Systems Simulation and Modeling for Cloud Computing and Big Data Applications

Systems Simulation and Modeling for Cloud Computing and Big Data Applications
Author: Dinesh Peter,Steven L. Fernandes
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 182
Release: 2020-02-26
ISBN 10: 0128197803
ISBN 13: 9780128197806
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Systems Simulation and Modeling for Cloud Computing and Big Data Applications Book Review:

Systems Simulation and Modelling for Cloud Computing and Big Data Applications provides readers with the most current approaches to solving problems through the use of models and simulations, presenting SSM based approaches to performance testing and benchmarking that offer significant advantages. For example, multiple big data and cloud application developers and researchers can perform tests in a controllable and repeatable manner. Inspired by the need to analyze the performance of different big data processing and cloud frameworks, researchers have introduced several benchmarks, including BigDataBench, BigBench, HiBench, PigMix, CloudSuite and GridMix, which are all covered in this book. Despite the substantial progress, the research community still needs a holistic, comprehensive big data SSM to use in almost every scientific and engineering discipline involving multidisciplinary research. SSM develops frameworks that are applicable across disciplines to develop benchmarking tools that are useful in solutions development. Examines the methodology and requirements of benchmarking big data and cloud computing tools, advances in big data frameworks and benchmarks for large-scale data analytics, and frameworks for benchmarking and predictive analytics in big data deployment Discusses applications using big data benchmarks, such as BigDataBench, BigBench, HiBench, MapReduce, HPCC, ECL, HOBBIT, GridMix and PigMix, and applications using big data frameworks, such as Hadoop, Spark, Samza, Flink and SQL frameworks Covers development of big data benchmarks to evaluate workloads in state-of-the-practice heterogeneous hardware platforms, advances in modeling and simulation tools for performance evaluation, security problems and scalable cloud computing environments

Modeling and Simulation in HPC and Cloud Systems

Modeling and Simulation in HPC and Cloud Systems
Author: Joanna Kołodziej,Florin Pop,Ciprian Dobre
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 155
Release: 2018-01-30
ISBN 10: 3319737678
ISBN 13: 9783319737676
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Modeling and Simulation in HPC and Cloud Systems Book Review:

This book consists of eight chapters, five of which provide a summary of the tutorials and workshops organised as part of the cHiPSet Summer School: High-Performance Modelling and Simulation for Big Data Applications Cost Action on “New Trends in Modelling and Simulation in HPC Systems,” which was held in Bucharest (Romania) on September 21–23, 2016. As such it offers a solid foundation for the development of new-generation data-intensive intelligent systems. Modelling and simulation (MS) in the big data era is widely considered the essential tool in science and engineering to substantiate the prediction and analysis of complex systems and natural phenomena. MS offers suitable abstractions to manage the complexity of analysing big data in various scientific and engineering domains. Unfortunately, big data problems are not always easily amenable to efficient MS over HPC (high performance computing). Further, MS communities may lack the detailed expertise required to exploit the full potential of HPC solutions, and HPC architects may not be fully aware of specific MS requirements. The main goal of the Summer School was to improve the participants’ practical skills and knowledge of the novel HPC-driven models and technologies for big data applications. The trainers, who are also the authors of this book, explained how to design, construct, and utilise the complex MS tools that capture many of the HPC modelling needs, from scalability to fault tolerance and beyond. In the final three chapters, the book presents the first outcomes of the school: new ideas and novel results of the research on security aspects in clouds, first prototypes of the complex virtual models of data in big data streams and a data-intensive computing framework for opportunistic networks. It is a valuable reference resource for those wanting to start working in HPC and big data systems, as well as for advanced researchers and practitioners.

High Performance Modelling and Simulation for Big Data Applications

High Performance Modelling and Simulation for Big Data Applications
Author: Joanna Kołodziej,Horacio González-Vélez
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 352
Release: 2019-03-25
ISBN 10: 3030162729
ISBN 13: 9783030162726
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

High Performance Modelling and Simulation for Big Data Applications Book Review:

This open access book was prepared as a Final Publication of the COST Action IC1406 “High-Performance Modelling and Simulation for Big Data Applications (cHiPSet)“ project. Long considered important pillars of the scientific method, Modelling and Simulation have evolved from traditional discrete numerical methods to complex data-intensive continuous analytical optimisations. Resolution, scale, and accuracy have become essential to predict and analyse natural and complex systems in science and engineering. When their level of abstraction raises to have a better discernment of the domain at hand, their representation gets increasingly demanding for computational and data resources. On the other hand, High Performance Computing typically entails the effective use of parallel and distributed processing units coupled with efficient storage, communication and visualisation systems to underpin complex data-intensive applications in distinct scientific and technical domains. It is then arguably required to have a seamless interaction of High Performance Computing with Modelling and Simulation in order to store, compute, analyse, and visualise large data sets in science and engineering. Funded by the European Commission, cHiPSet has provided a dynamic trans-European forum for their members and distinguished guests to openly discuss novel perspectives and topics of interests for these two communities. This cHiPSet compendium presents a set of selected case studies related to healthcare, biological data, computational advertising, multimedia, finance, bioinformatics, and telecommunications.

Deep Learning Strategies for Security Enhancement in Wireless Sensor Networks

Deep Learning Strategies for Security Enhancement in Wireless Sensor Networks
Author: K. Martin Sagayam,Bharat Bhushan,Victor Hugo C. de Albuquerque,A. Diana Andrushia
Publsiher: IGI Global
Total Pages: 405
Release: 2020
ISBN 10: 1799850692
ISBN 13: 9781799850694
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Deep Learning Strategies for Security Enhancement in Wireless Sensor Networks Book Review:

Wireless sensor networks have gained significant attention industrially and academically due to their wide range of uses in various fields. Because of their vast amount of applications, wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to a variety of security attacks. The protection of wireless sensor networks remains a challenge due to their resource-constrained nature, which is why researchers have begun applying several branches of artificial intelligence to advance the security of these networks. Research is needed on the development of security practices in wireless sensor networks by using smart technologies.

