The Basics of Information Security

The Basics of Information Security
Author: Jason Andress
Publsiher: Syngress Press
Total Pages: 217
Release: 2014-06-09
ISBN 10: 9780128007440
ISBN 13: 0128007443
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Basics of Information Security Book Review:

"The Basics of Information Security will provide the reader with a basic knowledge of information security in both theoretical and practical aspects. We will first cover the basic knowledge needed to understand the key concepts of information security, discussing many of the concepts that underpin the security world. We will then dive into practical applications of these ideas in the areas of operations, physical, network, operating system, and application security. Book Audience This book will provide a valuable resource to beginning security professionals, as well as to network and systems administrators. The information provided on can be used develop a better understanding on how we protect our information assets and defend against attacks, as well as how to apply these concepts practically"--

The Basics of Information Security

The Basics of Information Security
Author: Jason Andress
Publsiher: Syngress
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2014-05-20
ISBN 10: 0128008121
ISBN 13: 9780128008126
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Basics of Information Security Book Review:

As part of the Syngress Basics series, The Basics of Information Security provides you with fundamental knowledge of information security in both theoretical and practical aspects. Author Jason Andress gives you the basic knowledge needed to understand the key concepts of confidentiality, integrity, and availability, and then dives into practical applications of these ideas in the areas of operational, physical, network, application, and operating system security. The Basics of Information Security gives you clear-non-technical explanations of how infosec works and how to apply these principles whether you're in the IT field or want to understand how it affects your career and business. The new Second Edition has been updated for the latest trends and threats, including new material on many infosec subjects. Learn about information security without wading through a huge textbook Covers both theoretical and practical aspects of information security Provides a broad view of the information security field in a concise manner All-new Second Edition updated for the latest information security trends and threats, including material on incident response, social engineering, security awareness, risk management, and legal/regulatory issues

The Basics of Information Security

The Basics of Information Security
Author: Jason Andress
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 208
Release: 2011-07-16
ISBN 10: 9781597496544
ISBN 13: 1597496545
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Basics of Information Security Book Review:

The Basics of Information Security provides fundamental knowledge of information security in both theoretical and practical aspects. This book is packed with key concepts of information security, such as confidentiality, integrity, and availability, as well as tips and additional resources for further advanced study. It also includes practical applications in the areas of operations, physical, network, operating system, and application security. Complete with exercises at the end of each chapter, this book is well-suited for classroom or instructional use. The book consists of 10 chapters covering such topics as identification and authentication; authorization and access control; auditing and accountability; cryptography; operations security; physical security; network security; operating system security; and application security. Useful implementations for each concept are demonstrated using real world examples. PowerPoint lecture slides are available for use in the classroom. This book is an ideal reference for security consultants, IT managers, students, and those new to the InfoSec field. Learn about information security without wading through huge manuals Covers both theoretical and practical aspects of information security Gives a broad view of the information security field for practitioners, students, and enthusiasts

Foundations of Information Security

Foundations of Information Security
Author: Jason Andress
Publsiher: No Starch Press
Total Pages: 380
Release: 2019-10-15
ISBN 10: 171850005X
ISBN 13: 9781718500051
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Foundations of Information Security Book Review:

High-level overview of the information security field. Covers key concepts like confidentiality, integrity, and availability, then dives into practical applications of these ideas in the areas of operational, physical, network, application, and operating system security. In this high-level survey of the information security field, best-selling author Jason Andress covers the basics of a wide variety of topics, from authentication and authorization to maintaining confidentiality and performing penetration testing. Using real-world security breaches as examples, Foundations of Information Security explores common applications of these concepts, such as operations security, network design, hardening and patching operating systems, securing mobile devices, as well as tools for assessing the security of hosts and applications. You'll also learn the basics of topics like: • Multifactor authentication and how biometrics and hardware tokens can be used to harden the authentication process • The principles behind modern cryptography, including symmetric and asymmetric algorithms, hashes, and certificates • The laws and regulations that protect systems and data • Anti-malware tools, firewalls, and intrusion detection systems • Vulnerabilities such as buffer overflows and race conditions A valuable resource for beginning security professionals, network systems administrators, or anyone new to the field, Foundations of Information Security is a great place to start your journey into the dynamic and rewarding field of information security.

