The Dynamical Ionosphere

The Dynamical Ionosphere
Author: Massimo Materassi,Biagio Forte,Anthea J. Coster,Susan Skone
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 337
Release: 2019-11-28
ISBN 10: 0128147830
ISBN 13: 9780128147832
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Dynamical Ionosphere Book Review:

The Dynamical Ionosphere: A Systems Approach to Ionospheric Irregularity examines the Earth’s ionosphere as a dynamical system with signatures of complexity. The system is robust in its overall configuration, with smooth space-time patterns of daily, seasonal and Solar Cycle variability, but shows a hierarchy of interactions among its sub-systems, yielding apparent unpredictability, space-time irregularity, and turbulence. This interplay leads to the need for constructing realistic models of the average ionosphere, incorporating the increasing knowledge and predictability of high variability components, and for addressing the difficulty of dealing with the worst cases of ionospheric disturbances, all of which are addressed in this interdisciplinary book. Borrowing tools and techniques from classical and stochastic dynamics, information theory, signal processing, fluid dynamics and turbulence science, The Dynamical Ionosphere presents the state-of-the-art in dealing with irregularity, forecasting ionospheric threats, and theoretical interpretation of various ionospheric configurations. Presents studies addressing Earth’s ionosphere as a complex dynamical system, including irregularities and radio scintillation, ionospheric turbulence, nonlinear time series analysis, space-ionosphere connection, and space-time structures Utilizes interdisciplinary tools and techniques, such as those associated with stochastic dynamics, information theory, signal processing, fluid dynamics and turbulence science Offers new data-driven models for different ionospheric variability phenomena Provides a synoptic view of the state-of-the-art and most updated theoretical interpretation, results and data analysis tools of the "worst case" behavior in ionospheric configurations

The Dynamical Ionosphere

The Dynamical Ionosphere
Author: Massimo Materassi,Biagio Forte,Susan Skone,Anthea J. Coster
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 270
Release: 2019-11
ISBN 10: 9780128147825
ISBN 13: 0128147822
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Dynamical Ionosphere Book Review:

The Dynamical Ionosphere: A Systems Approach to Ionospheric Irregularity examines the Earth's ionosphere as a dynamical system with signatures of complexity. The system is robust in its overall configuration, with smooth space-time patterns of daily, seasonal and Solar Cycle variability, but shows a hierarchy of interactions among its sub-systems, yielding apparent unpredictability, space-time irregularity, and turbulence. This interplay leads to the need for constructing realistic models of the average ionosphere, incorporating the increasing knowledge and predictability of high variability components, and for addressing the difficulty of dealing with the worst cases of ionospheric disturbances, all of which are addressed in this interdisciplinary book. Borrowing tools and techniques from classical and stochastic dynamics, information theory, signal processing, fluid dynamics and turbulence science, The Dynamical Ionosphere presents the state-of-the-art in dealing with irregularity, forecasting ionospheric threats, and theoretical interpretation of various ionospheric configurations. Presents studies addressing Earth's ionosphere as a complex dynamical system, including irregularities and radio scintillation, ionospheric turbulence, nonlinear time series analysis, space-ionosphere connection, and space-time structures Utilizes interdisciplinary tools and techniques, such as those associated with stochastic dynamics, information theory, signal processing, fluid dynamics and turbulence science Offers new data-driven models for different ionospheric variability phenomena Provides a synoptic view of the state-of-the-art and most updated theoretical interpretation, results and data analysis tools of the "worst case" behavior in ionospheric configurations

Space Physics and Aeronomy Ionosphere Dynamics and Applications

Space Physics and Aeronomy  Ionosphere Dynamics and Applications
Author: Chaosong Huang,Gang Lu
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 576
Release: 2021-04-16
ISBN 10: 1119815533
ISBN 13: 9781119815532
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Space Physics and Aeronomy Ionosphere Dynamics and Applications Book Review:

