The Narcissism Epidemic

The Narcissism Epidemic
Author: Jean M. Twenge,W. Keith Campbell
Publsiher: Simon and Schuster
Total Pages: 343
Release: 2010-04-13
ISBN 10: 1416575995
ISBN 13: 9781416575993
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Narcissism Epidemic Book Review:

Citing a rise in such factors as cosmetic surgery, status-related debt and misrepresented Facebook profiles, a cautionary report on the increase of unhealthy ego-related behaviors examines its actual cost to families, organizations and societies. By the author of Generation Me.

The Narcissism Epidemic

The Narcissism Epidemic
Author: Jean M. Twenge,W. Keith Campbell
Publsiher: Simon and Schuster
Total Pages: 304
Release: 2009-04-21
ISBN 10: 9781416576259
ISBN 13: 1416576258
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Narcissism Epidemic Book Review:

Narcissism -- a very positive and inflated view of the self -- is everywhere. It's what you have if you're a politician and you've strayed from your wife, and it's whyÊfive times as many Americans undergo plastic surgery and cosmetic procedures today than did just ten years ago. It's the value that parents teach their children with song lyrics like "I am special. Look at me," the skill teenagers and young adults obsessively hone on Facebook and MySpace, and the reason high school students physically beat classmates and then broadcast their violence on YouTube for all to see. It's the message preached by prosperity gospel and the vacuous ethos spread by celebrity newsmakers. And it's what's making people depressed, lonely, and buried under piles of debt. Jean M. Twenge's influential and controversial first book, Generation Me, generated a national debate with its trenchant depiction of the challenges twenty- and thirtysomethings face emotionally and professionally in today's world -- and the fallout these issues create for older generations as well as employers. Now, Dr. Twenge is on to a new incendiary topic that has repercussions for every age-group and class: the pernicious spread of narcissism in today's culture and its catastrophic effects. Dr. Twenge joins forces with W. Keith Campbell, Ph.D., a nationally recognized expert on narcissism, for The Narcissism Epidemic, their eye-opening exposition of the alarming rise of narcissism -- and they show how to stop it. Every day, you encounter the real costs of narcissism: in your relationships and family, in the workplace and the economy at large, in schools that fail to teach necessary skills, in culture, and in politics. Even the world economy has been damaged by risky, unrealistic overconfidence. Filled with arresting anecdotes that illustrate the hold narcissism has on us today -- from people hiring fake paparazzi in order to experience feeling famous to college students who won't leave a professor's office until their B+ becomes an A -- The Narcissism Epidemic is at once a riveting window into the consequences of narcissism, a probing analysis of the culture at large, and a prescription to combat the widespread problems caused by narcissism. As a society, we have a chance to slow the epidemic of narcissism once we learn to identify it, minimize the forces that sustain and transmit it, and treat it where we find it. Drawing on their own extensive research as well as decades of other experts' studies, Drs. Twenge and Campbell show us how.

When You Love a Man Who Loves Himself

When You Love a Man Who Loves Himself
Author: W. Keith Campbell
Publsiher: Sourcebooks, Inc.
Total Pages: 256
Release: 2005-02-01
ISBN 10: 9781402216121
ISBN 13: 1402216122
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

When You Love a Man Who Loves Himself Book Review:

Narcissistic men seem like the ultimate catch: self-confident, attractive, charming individuals who are often the life of the party. The narcissist always knows the place to be and who to be seen with. His attention is initially very flattering, but eventually his behavior is not: he becomes aloof and controlling and may cheat. He still seems somewhat interested, however, and often makes enough nice gestures to maintain a girl's interest, leaving all but him to wonder: what is going on? The country's leading expert on narcissism, Dr. W. Keith Campbell, explains how to identify a narcissist, what it means to love a man who loves himself and how to break the cycle of dating men with this personality disorder.