Computer Security Basics

Computer Security Basics
Author: Rick Lehtinen,G.T. Gangemi Sr.
Publsiher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."
Total Pages: 312
Release: 2006-06-13
ISBN 10: 1449317421
ISBN 13: 9781449317423
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Computer Security Basics Book Review:

This is the must-have book for a must-know field. Today, general security knowledge is mandatory, and, if you who need to understand the fundamentals, Computer Security Basics 2nd Edition is the book to consult. The new edition builds on the well-established principles developed in the original edition and thoroughly updates that core knowledge. For anyone involved with computer security, including security administrators, system administrators, developers, and IT managers, Computer Security Basics 2nd Edition offers a clear overview of the security concepts you need to know, including access controls, malicious software, security policy, cryptography, biometrics, as well as government regulations and standards. This handbook describes complicated concepts such as trusted systems, encryption, and mandatory access control in simple terms. It tells you what you need to know to understand the basics of computer security, and it will help you persuade your employees to practice safe computing. Topics include: Computer security concepts Security breaches, such as viruses and other malicious programs Access controls Security policy Web attacks Communications and network security Encryption Physical security and biometrics Wireless network security Computer security and requirements of the Orange Book OSI Model and TEMPEST

Information Security Fundamentals

Information Security Fundamentals
Author: John A. Blackley,Thomas R. Peltier,Justin Peltier
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 280
Release: 2004-10-28
ISBN 10: 1135493731
ISBN 13: 9781135493738
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Information Security Fundamentals Book Review:

Effective security rules and procedures do not exist for their own sake-they are put in place to protect critical assets, thereby supporting overall business objectives. Recognizing security as a business enabler is the first step in building a successful program. Information Security Fundamentals allows future security professionals to gain a solid understanding of the foundations of the field and the entire range of issues that practitioners must address. This book enables students to understand the key elements that comprise a successful information security program and eventually apply these concepts to their own efforts. The book examines the elements of computer security, employee roles and responsibilities, and common threats. It examines the need for management controls, policies and procedures, and risk analysis, and also presents a comprehensive list of tasks and objectives that make up a typical information protection program. The volume discusses organizationwide policies and their documentation, and legal and business requirements. It explains policy format, focusing on global, topic-specific, and application-specific policies. Following a review of asset classification, the book explores access control, the components of physical security, and the foundations and processes of risk analysis and risk management. Information Security Fundamentals concludes by describing business continuity planning, including preventive controls, recovery strategies, and ways to conduct a business impact analysis.

Information Security

Information Security
Author: Mark Stamp
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 371
Release: 2005-11-11
ISBN 10: 0471744182
ISBN 13: 9780471744184
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Information Security Book Review:

Your expert guide to information security As businesses and consumers become more dependent on complexmultinational information systems, the need to understand anddevise sound information security systems has never been greater.This title takes a practical approach to information security byfocusing on real-world examples. While not sidestepping the theory,the emphasis is on developing the skills and knowledge thatsecurity and information technology students and professionals needto face their challenges. The book is organized around four majorthemes: * Cryptography: classic cryptosystems, symmetric key cryptography,public key cryptography, hash functions, random numbers,information hiding, and cryptanalysis * Access control: authentication and authorization, password-basedsecurity, ACLs and capabilities, multilevel and multilateralsecurity, covert channels and inference control, BLP and Biba'smodels, firewalls, and intrusion detection systems * Protocols: simple authentication protocols, session keys, perfectforward secrecy, timestamps, SSL, IPSec, Kerberos, and GSM * Software: flaws and malware, buffer overflows, viruses and worms,software reverse engineering, digital rights management, securesoftware development, and operating systems security Additional features include numerous figures and tables toillustrate and clarify complex topics, as well as problems-rangingfrom basic to challenging-to help readers apply their newlydeveloped skills. A solutions manual and a set of classroom-testedPowerPoint(r) slides will assist instructors in their coursedevelopment. Students and professors in information technology,computer science, and engineering, and professionals working in thefield will find this reference most useful to solve theirinformation security issues. An Instructor's Manual presenting detailed solutions to all theproblems in the book is available from the Wiley editorialdepartment. An Instructor Support FTP site is also available.