A comprehensive review of global ionospheric research from the polar caps to equatorial regions It's more than a century since scientists first identified the ionosphere, the layer of the Earth’s upper atmosphere that is ionized by solar and cosmic radiation. Our understanding of this dynamic part of the near-Earth space environment has greatly advanced in recent years thanks to new observational technologies, improved numerical models, and powerful computing capabilities. Ionosphere Dynamics and Applications provides a comprehensive overview of historic developments, recent advances, and future directions in ionospheric research. Volume highlights include: Behavior of the ionosphere in different regions from the poles to the equator Distinct characteristics of the high-, mid-, and low-latitude ionosphere Observational results from ground- and space-based instruments Ionospheric impacts on radio signals and satellite operations How earthquakes and tsunamis on Earth cause disturbances in the ionosphere The American Geophysical Union promotes discovery in Earth and space science for the benefit of humanity. Its publications disseminate scientific knowledge and provide resources for researchers, students, and professionals. Find out more about the Space Physics and Aeronomy collection in this Q&A with the Editors in Chief

The Atmosphere and Ionosphere

The Atmosphere and Ionosphere
Author: Vladimir Bychkov,Gennady Golubkov,Anatoly Nikitin
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 362
Release: 2010-07-17
ISBN 10: 9789048132126
ISBN 13: 9048132126
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Atmosphere and Ionosphere Book Review:

From July 7 to 12, 2008 in Zelenogradsk, a cosy resort on the bank of the Baltic Sea near Kaliningrad in Russia, the 1st International Conference “Atmosphere, Ionosphere, Safety (AIS-2008)” has been carried out. The State Russian University of I. Kant, Semenov Institute of chemical physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushkov Institute of terrestrial magnetism and radio-waves propagation of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and Russian Committee on Ball Lightning (BL) have acted as organizers of the conference. Financial support was made by Russian Fund of Fundamental Research Project N. 08-03-06041 and European Of?ce of Aerospace Research and Development Grant award FA8655-08-1-5052. The International conference “Atmosphere, Ionosphere, Safety” (AIS-2008) was devoted to (i) the analysis of the atmosphere–ionosphere response on natural and man-made processes, the reasons of occurrence of the various accompanying geophysical phenomena, and an estimation of possible consequences of their in?uence on the person and technological systems; (ii) the study of the monitoring possibility and search of the ways for the risk level decrease. Discussion of the physical and chemical processes accompanying the observable geophysical p- nomena was undertaken. One can see from a list of the Conference sections that questions of safety took only rather modest place, so main topics of the Conference became discussion of processes taking place in the atmosphere, ionosphere and methods of monitoring these processes.

Thermospheric Winds and Their Influence on the Ionosphere

Thermospheric Winds and Their Influence on the Ionosphere
Author: R. Rüster
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 27
Release: 2013-03-09
ISBN 10: 3642660401
ISBN 13: 9783642660405
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Thermospheric Winds and Their Influence on the Ionosphere Book Review:

It is well known that thermospheric winds play an important role in the dynamics of the upper atmo sphere and are of major importance for the behaviour of the ionosphere. The methods of calculating these winds are discussed briefly. Comparisons of the calculated winds with observational data are carried out. Some main effects of the winds on the dynamical behaviour of the ionized as well as neutral part of the upper atmosphere are discussed. 2. Calculation of thermospheric winds The system of equations describing the dynamical behaviour of the thermosphere and the ionosphere consists of: b a neutral atmosphere ionosphere continuity equations continuity equations for different ion species and electrons equations of motion (winds) equations of motion for the different constituents (ambi polar diffusion, wind induced drifts, ~ x ~ -drifts) energy balance equations energy balance equations Due to collisions between charged and neutral particles there is an interaction between the ionized and neutral gas. Both sets of equations are coupled, therefore, by the respective drag terms. Because of the complexity of the mathematics involved in solving all equations simultaneously, different approaches have been made to solve parts of this system of differential equations under additional assumptions and restrictions. There are two general approaches: a. ) Solution of the equation of motion of the neutral atmosphere together with the ionospheric continuity equations and equations of motion of the ions.