The New Science of Narcissism

The New Science of Narcissism
Author: W. Keith Campbell,Carolyn Crist
Publsiher: Sounds True
Total Pages: 304
Release: 2020-09-29
ISBN 10: 1683644034
ISBN 13: 9781683644033
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The New Science of Narcissism Book Review:

Cut Through the Noise Around Narcissism with the Leading Researcher in the Field “Narcissism” is truly one of the most important words our time—ceaselessly discussed in the media, the subject of millions of online search queries, and at the centerpiece of serious social and political debates. But what does it really mean? In The New Science of Narcissism, Dr. W Keith Campbell pulls back the curtain on this frequently misused label, presenting the most recent psychological, personality, and social research into the phenomenon. Rather than pathologizing all behaviors associated with the label, Campbell reveals that not only does narcissism occur on a spectrum, but almost everyone exhibits narcissistic tendencies in their day-to-day behavior. Drawing from real-life incidents and case studies, The New Science of Narcissism offers tools, tips, and suggestions for softening toxically selfish behaviors both in yourself and others. Here you will discover: An exploration of personality disorders connected with and adjacent to narcissism Why minor narcissistic tendencies are common in most people The foundational difference between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism Different psychological models of personality and how they interpret narcissistic behaviors The “recipe” of mental and emotional traits that combine into narcissism How to identify when you’re in a relationship with a narcissist and what you can do about it Why the 21st century has seen the rise of a “Great Fantasy Migration” into evermore insular subcultures The connection between narcissistic tendencies and leadership Why “the audience in your pocket” of social media has exacerbated culture-wide narcissistic tendencies Though narcissism looms large in our cultural consciousness, The New Science of Narcissism offers many different options for understanding and treating it. With Campbell’s straightforward and grounded guidance, you’ll not only discover the latest and best information on the condition, but also a hopeful view of its future.

The Selfishness of Others

The Selfishness of Others
Author: Kristin Dombek
Publsiher: FSG Originals
Total Pages: 160
Release: 2016-08-16
ISBN 10: 0374712549
ISBN 13: 9780374712549
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Selfishness of Others Book Review:

They're among us, but they are not like us. They manipulate, lie, cheat, and steal. They are irresistibly charming and accomplished, appearing to live in a radiance beyond what we are capable of. But narcissists are empty. No one knows exactly what everyone else is full of--some kind of a soul, or personhood--but whatever it is, experts agree that narcissists do not have it. So goes the popular understanding of narcissism, or NPD (narcissistic personality disorder). And it's more prevalent than ever, according to recent articles in The New York Times, The Atlantic, and Time. In bestsellers like The Narcissism Epidemic, Narcissists Exposed, and The Narcissist Next Door, pop psychologists have armed the normal with tools to identify and combat the vampiric influence of this rising population, while on websites like narcissismsurvivor.com, thousands of people congregate to swap horror stories about relationships with "narcs." In The Selfishness of Others, the essayist Kristin Dombek provides a clear-sighted account of how a rare clinical diagnosis became a fluid cultural phenomenon, a repository for our deepest fears about love, friendship, and family. She cuts through hysteria in search of the razor-thin line between pathology and common selfishness, writing with robust skepticism toward the prophets of NPD and genuine empathy for those who see themselves as its victims. And finally, she shares her own story in a candid effort to find a path away from the cycle of fear and blame and toward a more forgiving and rewarding life.

The Handbook of Narcissism and Narcissistic Personality Disorder

The Handbook of Narcissism and Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Author: W. Keith Campbell
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 511
Release: 2011-08-09
ISBN 10: 047060722X
ISBN 13: 9780470607220
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Handbook of Narcissism and Narcissistic Personality Disorder Book Review:

The Handbook of Narcissism and Narcissistic Personality Disorder is the definitive resource for empirically sound information on narcissism for researchers, students, and clinicians at a time when this personality disorder has become a particularly relevant area of interest. This unique work deepens understanding of how narcissistic behavior influences behavior and impedes progress in the worlds of work, relationships, and politics.!--EndFragment--

Generation Me

Generation Me
Author: Jean M. Twenge
Publsiher: Simon and Schuster
Total Pages: 292
Release: 2006
ISBN 10: 0743276981
ISBN 13: 9780743276986
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Generation Me Book Review:

Draws on more than a decade of research to identify the challenges being faced by today's young adults, offering insight into how unprecedented levels of competitiveness, economic imbalances, and changes in sexual dynamics are resulting in higher incidences of life dissatisfaction and psychological turmoil. Reprint. 35,000 first printing.