Applied Information Security

Applied Information Security
Author: David Basin,Patrick Schaller,Michael Schläpfer
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 202
Release: 2011-10-27
ISBN 10: 3642244742
ISBN 13: 9783642244742
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Applied Information Security Book Review:

This book explores fundamental principles for securing IT systems and illustrates them with hands-on experiments that may be carried out by the reader using accompanying software. The experiments highlight key information security problems that arise in modern operating systems, networks, and web applications. The authors explain how to identify and exploit such problems and they show different countermeasures and their implementation. The reader thus gains a detailed understanding of how vulnerabilities arise and practical experience tackling them. After presenting the basics of security principles, virtual environments, and network services, the authors explain the core security principles of authentication and access control, logging and log analysis, web application security, certificates and public-key cryptography, and risk management. The book concludes with appendices on the design of related courses, report templates, and the basics of Linux as needed for the assignments. The authors have successfully taught IT security to students and professionals using the content of this book and the laboratory setting it describes. The book can be used in undergraduate or graduate laboratory courses, complementing more theoretically oriented courses, and it can also be used for self-study by IT professionals who want hands-on experience in applied information security. The authors' supporting software is freely available online and the text is supported throughout with exercises.

Small Business Information Security

Small Business Information Security
Author: Richard Kissel
Publsiher: DIANE Publishing
Total Pages: 16
Release: 2010-08
ISBN 10: 1437924522
ISBN 13: 9781437924527
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Small Business Information Security Book Review:

For some small businesses, the security of their information, systems, and networks might not be a high priority, but for their customers, employees, and trading partners it is very important. The size of a small business varies by type of business, but typically is a business or organization with up to 500 employees. In the U.S., the number of small businesses totals to over 95% of all businesses. The small business community produces around 50% of our nation¿s GNP and creates around 50% of all new jobs in our country. Small businesses, therefore, are a very important part of our nation¿s economy. This report will assist small business management to understand how to provide basic security for their information, systems, and networks. Illustrations.

Zen and the Art of Information Security

Zen and the Art of Information Security
Author: Ira Winkler
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 192
Release: 2011-04-18
ISBN 10: 0080554741
ISBN 13: 9780080554747
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Zen and the Art of Information Security Book Review:

While security is generally perceived to be a complicated and expensive process, Zen and the Art of Information Security makes security understandable to the average person in a completely non-technical, concise, and entertaining format. Through the use of analogies and just plain common sense, readers see through the hype and become comfortable taking very simple actions to secure themselves. Even highly technical people have misperceptions about security concerns and will also benefit from Ira Winkler’s experiences making security understandable to the business world. Mr. Winkler is one of the most popular and highly rated speakers in the field of security, and lectures to tens of thousands of people a year. Zen and the Art of Information Security is based on one of his most well received international presentations. Written by an internationally renowned author of Spies Among Us who travels the world making security presentations to tens of thousands of people a year This short and concise book is specifically for the business, consumer, and technical user short on time but looking for the latest information along with reader friendly analogies Describes the REAL security threats that you have to worry about, and more importantly, what to do about them

Fundamentals of Cyber Security

Fundamentals of Cyber Security
Author: Mayank Bhushan
Publsiher: BPB Publications
Total Pages: 220
Release: 2017-01-01
ISBN 10: 9386551551
ISBN 13: 9789386551559
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fundamentals of Cyber Security Book Review:

Description-The book has been written in such a way that the concepts are explained in detail, givingadequate emphasis on examples. To make clarity on the topic, diagrams are given extensively throughout the text. Various questions are included that vary widely in type and difficulty to understand the text. This text is user-focused and has been highly updated including topics, pictures and examples. The book features the most current research findings in all aspects of information Security. From successfully implementing technology change to understanding the human factors in IT utilization, these volumes address many of the core concepts and organizational applications, implications of information technology in organizations.Key FeaturesA* Comprehensive coverage of various aspects of cyber security concepts.A* Simple language, crystal clear approach, straight forward comprehensible presentation. A* Adopting user-friendly classroom lecture style. A* The concepts are duly supported by several examples. A* Previous years question papers are also included. A* The important set of questions comprising of more than 90 questions with short answers are also included. Table of Contents:Chapter-1 : Introduction to Information SystemsChapter-2 : Information SecurityChapter-3 : Application SecurityChapter-4 : Security ThreatsChapter-5 : Development of secure Information SystemChapter-6 : Security Issues In HardwareChapter-7 : Security PoliciesChapter-8 : Information Security Standards

Cyber Security

Cyber Security
Author: Noah Zhang
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 72
Release: 2019-10-07
ISBN 10: 9781698238531
ISBN 13: 1698238533
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cyber Security Book Review:

Cyber Security Is Here To StayDo you often wonder how cyber security applies to your everyday life, what's at risk, and how can you specifically lock down your devices and digital trails to ensure you are not "Hacked"?Do you own a business and are finally becoming aware of how dangerous the cyber threats are to your assets? Would you like to know how to quickly create a cyber security plan for your business, without all of the technical jargon?Are you interested in pursuing a career in cyber security? Did you know that the average starting ENTRY salary of a cyber security professional ranges from $65,000 to $80,000 and jumps to multiple figures in a few years, depending on how far you want to go?Here is an interesting statistic, you are probably already compromised. Yes, at some point, one of your digital devices or activities has been hacked and your information has been sold to the "underground market". If you knew how bad the threats really are online, you would never go online again or you would do everything possible to secure your networks and devices, especially at home....and we're not talking about the ads that suddenly pop up and follow you around everywhere because you were looking at sunglasses for sale on Google or Amazon, those are re-targeting ads and they are totally legal and legitimate...We're talking about very evil malware that hides deep in your device(s) watching everything you do and type, just as one example among many hundreds of threat vectors out there.Why is This Happening Now?Our society has become saturated with internet-connected devices and trackers everywhere. From home routers to your mobile phones, most people AND businesses are easily hacked if targeted. But it gets even deeper than this; technology has advanced now to where most hacks are automated by emerging A.I., by software. Global hackers have vast networks and computers set up to conduct non-stop scans, pings and probes for weaknesses in millions of IP addresses and network domains, such as businesses and residential home routers.Check your router log and you'll see it yourself. Now most devices have firewalls but still, that is what's called an persistent threat that is here to stay, it's growing and we all need to be aware of how to protect ourselves starting today.In this introductory book, we will cover verified steps and tactics on how to increase the level of Cyber security in an organization and as an individual. It sheds light on the potential weak points which are used as infiltration points and gives examples of these breaches. We will also talk about cybercrime in a technologically-dependent world ..(Think IoT)Cyber security has come a long way from the days that hacks could only be perpetrated by a handful of individuals, and they were mostly done on the larger firms or government databases. Now, everyone with a mobile device, home system, car infotainment, or any other computing device is a point of weakness for malware or concerted attacks from hackers, real or automated.We have adopted anti-viruses and several firewalls to help prevent these issues to the point we have become oblivious to the majority of the attacks. The assistance of malware blocking tools allows our computing devices to fight thousands of attacks per day. Interestingly, cybercrime is a very lucrative industry, as has been proven by the constant investment by criminals on public information. It would be wise to pay at least half as much attention to your security.What are you waiting for, scroll to the top and click the "Buy Now" button to get started instantly!