The Earth s Ionosphere

The Earth s Ionosphere
Author: Michael Kelly
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 500
Release: 2012-12-02
ISBN 10: 0323148050
ISBN 13: 9780323148054
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Earth s Ionosphere Book Review:

The Earth's Ionosphere: Plasma Physics and Electrodynamics emphasizes the study of plasma physics and electrodynamics of the ionosphere, including many aeronomical influences. The ionosphere is somewhat of a battleground between the earth's neutral atmosphere and the sun's fully ionized atmosphere, in which the earth is embedded. One of the challenges of ionosphere research is to know enough about these two vast fields of research to make sense out of ionospheric phenomena. This book provides insights into how these competing sources of mass, momentum, and energy compete for control of the ionosphere. Some of the topics discussed include the fundamentals of ionospheric plasma dynamics; equatorial plasma instabilities; high-latitude electrodynamics; and instabilities and structure in the high-latitude ionosphere. Throughout this text only the region above 90 km are discussed, ignoring the D region entirely. This publication is a good source of information for students and individuals conducting research on earth’s ionosphere.

Midlatitude Ionospheric Dynamics and Disturbances

Midlatitude Ionospheric Dynamics and Disturbances
Author: Paul M. Kintner, Jr.,Anthea J. Coster,Tim Fuller-Rowell,Antony J. Mannucci,Michael Mendillo,Roderick Heelis
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 327
Release: 2013-05-03
ISBN 10: 1118671716
ISBN 13: 9781118671719
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Midlatitude Ionospheric Dynamics and Disturbances Book Review:

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 181. Filling the need for a 20-year lag in substantial consideration of the midlatitude ionosphere, this volume focuses on work that takes advantage of GPS and UV imaging from satellites over the past decade, two methods that have profoundly transformed our understanding of this stratum of the atmosphere. Its interdisciplinary content brings together researchers of the solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere, thermosphere, polar and equatorial ionospheres, and space weather. Modeling and assimilative imaging of the ionosphere and thermosphere show for the first time the complex and global impact of midlatitude ionospheric storms. The editors invited the leading experts in the following areas to contribute the chapters herein: Characterization of Midlatitude Storms Electric Field Coupling From the Heliosphere and Inner Magnetosphere Thermospheric Control of the Midlatitude Ionosphere Ionospheric Irregularities Experimental Methods and New Techniques These themes were chosen to create a path for understanding the midlatitude ionosphere. They continue to be largely valid and represent a coherent division of the subject matter. They will be critical for understanding space weather during the upcoming solar maximum. This book was inspired by the Chapman Conference of the same name held January 2007.

Aeronomy of the Earth s Atmosphere and Ionosphere

Aeronomy of the Earth s Atmosphere and Ionosphere
Author: Mangalathayil Ali Abdu,Dora Pancheva
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 480
Release: 2011-02-26
ISBN 10: 9789400703261
ISBN 13: 9400703260
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Aeronomy of the Earth s Atmosphere and Ionosphere Book Review:

This book is a multi-author treatise on the most outstanding research problems in the field of the aeronomy of the Earth’s atmosphere and ionosphere, encompassing the science covered by Division II of the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA). It contains several review articles and detailed papers by leading scientists in the field. The book is organized in five parts: 1) Mesosphere-Lower Thermosphere Dynamics and Chemistry; 2) Vertical Coupling by Upward Propagating Waves; 3) Ionospheric Electrodynamics and Structuring; 4) Thermosphere- Ionosphere Coupling, Dynamics and Trends and 5) Ionosphere-Thermosphere Disturbances and Modeling. The book consolidates the progress achieved in the field in recent years and it serves as a useful reference for graduate students as well as experienced researchers.