Rethinking Narcissism

Rethinking Narcissism
Author: Dr. Craig Malkin
Publsiher: HarperCollins
Total Pages: 256
Release: 2015-07-07
ISBN 10: 0062348124
ISBN 13: 9780062348128
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Rethinking Narcissism Book Review:

Harvard Medical School psychologist and Huffington Post blogger Craig Malkin addresses the "narcissism epidemic," by illuminating the spectrum of narcissism, identifying ways to control the trait, and explaining how too little of it may be a bad thing. "What is narcissism?" is one of the fastest rising searches on Google, and articles on the topic routinely go viral. Yet, the word "narcissist" seems to mean something different every time it's uttered. People hurl the word as insult at anyone who offends them. It's become so ubiquitous, in fact, that it's lost any clear meaning. The only certainty these days is that it's bad to be a narcissist—really bad—inspiring the same kind of roiling queasiness we feel when we hear the words sexist or racist. That's especially troubling news for millennials, the people born after 1980, who've been branded the "most narcissistic generation ever." In Rethinking Narcissism readers will learn that there's far more to narcissism than its reductive invective would imply. The truth is that we all fall on a spectrum somewhere between utter selflessness on the one side, and arrogance and grandiosity on the other. A healthy middle exhibits a strong sense of self. On the far end lies sociopathy. Malkin deconstructs healthy from unhealthy narcissism and offers clear, step-by-step guidance on how to promote healthy narcissism in our partners, our children, and ourselves.

Why Is It Always About You

Why Is It Always About You
Author: Sandy Hotchkiss
Publsiher: Simon and Schuster
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2008-06-20
ISBN 10: 1439106533
ISBN 13: 9781439106532
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Why Is It Always About You Book Review:

In this groundbreaking book -- the first popular book on narcissism in more than a decade -- clinical social worker and psychotherapist Sandy Hotchkiss shows you how to cope with controlling, egotistical people who are incapable of the fundamental give-and-take that sustains healthy relationships. Exploring how individuals come to have this shortcoming, why you get drawn into their perilous orbit, and what you can do to break free, Hotchkiss describes the "Seven Deadly Sins of Narcissism" and their origins. You will learn to recognize these hallmarks of unhealthy narcissism -- Shamelessness, Magical Thinking, Arrogance, Envy, Entitlement, Exploitation, Bad Boundaries -- and to understand the roles that parenting and culture play in their creation. Whether the narcissist in question is a coworker, spouse, parent, or child, Why Is It Always About You? provides abundant practical advice for anyone struggling to break narcissism's insidious spread to the next generation, and for anyone who encounters narcissists in everyday life.

The Impatient Woman s Guide to Getting Pregnant

The Impatient Woman s Guide to Getting Pregnant
Author: Jean M. Twenge
Publsiher: Simon and Schuster
Total Pages: 256
Release: 2012-04-17
ISBN 10: 1451620713
ISBN 13: 9781451620719
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Impatient Woman s Guide to Getting Pregnant Book Review:

Comforting and intimate, this “girlfriend” guide to getting pregnant gets to the heart of all the emotional issues around having children—biological pressure, in-law pressures, greater social pressures—to support women who are considering getting pregnant. Trying to get pregnant is enough to make any woman impatient. The Impatient Woman’s Guide to Getting Pregnant is a complete guide to the medical, psychological, social, and sexual aspects of getting pregnant, told in a funny, compassionate way, like talking to a good friend who’s been through it all. And in fact, Dr. Jean Twenge has been through it all—the mother of three young children, she started researching fertility when trying to conceive for the first time. A renowned sociologist and professor at San Diego State University, Dr. Twenge brought her research background to the huge amount of information—sometimes contradictory, frequently alarmist, and often discouraging— that she encountered online, from family and friends, and in books, and decided to go into the latest studies to find out the real story. The good news is: There is a lot less to worry about than you’ve been led to believe. Dr. Twenge gets to the heart of the emotional issues around getting pregnant, including how to prepare mentally and physically when thinking about conceiving; how to talk about it with family, friends, and your partner; and how to handle the great sadness of a miscarriage. Also covered is how to know when you’re ovulating, when to have sex, timing your pregnancy, maximizing your chances of getting pregnant, how to tilt the odds toward having a boy or a girl, and the best prenatal diet. Trying to conceive often involves an enormous amount of emotion, from anxiety and disappointment to hope and joy. With comfort, humor, and straightforward advice, The Impatient Woman’s Guide to Getting Pregnant is the bedside companion to help you through it.