The InfoSec Handbook

The InfoSec Handbook
Author: Umesha Nayak,Umesh Hodeghatta Rao
Publsiher: Apress
Total Pages: 392
Release: 2014-09-17
ISBN 10: 1430263830
ISBN 13: 9781430263838
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The InfoSec Handbook Book Review:

The InfoSec Handbook offers the reader an organized layout of information that is easily read and understood. Allowing beginners to enter the field and understand the key concepts and ideas, while still keeping the experienced readers updated on topics and concepts. It is intended mainly for beginners to the field of information security, written in a way that makes it easy for them to understand the detailed content of the book. The book offers a practical and simple view of the security practices while still offering somewhat technical and detailed information relating to security. It helps the reader build a strong foundation of information, allowing them to move forward from the book with a larger knowledge base. Security is a constantly growing concern that everyone must deal with. Whether it’s an average computer user or a highly skilled computer user, they are always confronted with different security risks. These risks range in danger and should always be dealt with accordingly. Unfortunately, not everyone is aware of the dangers or how to prevent them and this is where most of the issues arise in information technology (IT). When computer users do not take security into account many issues can arise from that like system compromises or loss of data and information. This is an obvious issue that is present with all computer users. This book is intended to educate the average and experienced user of what kinds of different security practices and standards exist. It will also cover how to manage security software and updates in order to be as protected as possible from all of the threats that they face.

Foundations of Computer Security

Foundations of Computer Security
Author: David Salomon
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 369
Release: 2006-03-20
ISBN 10: 1846283418
ISBN 13: 9781846283413
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Foundations of Computer Security Book Review:

Anyone with a computer has heard of viruses, had to deal with several, and has been struggling with spam, spyware, and disk crashes. This book is intended as a starting point for those familiar with basic concepts of computers and computations and who would like to extend their knowledge into the realm of computer and network security. Its comprehensive treatment of all the major areas of computer security aims to give readers a complete foundation in the field of Computer Security. Exercises are given throughout the book and are intended to strengthening the reader’s knowledge - answers are also provided. Written in a clear, easy to understand style, aimed towards advanced undergraduates and non-experts who want to know about the security problems confronting them everyday. The technical level of the book is low and requires no mathematics, and only a basic concept of computers and computations. Foundations of Computer Security will be an invaluable tool for students and professionals alike.

The Basics of Cyber Warfare

The Basics of Cyber Warfare
Author: Steve Winterfeld,Jason Andress
Publsiher: Newnes
Total Pages: 164
Release: 2012-12-28
ISBN 10: 0124051812
ISBN 13: 9780124051812
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Basics of Cyber Warfare Book Review:

The Basics of Cyber Warfare provides readers with fundamental knowledge of cyber war in both theoretical and practical aspects. This book explores the principles of cyber warfare, including military and cyber doctrine, social engineering, and offensive and defensive tools, tactics and procedures, including computer network exploitation (CNE), attack (CNA) and defense (CND). Readers learn the basics of how to defend against espionage, hacking, insider threats, state-sponsored attacks, and non-state actors (such as organized criminals and terrorists). Finally, the book looks ahead to emerging aspects of cyber security technology and trends, including cloud computing, mobile devices, biometrics and nanotechnology. The Basics of Cyber Warfare gives readers a concise overview of these threats and outlines the ethics, laws and consequences of cyber warfare. It is a valuable resource for policy makers, CEOs and CIOs, penetration testers, security administrators, and students and instructors in information security. Provides a sound understanding of the tools and tactics used in cyber warfare. Describes both offensive and defensive tactics from an insider's point of view. Presents doctrine and hands-on techniques to understand as cyber warfare evolves with technology.

Fundamentals of Computer Security

Fundamentals of Computer Security
Author: Josef Pieprzyk,Thomas Hardjono,Jennifer Seberry
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 677
Release: 2013-03-09
ISBN 10: 3662073242
ISBN 13: 9783662073247
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fundamentals of Computer Security Book Review:

This reference work looks at modern concepts of computer security. It introduces the basic mathematical background necessary to follow computer security concepts before moving on to modern developments in cryptography. The concepts are presented clearly and illustrated by numerous examples. Subjects covered include: private-key and public-key encryption, hashing, digital signatures, authentication, secret sharing, group-oriented cryptography, and many others. The section on intrusion detection and access control provide examples of security systems implemented as a part of operating system. Database and network security is also discussed. The final chapters introduce modern e- business systems based on digital cash.

