, this classic is one of the true "must haves" in any petroleum or natural gas engineer's library. A classic for over 65 years, this book is the most comprehensive source for the newest developments, advances, and procedures in the oil and gas industry. New to this edition are materials covering everything from drilling and production to the economics of the oil patch. Updated sections include: underbalanced drilling; integrated reservoir management; and environmental health and safety. The sections on natural gas have been updated with new sections on natural gas liquefaction processing, natural gas distribution, and transport. Additionally there are updated and new sections on offshore equipment and operations, subsea connection systems, production control systems, and subsea control systems. Standard Handbook of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering, Third Edition, is a one-stop training tool for any new petroleum engineer or veteran looking for a daily practical reference. Presents new and updated sections in drilling and production Covers all calculations, tables, and equations for every day petroleum engineers Features new sections on today's unconventional resources and reservoirs

Drilling Fluids Processing Handbook

Drilling Fluids Processing Handbook
Author: ASME Shale Shaker Committee
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 700
Release: 2011-03-15
ISBN 10: 9780080477411
ISBN 13: 0080477410
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Drilling Fluids Processing Handbook Book Review:

Written by the Shale Shaker Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, originally of the American Association of Drilling Engineers, the authors of this book are some of the most well-respected names in the world for drilling. The first edition, Shale Shakers and Drilling Fluid Systems, was only on shale shakers, a very important piece of machinery on a drilling rig that removes drill cuttings. The original book has been much expanded to include many other aspects of drilling solids control, including chapters on drilling fluids, cut-point curves, mud cleaners, and many other pieces of equipment that were not covered in the original book. Written by a team of more than 20 of the world's foremost drilling experts, from such companies as Shell, Conoco, Amoco, and BP There has never been a book that pulls together such a vast array of materials and depth of topic coverage in the area of drilling fluids Covers quickly changing technology that updates the drilling engineer on all of the latest equipment, fluids, and techniques

Standard Handbook of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering

Standard Handbook of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering
Author: William C. Lyons,Gary J Plisga, BS
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 1568
Release: 2011-03-15
ISBN 10: 9780080481081
ISBN 13: 0080481086
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Standard Handbook of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering Book Review:

This new edition of the Standard Handbook of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering provides you with the best, state-of-the-art coverage for every aspect of petroleum and natural gas engineering. With thousands of illustrations and 1,600 information-packed pages, this text is a handy and valuable reference. Written by over a dozen leading industry experts and academics, the Standard Handbook of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering provides the best, most comprehensive source of petroleum engineering information available. Now in an easy-to-use single volume format, this classic is one of the true "must haves" in any petroleum or natural gas engineer's library. * A classic for the oil and gas industry for over 65 years! * A comprehensive source for the newest developments, advances, and procedures in the petrochemical industry, covering everything from drilling and production to the economics of the oil patch. * Everything you need - all the facts, data, equipment, performance, and principles of petroleum engineering, information not found anywhere else. * A desktop reference for all kinds of calculations, tables, and equations that engineers need on the rig or in the office. * A time and money saver on procedural and equipment alternatives, application techniques, and new approaches to problems.

The Petroleum Engineering Handbook Sustainable Operations

The Petroleum Engineering Handbook  Sustainable Operations
Author: M.R. Islam,M.I. Khan
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 461
Release: 2013-11-25
ISBN 10: 0127999833
ISBN 13: 9780127999838
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Petroleum Engineering Handbook Sustainable Operations Book Review:

This is the first book in the petroleum sector that sheds light on the real obstacles to sustainable development and provides solutions to each problem encountered. Each solution is complete with an economic analysis that clarifies why petroleum operations can continue with even greater profit than before while ensuring that the negative environmental impact is diminished. The new screening tools and models proposed in this book will provide one with proper guidelines to achieve true sustainability in both technology development and management of the petroleum sector.

Handbook of Occupational Dermatology

Handbook of Occupational Dermatology
Author: L. Kanerva,P. Elsner,J.E. Wahlberg,H.I. Maibach
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 1300
Release: 2013-06-29
ISBN 10: 3662076772
ISBN 13: 9783662076774
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Occupational Dermatology Book Review:

A highly practical approach to occupational dermatoses combined with the skill and experience of specialists in clinical and experimental dermatology. Great care is taken throughout to provide the information urgently needed for daily patient management, with concise tables, algorithms, and figures on how to optimise the diagnostic procedure for high-quality patient care and expert opinion. This handbook provides the relevant job descriptions, job-specific diagnostic algorithms and a detailed description of allergens and irritants such that readers can master even difficult and unusual problems in occupational dermatology.