The Culture of Narcissism American Life in an Age of Diminishing Expectations

The Culture of Narcissism  American Life in an Age of Diminishing Expectations
Author: Christopher Lasch
Publsiher: W. W. Norton & Company
Total Pages: 304
Release: 1991-05-17
ISBN 10: 0393348350
ISBN 13: 9780393348354
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Culture of Narcissism American Life in an Age of Diminishing Expectations Book Review:

When The Culture of Narcissism was first published, it was clear that Christopher Lasch had identified something important: what was happening to American society in the wake of the decline of the family over the last century. The book quickly became a bestseller. This edition includes a new afterword, "The Culture of Narcissism Revisited."

The Narcissism Epidemic Is Dead Long Live the Narcissism Epidemic

The Narcissism Epidemic Is Dead  Long Live the Narcissism Epidemic
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 329
Release: 2021
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: OCLC:1051961666
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Narcissism Epidemic Is Dead Long Live the Narcissism Epidemic Book Review:

Are recent cohorts of college students more narcissistic than their predecessors? To address debates about the so-called “narcissism epidemic,” we used data from three cohorts of students (1990s: N = 1,166; 2000s: N = 33,647; 2010s: N = 25,412) to test whether narcissism levels (overall and specific facets) have increased across generations. We also tested whether our measure, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), showed measurement equivalence across the three cohorts, a critical analysis that had been overlooked in prior research. We found that several NPI items were not equivalent across cohorts. Models accounting for nonequivalence of these items indicated a small decline in overall narcissism levels from the 1990s to the 2010s (d = −0.27). At the facet level, leadership (d = −0.20), vanity (d = −0.16), and entitlement (d = −0.28) all showed decreases. Our results contradict the claim that recent cohorts of college students are more narcissistic than earlier generations of college students.

Disarming the Narcissist

Disarming the Narcissist
Author: Wendy T. Behary
Publsiher: New Harbinger Publications
Total Pages: 224
Release: 2013-07-01
ISBN 10: 1608827623
ISBN 13: 9781608827626
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Disarming the Narcissist Book Review:

Do you know someone who is overly arrogant, shows an extreme lack of empathy, or exhibits an inflated sense of entitlement? Do they exploit others, or engage in magical thinking? These are all traits of narcissistic personality disorder, and when it comes to dealing with narcissists, it can be difficult to get your point across. So how do you handle the narcissistic people in your life? You might interact with them in social or professional settings, and you might even love one—so ignoring them isn’t really a practical solution. They're frustrating, and maybe even intimidating, but ultimately, you need to find a way of communicating effectively with them. Disarming the Narcissist, Second Edition, will show you how to move past the narcissist's defenses using compassionate, empathetic communication. You'll learn how narcissists view the world, how to navigate their coping styles, and why, oftentimes, it's sad and lonely being a narcissist. By learning to anticipate and avoid certain hot-button issues, you'll be able to relate to narcissists without triggering aggression. By validating some common narcissistic concerns, you'll also find out how to be heard in conversation with a narcissist. This book will help you learn to meet your own needs while side-stepping unproductive power struggles and senseless arguments with someone who is at the center of his or her own universe. This new edition also includes new chapters on dealing with narcissistic women, aggressive and abusive narcissists, strategies for safety, and the link between narcissism and sex addiction. Finally, you'll learn how to set limits with your narcissist and when it's time to draw the line on unacceptable behavior.