The Design and Implementation of the Dynamic Ionosphere Cubesat Experiment dice Science Instruments

The Design and Implementation of the Dynamic Ionosphere Cubesat Experiment  dice  Science Instruments
Author: Steven Reed Burr
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2013
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:880319901
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Design and Implementation of the Dynamic Ionosphere Cubesat Experiment dice Science Instruments Book Review:

Low Frequency Waves and Irregularities in the Ionosphere

Low Frequency Waves and Irregularities in the Ionosphere
Author: N. D'Angelo
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 218
Release: 2013-12-17
ISBN 10: 9401034028
ISBN 13: 9789401034029
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Low Frequency Waves and Irregularities in the Ionosphere Book Review:

During the last week of September 1968, ESRIN (the European Space Research Institute) held the ESRIN-ESLAB Symposium on 'Low-Frequency Waves and Irregularities in the Ionosphere' in Frascati, near Rome. The symposium was attended by about 60 participants, including speakers from most of the ESRO member states, the U.S.A., the U.S.S.R., and Peru. The main topics covered were: (a) observations of ionospheric irregularities by radar scattering, (b) scintillations of satellite signals, (c) geomagnetic micropulsations, and (d) whistlers. Both theoretical and observational aspects were treated. In addition, laboratory results on low-frequency waves in plasmas were discussed, emphasis being given to their possible relevance to low-frequency ionospheric phenomena. Finally, a brief presentation (not included in these proceedings) of the ESRO rocket and satellite program was given by Dr. Pedersen of ESLAB. The symposium provided an exchange of information among workers in closely related fields. It was also valuable in bringing together people whose experience is predominantly in ionospheric observations with others whose field of interest is mainly in plasma physics (theoretical or laboratory) - a combination that seemed particularly appropriate to ESRIN's program and functions.

The Earth s Ionosphere

The Earth s Ionosphere
Author: Michael C. Kelley
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 576
Release: 2009-06-12
ISBN 10: 9780080916576
ISBN 13: 0080916570
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Earth s Ionosphere Book Review:

Although interesting in its own right, due to the ever-increasing use of satellites for communication and navigation, weather in the ionosphere is of great concern. Every such system uses trans-ionospheric propagation of radio waves, waves which must traverse the commonly turbulent ionosphere. Understanding this turbulence and predicting it are one of the major goals of the National Space Weather program. Acquiring such a prediction capability will rest on understanding the very topics of this book, the plasma physics and electrodynamics of the system. Fully updated to reflect advances in the field in the 20 years since the first edition published Explores the buffeting of the ionosphere from above by the sun and from below by the lower atmosphere Unique text appropriate both as a reference and for coursework

Magnetosphere Ionosphere Coupling in the Solar System

Magnetosphere Ionosphere Coupling in the Solar System
Author: Charles R. Chappell,Robert W. Schunk,Peter M. Banks,Richard M. Thorne,James L. Burch
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 414
Release: 2016-09-28
ISBN 10: 1119066964
ISBN 13: 9781119066965
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Magnetosphere Ionosphere Coupling in the Solar System Book Review:

Over a half century of exploration of the Earth’s space environment, it has become evident that the interaction between the ionosphere and the magnetosphere plays a dominant role in the evolution and dynamics of magnetospheric plasmas and fields. Interestingly, it was recently discovered that this same interaction is of fundamental importance at other planets and moons throughout the solar system. Based on papers presented at an interdisciplinary AGU Chapman Conference at Yosemite National Park in February 2014, this volume provides an intellectual and visual journey through our exploration and discovery of the paradigm-changing role that the ionosphere plays in determining the filling and dynamics of Earth and planetary environments. The 2014 Chapman conference marks the 40th anniversary of the initial magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling conference at Yosemite in 1974, and thus gives a four decade perspective of the progress of space science research in understanding these fundamental coupling processes. Digital video links to an online archive containing both the 1974 and 2014 meetings are presented throughout this volume for use as an historical resource by the international heliophysics and planetary science communities. Topics covered in this volume include: Ionosphere as a source of magnetospheric plasma Effects of the low energy ionospheric plasma on the stability and creation of the more energetic plasmas The unified global modeling of the ionosphere and magnetosphere at the Earth and other planets New knowledge of these coupled interactions for heliophysicists and planetary scientists, with a cross-disciplinary approach involving advanced measurement and modeling techniques Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling in the Solar System is a valuable resource for researchers in the fields of space and planetary science, atmospheric science, space physics, astronomy, and geophysics. Read an interview with the editors to find out more: https://eos.org/editors-vox/filling-earths-space-environment-from-the-sun-or-the-earth

The Atmosphere and Ionosphere

The Atmosphere and Ionosphere
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 392
Release: 2011-04-11
ISBN 10: 9789048132133
ISBN 13: 9048132134
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Atmosphere and Ionosphere Book Review:

Dynamical Problems in the Earth s Polar Ionosphere

Dynamical Problems in the Earth s Polar Ionosphere
Author: Joel Albert Fedder
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 286
Release: 1972
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: UCSD:31822041534546
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Dynamical Problems in the Earth s Polar Ionosphere Book Review:

Advances in Specifying Plasma Temperatures and Ion Composition in the Ionosphere

Advances in Specifying Plasma Temperatures and Ion Composition in the Ionosphere
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 938
Release: 2006
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: UOM:39015064110243
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Specifying Plasma Temperatures and Ion Composition in the Ionosphere Book Review:

Alfv n Waves and Static Fields in Magnetosphere ionosphere Coupling

Alfv  n Waves and Static Fields in Magnetosphere ionosphere Coupling
Author: David J. Knudsen
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 392
Release: 1990
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: CORNELL:31924059958581
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Alfv n Waves and Static Fields in Magnetosphere ionosphere Coupling Book Review:

Perturbation electric and magnetic fields carry in excess of 10(exp10) to 10(exp12) W of electrical power between the magnetosphere and high-latitude ionosphere. Most of this power is generated by the solar wind. The ionosphere at large spatial and temporal scales acts as a dissipative slab which can be characterized by its height-integrated Pedersen conductivity sigma p, so that the power flux into the ionosphere due to a quasi-static electric field E is given by sigma (pE2) The energy transferred to the ionosphere by time-varying electromagnetic fields in the form of Alfven waves is more difficult to calculate because density and conductivity gradients can reflect energy. Thus, field resonances and standing wave patterns affect the magnitude and altitude distribution of electrical energy dissipation. We use a numerical model to calculate the frequency-dependent electric field reflection coefficient of the ionosphere and show that the ionosphere does not behave as a simple resistive slab for electric field time scales less than a few seconds. Time variation of spacecraft-measured high-latitude electric and perturbation magnetic fields is difficult to distinguish from spatial structuring that has been Doppler-shifted to a non-zero frequency in the spacecraft frame. However, by calculating the frequency-dependent amplitude and phase relations between fluctuating electric and magnetic fields we are able to show that low frequency fields (

Magnetosphere Ionosphere Coupling

Magnetosphere Ionosphere Coupling
Author: Y. Kamide,Wolfgang Baumjohann
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 178
Release: 2012-12-06
ISBN 10: 3642500625
ISBN 13: 9783642500626
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Magnetosphere Ionosphere Coupling Book Review:

In the past two decades a succession of direct observations by satellites, and of extensive computer simulations, has led to the realization that the polar ionosphere plays a principal role in large-scale magnetospheric processes - a manifestation of the physics linkage involved in solar-terrestrial interactions. Spatial/temporal variations in high-latitude electromagnetic phenomena, such as dynamic aurorae, electric fields and currents, have proved to be extremely complex. Now the challenge is to comprehend the vast amount of complicated measurements made in this magnetosphere-ionosphere sysstem of the Earth. This book addresses the electrical coupling between the hot, but dilute, magnetospheric plasma and the cold, but dense, plasma in the ionosphere. In five major chapters, this book presents: - basic properties of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling; - morphology of electric fields and currents at high latitudes; - global modeling of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling; - modeling of ionospheric electrodynamics; - current issues, such as auroral particle acceleration, substorms, penetration of high-latitude fields into low latitudes.