Water Based Chemicals and Technology for Drilling Completion and Workover Fluids

Water Based Chemicals and Technology for Drilling  Completion  and Workover Fluids
Author: Johannes Fink
Publsiher: Gulf Professional Publishing
Total Pages: 288
Release: 2015-02-06
ISBN 10: 012802643X
ISBN 13: 9780128026434
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Water Based Chemicals and Technology for Drilling Completion and Workover Fluids Book Review:

Oil and gas engineers today use three main factors in deciding drilling fluids: cost, performance, and environmental impact, making water-based products a much more attractive option. Water-Based Chemicals and Technology for Drilling, Completion, and Workover Fluids effectively delivers all the background and infrastructure needed for an oil and gas engineer to utilize more water-based products that benefit the whole spectrum of the well’s life cycle. Helping to mitigate critical well issues such as formation damage, fluid loss control, and borehole repair, more operators demand to know the full selection of water-based products available to consistently keep a peak well performance. This must-have training guide provides the necessary coverage in the area, broken down by type and use, along with an extensive list of supportive materials such as a chemical index of structural formulas and helpful list of references for further reading. In addition to understanding the types, special additives, and chemical compatibilities of the products available, the reader will also learn proper waste disposal techniques, including management of produced water, a component mandatory to hydraulic fracturing operations. Concise and comprehensive, Water-Based Chemicals and Technology for Drilling, Completion, and Workover Fluids details all the necessary educational content and handy references to elevate your well’s performance while lowering your environmental impact. Understand the basics and functions on all water-based fluids for drilling, completion, cementing, and enhanced oil recovery operations Get up to date with the growing need for water-based fluids in hydraulic fracturing operations including supportive materials such as an index of trade names, acronyms, and chemicals Stay responsible and know the environmental aspects and current regulations, including disposal and discharge

Handbook of Environmental Health Volume II

Handbook of Environmental Health  Volume II
Author: Herman Koren,Michael S. Bisesi
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 904
Release: 2016-04-19
ISBN 10: 0849378001
ISBN 13: 9780849378003
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Environmental Health Volume II Book Review:

The Handbook of Environmental Health-Pollutant Interactions in Air, Water, and Soil includes Nine Chapters on a variety of topics basically following a standard chapter outline where applicable with the exception of Chapters 8 and 9. The outline is as follows:1. Background and status2. Scientific, technological and general information3. Statement o

Cuttings Treatment Technology Evaluation

Cuttings Treatment Technology Evaluation
Author: Jacques Whitford Stantec Limited
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 100
Release: 2009
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: UCSD:31822039016126
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cuttings Treatment Technology Evaluation Book Review:

"The Environmental Studies Research Funds (ESRF) sponsored a technical report compiling information on technologies and performance data relative to the treatment and disposal of synthetic based mud (SBM) drill cuttings associated with offshore oil and gas drilling activities. This review focused mainly on Canadian Atlantic East Coast operations and drew upon experience acquired in the Gulf of Mexico, North Sea and elsewhere. After produced water, drill cuttings are the next largest discharge (by volume) into the marine environment from drilling activities, and are a key concern in all jurisdictions that support offshore oil and gas operations. Reviewing the period from 2002 to 2008, the study summarized various regulatory standards and guidelines around the world pertaining to synthetic based mud (SBM) cuttings disposal, updated the current state of cuttings treatment technology, assessed technology performance on Canada's East Coast and provided a summary of environmental effects monitoring from numerous jurisdictions."--from exec. summary

Wiley s Remediation Technologies Handbook

Wiley s Remediation Technologies Handbook
Author: Jay H. Lehr,John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 1288
Release: 2004-07-22
ISBN 10: 0471655465
ISBN 13: 9780471655466
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Wiley s Remediation Technologies Handbook Book Review:

Wiley's Remediation Technologies Handbook: Major ContaminantChemicals and Chemical Groups, extracted from the Enviroglobedatabase, consists of 368 chemicals and chemical groups. This booklists in alphabetical order these chemical and chemical groupsalong with the numerous technologies, many of which are patented,or trademarked techniques, to remediate them. A short descriptionof each of these technologies is provided along with appropriatereferences. Wiley's Remediation Technologies Handbook: MajorContaminant Chemicals and Chemical Groups: Covers the most important chemical and chemical groups that arefound to pollute the environment, and the ways to remediatethem. Gives succinct abstract describing the numerous technologiesused to clean-up a wide range of pollutants. Provides the uses and limitations of each technique. Note: CD-ROM/DVD and other supplementary materials arenot included as part of eBook file.