Selfie

Selfie
Author: Will Storr
Publsiher: Abrams
Total Pages: 416
Release: 2019-04-02
ISBN 10: 1468315900
ISBN 13: 9781468315905
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Selfie Book Review:

We are living in an age of heightened individualism. Success is a personal responsibility. Our culture tells us that to succeed is to be slim, rich, happy, extroverted, popular—flawless. We have become self-obsessed. And our expectation of perfection comes at a cost. Millions are suffering under the torture of this impossible fantasy. The pressure to conform to this ideal has changed who we are.It was not always like this. To explain how we got here, award-winning journalist Will Storr leads us on a “terrific tour through the history of self-obsession†? (NPR, On Point) that explores the origins of this notion of the perfect self that torments so many of us: Where does this ideal come from? Why is it so powerful? Is there any way to break its spell?Full of thrilling and unexpected connections among history, psychology, economics, neuroscience, and more, Selfie is an unforgettable book that makes sense of who we have become. Ranging from Ancient Greece, through the Christian Middle Ages, to the self-esteem evangelists of 1980s California, the rise of the “selfie†? generation, and the era of hyper-individualism in which we live now, Selfie tells the epic tale of the person we all know so intimately—because it’s us.

Narcissism and Machiavellianism in Youth

Narcissism and Machiavellianism in Youth
Author: Christopher T. Barry,Tammy D. Barry, Ph.D.,Kurt K. Stellwagen
Publsiher: Amer Psychological Assn
Total Pages: 282
Release: 2011
ISBN 10: 9781433808456
ISBN 13: 1433808455
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Narcissism and Machiavellianism in Youth Book Review:

The appearance of books such as Generation Me and The Narcissism Epidemic suggest a disturbing trend among today's adolescents. In both the popular and the professional literature, self-centeredness, preoccupation with social status, and overly ingratiating interpersonal tactics have garnered attention for how they may easily cross the line into the realm of antisocial behaviors such as aggression and violence. Clinical narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy have begun to emerge as particular targets of attention among researchers in various branches of psychology. Both narcissism and Machiavellianism in adult populations and have been found to be risk factors for a variety of antisocial behaviors, from entitlement and exploitation to self-absorption and defensive egotism to violent psychopathology. And yet other studies have the potentially socially adaptive outcomes associated with these constructs. Only more recently has an attempt been made to examine these constructs in children and adolescents. This book brings together international scholars who have begun to consider empirical questions related to narcissism and Machiavellianism in youth. Narcissism and Machiavellianism in Youth highlights how knowledge of both narcissism and Machiavellianism may influence problematic youth social interactions as well as youth adaptation to developmental contexts such as peer relationships. The book brings together for the first time scholars who have empirically examined the emotional, social, and behavioral correlates of these constructs in youth. Part I provides the context for understanding narcissism and Machiavellianism as potential risk and protective factors. Part II discusses the theory and existing evidence on youth narcissism as it relates to problematic behaviors, adaptive functioning, parenting, cultural context, and children's perception of their own competence. Part III discusses many of the same issues concerning Machiavellianism, with particular attention devoted to the emotional, behavioral, and social sequelae of Machiavellian tendencies for children. The volume concludes with thoughts on a tentative research agenda for possible clinical interventions at various developmental stages.

The Everything Guide to Narcissistic Personality Disorder

The Everything Guide to Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Author: Cynthia Lechan Goodman,Barbara Leff
Publsiher: Simon and Schuster
Total Pages: 304
Release: 2011-11-15
ISBN 10: 144052968X
ISBN 13: 9781440529689
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Everything Guide to Narcissistic Personality Disorder Book Review:

Narcissistic Personality Disorder, often mistaken for a too-big ego or inflated self-esteem, is in actuality a severe psychological condition that ruins marriages, social relationships, work environments, and the sufferer's own sense of self. Although perceived as self-confident and arrogant, narcissists are really victims of devastatingly low self-esteem and insecurity. The Everything Guide to Narcissistic Personality Disorder is a comprehensive resource for readers who need guidance, including information on: Identifying the symptoms in themselves and their loved ones Different types of narcissists Living with a narcissistic (one-way) relationship Treatment options and methods Preventing narcissism in children and young adults Recovering from a narcissistic relationship with a parent, spouse, or friend Complete with an exclusive section on the epidemic of "net narcissism" due to social media, The Everything Guide to Narcissistic Personality Disorder is the complete guide to a misunderstood disorder that impacts millions everyday.