Computer and Information Security Handbook

Computer and Information Security Handbook
Author: John R. Vacca
Publsiher: Newnes
Total Pages: 1200
Release: 2012-11-05
ISBN 10: 0123946123
ISBN 13: 9780123946126
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Computer and Information Security Handbook Book Review:

The second edition of this comprehensive handbook of computer and information security provides the most complete view of computer security and privacy available. It offers in-depth coverage of security theory, technology, and practice as they relate to established technologies as well as recent advances. It explores practical solutions to many security issues. Individual chapters are authored by leading experts in the field and address the immediate and long-term challenges in the authors’ respective areas of expertise. The book is organized into 10 parts comprised of 70 contributed chapters by leading experts in the areas of networking and systems security, information management, cyber warfare and security, encryption technology, privacy, data storage, physical security, and a host of advanced security topics. New to this edition are chapters on intrusion detection, securing the cloud, securing web apps, ethical hacking, cyber forensics, physical security, disaster recovery, cyber attack deterrence, and more. Chapters by leaders in the field on theory and practice of computer and information security technology, allowing the reader to develop a new level of technical expertise Comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of security issues allows the reader to remain current and fully informed from multiple viewpoints Presents methods of analysis and problem-solving techniques, enhancing the reader's grasp of the material and ability to implement practical solutions

Computers at Risk

Computers at Risk
Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Computer Science and Telecommunications Board,Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications,System Security Study Committee
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 320
Release: 1990-02-01
ISBN 10: 0309043883
ISBN 13: 9780309043885
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Computers at Risk Book Review:

Computers at Risk presents a comprehensive agenda for developing nationwide policies and practices for computer security. Specific recommendations are provided for industry and for government agencies engaged in computer security activities. The volume also outlines problems and opportunities in computer security research, recommends ways to improve the research infrastructure, and suggests topics for investigators. The book explores the diversity of the field, the need to engineer countermeasures based on speculation of what experts think computer attackers may do next, why the technology community has failed to respond to the need for enhanced security systems, how innovators could be encouraged to bring more options to the marketplace, and balancing the importance of security against the right of privacy.

Computer Security Essentials Learn the Basics of Cyber Security and Hacking

Computer Security Essentials  Learn the Basics of Cyber Security and Hacking
Author: Ramon Nastase
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 106
Release: 2018-04-14
ISBN 10: 9781980836025
ISBN 13: 1980836027
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Computer Security Essentials Learn the Basics of Cyber Security and Hacking Book Review:

Computer Security Essentials: Learn the basics of Cyber Security and Hacking In this book you'll learn from 0, the things you need to about CyberSecurity and Hacking in general. You will be able to recognise many of the Hacks that are happening in the Internet, protect yourself from them and also do them (in an ethical way).This books will change the way you think and see things in the Internet. The concepts from this book are both practical and theoretical and will help you understand: How Hackers think What are the 5 steps of Hacking How to scan devices in a network How to see other people's traffic (such as passwords and web sessions) with Kali Linux How to use Kali Linux VPN and Cryptography concepts Website Hacking and Security And many more :) Tags: Computer Security, Hacking, CyberSecurity, Cyber Security, Hacker, Malware, Kali Linux, Security

Information Security Awareness Basics

Information Security Awareness Basics
Author: Fred Cohen
Publsiher: Asp Press
Total Pages: 48
Release: 2006
ISBN 10: 9781878109392
ISBN 13: 1878109391
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Information Security Awareness Basics Book Review:

Information Security Awareness Basics provides a standardized basic security awareness program for deployment across an enterprise in booklet form. For small enterprises: the awareness booklet can be deployed by purchasing copies for all workers and briefing them on differences between the booklet and internal rules. For larger enterprises: the awareness booklet can be customized to your needs and deployed across the enterprise, complete with your logos, custom questions and exams for enterprise feedback, and adding or removing elements of the program as desired. For the largest enterprises: The awareness booklet can be licensed for internal-only on-line use and configured as a set of training modules within existing automated workflow systems.