New Technologies in the Oil and Gas Industry

New Technologies in the Oil and Gas Industry
Author: Jorge Salgado Gomes
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 238
Release: 2012-10-31
ISBN 10: 9535108255
ISBN 13: 9789535108252
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

New Technologies in the Oil and Gas Industry Book Review:

Oil and gas are the most important non-renewable sources of energy. Exploring, producing and managing these resources in compliance with HSE standards are challenging tasks. New technologies, workflows and procedures have to be implemented.This book deals with some of these themes and describes some of the advanced technologies related to the oil and gas industry from HSE to field management issues. Some new technologies for geo-modeling, transient well testing and digital rock physics are also introduced. There are many more technical topics to be addressed in future books. This book is aimed at researchers, petroleum engineers, geoscientists and people working within the petroleum industry.

Oil Field Chemicals

Oil Field Chemicals
Author: Johannes Fink
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 495
Release: 2003-08-19
ISBN 10: 9780080497570
ISBN 13: 0080497578
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Oil Field Chemicals Book Review:

Oil field chemicals are gaining increasing importance, as the resources of crude oil are decreasing. An increasing demand of more sophisticated methods in the exploitation of the natural resources emerges for this reason. This book reviews the progress in the area of oil field chemicals and additives of the last decade from a rather chemical view. The material presented is a compilation from the literature by screening critically approximately 20,000 references. The text is ordered according to applications, just in the way how the jobs are emerging in practice. It starts with drilling, goes to productions and ends with oil spill. Several chemicals are used in multiple disciplines, and to those separate chapters are devoted. Two index registers are available, an index of chemical substances and a general index. * Gives an introduction to the chemically orientated petroleum engineer. * Provides the petroleum engineer involved with research and development with a quick reference tool. * Covers interdisciplinary matter, i.e. connects petroleum recovery and handling with chemical aspects.

The Civil Engineering Handbook

The Civil Engineering Handbook
Author: W.F. Chen,J.Y. Richard Liew
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 2904
Release: 2002-08-29
ISBN 10: 1420041215
ISBN 13: 9781420041217
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Civil Engineering Handbook Book Review:

First published in 1995, the award-winning Civil Engineering Handbook soon became known as the field's definitive reference. To retain its standing as a complete, authoritative resource, the editors have incorporated into this edition the many changes in techniques, tools, and materials that over the last seven years have found their way into civil engineering research and practice. The Civil Engineering Handbook, Second Edition is more comprehensive than ever. You'll find new, updated, and expanded coverage in every section. In fact, more than 1/3 of the handbook is new or substantially revised. In particular you'll find increased focus on computing reflecting the rapid advances in computer technology that has revolutionized many aspects of civil engineering. You'll use it as a survey of the field, you'll use it to explore a particular subject, but most of all you'll use The Civil Engineering Handbook to answer the problems, questions, and conundrums you encounter in practice.

Blowout and Well Control Handbook

Blowout and Well Control Handbook
Author: Robert D. Grace
Publsiher: Gulf Professional Publishing
Total Pages: 472
Release: 2017-05-26
ISBN 10: 0128126752
ISBN 13: 9780128126752
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Blowout and Well Control Handbook Book Review:

Blowout and Well Control Handbook, Second Edition, brings the engineer and rig personnel up to date on all the useful methods, equipment, and project details needed to solve daily well control challenges. Blowouts are the most expensive and one of the most preventable accidents in the oil and gas industry. While some rig crews experience frequent well control incidents, some go years before seeing the real thing. Either way, the crew must always be prepared with quick understanding of the operations and calculations necessary to maintain well control. Updated to cover the lessons learned and new technology following the Macondo incident, this fully detailed reference will cover detection of influxes and losses in equipment and methods, a greater emphasis on kick tolerance considerations, an expanded section on floating drilling and deepwater floating drilling procedures, and a new blowout case history from Bangladesh. With updated photos, case studies, and practice examples, Blowout and Well Control Handbook, Second Edition will continue to deliver critical and modern well control information to ensure engineers and personnel stay safe, environmentally-responsible, and effective on the rig. Features updated and new case studies including a chapter devoted to the lessons learned and new procedures following Macondo Teaches new technology such as liquid packer techniques and a new chapter devoted to relief well design and operations Improves on both offshore and onshore operations with expanded material and photos on special conditions, challenges, and control procedures throughout the entire cycle of the well