Cooperative Research Associateships Post Doctoral Research Awards

Cooperative Research Associateships  Post Doctoral Research Awards
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: National Academies
Total Pages: 135
Release: 1990
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: NAP:10122
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cooperative Research Associateships Post Doctoral Research Awards Book Review:

Venus Aeronomy

Venus Aeronomy
Author: C.T. Russell
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 489
Release: 2012-12-06
ISBN 10: 940113300X
ISBN 13: 9789401133005
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Venus Aeronomy Book Review:

For almost three decades since Mariner 2 flew by the planet in December 1962, Venus has been the subject of intense investigation by both the Soviet and American space programs. Since the intrinsic magnetic field of Venus is exceedingly weak, if it exists at all, we expect many phenomena of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere of Venus to differ from their terrestrial counterparts. While flybys and landings of the many Venus missions provided useful data on these phenomena, orbital missions were needed for their detailed investigation. Such orbital missions were provided by the Soviet program with Veneras 9 and 10 in October 1975 and by the United States with the Pioneer Venus Orbiter in December 1978. Originally designed for a prime mission of only 243 days, the Pioneer Venus Orbiter is still functioning over a decade later, providing data nearly - hours a day through one of the most active solar cycles to date. We expect these transmis sions to continue until September 1992 when gravitation perturbations will lower the periapsis of the PVO orbit so that the spacecraft will be lost to the atmosphere. The Venera 9 and 10 and the Pioneer Venus observations have led to an explosion of knowledge about the upper atmosphere and ionosphere of Venus and their interaction with the solar wind. The availability of data over a full solar cycle has.

Magnetosphere Ionosphere Coupling in the Solar System

Magnetosphere Ionosphere Coupling in the Solar System
Author: Charles R. Chappell
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 414
Release: 2016-10-31
ISBN 10: 1119066778
ISBN 13: 9781119066774
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Magnetosphere Ionosphere Coupling in the Solar System Book Review:

Over a half century of exploration of the Earth’s space environment, it has become evident that the interaction between the ionosphere and the magnetosphere plays a dominant role in the evolution and dynamics of magnetospheric plasmas and fields. Interestingly, it was recently discovered that this same interaction is of fundamental importance at other planets and moons throughout the solar system. Based on papers presented at an interdisciplinary AGU Chapman Conference at Yosemite National Park in February 2014, this volume provides an intellectual and visual journey through our exploration and discovery of the paradigm-changing role that the ionosphere plays in determining the filling and dynamics of Earth and planetary environments. The 2014 Chapman conference marks the 40th anniversary of the initial magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling conference at Yosemite in 1974, and thus gives a four decade perspective of the progress of space science research in understanding these fundamental coupling processes. Digital video links to an online archive containing both the 1974 and 2014 meetings are presented throughout this volume for use as an historical resource by the international heliophysics and planetary science communities. Topics covered in this volume include: Ionosphere as a source of magnetospheric plasma Effects of the low energy ionospheric plasma on the stability and creation of the more energetic plasmas The unified global modeling of the ionosphere and magnetosphere at the Earth and other planets New knowledge of these coupled interactions for heliophysicists and planetary scientists, with a cross-disciplinary approach involving advanced measurement and modeling techniques Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling in the Solar System is a valuable resource for researchers in the fields of space and planetary science, atmospheric science, space physics, astronomy, and geophysics.