iGen

iGen
Author: Jean M. Twenge
Publsiher: Simon and Schuster
Total Pages: 352
Release: 2017-08-22
ISBN 10: 1501152025
ISBN 13: 9781501152023
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

iGen Book Review:

As seen in Time, USA TODAY, The Atlantic, The Wall Street Journal, and on CBS This Morning, BBC, PBS, CNN, and NPR, iGen is crucial reading to understand how the children, teens, and young adults born in the mid-1990s and later are vastly different from their Millennial predecessors, and from any other generation. With generational divides wider than ever, parents, educators, and employers have an urgent need to understand today’s rising generation of teens and young adults. Born in the mid-1990s up to the mid-2000s, iGen is the first generation to spend their entire adolescence in the age of the smartphone. With social media and texting replacing other activities, iGen spends less time with their friends in person—perhaps contributing to their unprecedented levels of anxiety, depression, and loneliness. But technology is not the only thing that makes iGen distinct from every generation before them; they are also different in how they spend their time, how they behave, and in their attitudes toward religion, sexuality, and politics. They socialize in completely new ways, reject once sacred social taboos, and want different things from their lives and careers. More than previous generations, they are obsessed with safety, focused on tolerance, and have no patience for inequality. With the first members of iGen just graduating from college, we all need to understand them: friends and family need to look out for them; businesses must figure out how to recruit them and sell to them; colleges and universities must know how to educate and guide them. And members of iGen also need to understand themselves as they communicate with their elders and explain their views to their older peers. Because where iGen goes, so goes our nation—and the world.

Should I Stay or Should I Go

Should I Stay or Should I Go
Author: Ramani Durvasula, Ph.D.
Publsiher: Post Hill Press
Total Pages: 157
Release: 2015-11-24
ISBN 10: 1618688774
ISBN 13: 9781618688774
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Should I Stay or Should I Go Book Review:

Narcissism is a modern epidemic, and it’s spreading rapidly. But how do you know if you are in a relationship with one—and, what can you do about it? We live in a world of romance and rescue, where many believe love will conquer all, and that the more we endure unacceptable behavior, the more likely that we can “fix” our relationships. It doesn’t always work that way—despite what the fairy tales tell us. There are a few hard facts about pathological narcissism that most people don’t know and most psychologists will never tell you. Should I Stay or Should I Go? uses checklists, clinical wisdom, and real stories from real people to prepare you for the real terrain of pathological narcissism. It raises the red flags to watch for and provides a realistic roadmap for difficult situations to help you reclaim yourself, find healing, and live an authentic and empowered life. Whether you stay. Or go.

The Wizard of Oz and Other Narcissists

The Wizard of Oz and Other Narcissists
Author: Eleanor D. Payson
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 187
Release: 2002
ISBN 10: 9780972072830
ISBN 13: 0972072837
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Wizard of Oz and Other Narcissists Book Review:

One of the most significant but least understood of character disorders in individuals is narcissistic personality disorder, or NPD. In this book, a licensed marital and family therapist provides a much-needed overview of NPD, its wide-ranging effects, and guidelines for dealing with this disorder.

Self and Relationships

Self and Relationships
Author: Kathleen D. Vohs,Eli J. Finkel
Publsiher: Guilford Press
Total Pages: 432
Release: 2006-03-16
ISBN 10: 1593852711
ISBN 13: 9781593852719
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Self and Relationships Book Review:

This volume brings together leading investigators who integrate two distinct research domains in social psychology--people's internal worlds and their close relationships. Contributors present compelling findings on the bidirectional interplay between internal processes, such as self-esteem and self-regulation, and relationship processes, such as how positively partners view each other, whether they are dependent on each other, and the level of excitement in the relationship. Methodological challenges inherent in studying these complex issues are described in depth, as are implications for understanding broader aspects of psychological functioning and well-being.