Deep Learning Strategies for Security Enhancement in Wireless Sensor Networks provides emerging research exploring the theoretical and practical advancements of security protocols in wireless sensor networks using artificial intelligence-based techniques. Featuring coverage on a broad range of topics such as clustering protocols, intrusion detection, and energy harvesting, this book is ideally designed for researchers, developers, IT professionals, educators, policymakers, practitioners, scientists, theorists, engineers, academicians, and students seeking current research on integrating intelligent techniques into sensor networks for more reliable security practices.

Strategic Engineering for Cloud Computing and Big Data Analytics

Strategic Engineering for Cloud Computing and Big Data Analytics
Author: Amin Hosseinian-Far,Muthu Ramachandran,Dilshad Sarwar
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 226
Release: 2017-03-15
ISBN 10: 3319524917
ISBN 13: 9783319524917
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Strategic Engineering for Cloud Computing and Big Data Analytics Book Review:

This book demonstrates the use of a wide range of strategic engineering concepts, theories and applied case studies to improve the safety, security and sustainability of complex and large-scale engineering and computer systems. It first details the concepts of system design, life cycle, impact assessment and security to show how these ideas can be brought to bear on the modeling, analysis and design of information systems with a focused view on cloud-computing systems and big data analytics. This informative book is a valuable resource for graduate students, researchers and industry-based practitioners working in engineering, information and business systems as well as strategy.

Handbook of Research on Cloud Computing and Big Data Applications in IoT

Handbook of Research on Cloud Computing and Big Data Applications in IoT
Author: Gupta, B. B.,Agrawal, Dharma P.
Publsiher: IGI Global
Total Pages: 609
Release: 2019-04-12
ISBN 10: 1522584080
ISBN 13: 9781522584087
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Research on Cloud Computing and Big Data Applications in IoT Book Review:

Today, cloud computing, big data, and the internet of things (IoT) are becoming indubitable parts of modern information and communication systems. They cover not only information and communication technology but also all types of systems in society including within the realms of business, finance, industry, manufacturing, and management. Therefore, it is critical to remain up-to-date on the latest advancements and applications, as well as current issues and challenges. The Handbook of Research on Cloud Computing and Big Data Applications in IoT is a pivotal reference source that provides relevant theoretical frameworks and the latest empirical research findings on principles, challenges, and applications of cloud computing, big data, and IoT. While highlighting topics such as fog computing, language interaction, and scheduling algorithms, this publication is ideally designed for software developers, computer engineers, scientists, professionals, academicians, researchers, and students.

Decision Sciences

Decision Sciences
Author: Raghu Nandan Sengupta,Aparna Gupta,Joydeep Dutta
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 1026
Release: 2016-11-30
ISBN 10: 1351727400
ISBN 13: 9781351727402
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Decision Sciences Book Review:

This handbook is an endeavour to cover many current, relevant, and essential topics related to decision sciences in a scientific manner. Using this handbook, graduate students, researchers, as well as practitioners from engineering, statistics, sociology, economics, etc. will find a new and refreshing paradigm shift as to how these topics can be put to use beneficially. Starting from the basics to advanced concepts, authors hope to make the readers well aware of the different theoretical and practical ideas, which are the focus of study in decision sciences nowadays. It includes an excellent bibliography/reference/journal list, information about a variety of datasets, illustrated pseudo-codes, and discussion of future trends in research. Covering topics ranging from optimization, networks and games, multi-objective optimization, inventory theory, statistical methods, artificial neural networks, times series analysis, simulation modeling, decision support system, data envelopment analysis, queueing theory, etc., this reference book is an attempt to make this area more meaningful for varied readers. Noteworthy features of this handbook are in-depth coverage of different topics, solved practical examples, unique datasets for a variety of examples in the areas of decision sciences, in-depth analysis of problems through colored charts, 3D diagrams, and discussions about software.

Resource Management for Big Data Platforms

Resource Management for Big Data Platforms
Author: Florin Pop,Joanna Kołodziej,Beniamino Di Martino
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 516
Release: 2016-10-27
ISBN 10: 3319448811
ISBN 13: 9783319448817
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Resource Management for Big Data Platforms Book Review:

Serving as a flagship driver towards advance research in the area of Big Data platforms and applications, this book provides a platform for the dissemination of advanced topics of theory, research efforts and analysis, and implementation oriented on methods, techniques and performance evaluation. In 23 chapters, several important formulations of the architecture design, optimization techniques, advanced analytics methods, biological, medical and social media applications are presented. These chapters discuss the research of members from the ICT COST Action IC1406 High-Performance Modelling and Simulation for Big Data Applications (cHiPSet). This volume is ideal as a reference for students, researchers and industry practitioners working in or interested in joining interdisciplinary works in the areas of intelligent decision systems using emergent distributed computing paradigms. It will also allow newcomers to grasp the key concerns and their potential solutions.

Research Challenges in Modeling and Simulation for Engineering Complex Systems

Research Challenges in Modeling and Simulation for Engineering Complex Systems
Author: Richard Fujimoto,Conrad Bock,Wei Chen,Ernest Page,Jitesh H. Panchal
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 119
Release: 2017-08-18
ISBN 10: 3319585444
ISBN 13: 9783319585444
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Research Challenges in Modeling and Simulation for Engineering Complex Systems Book Review:

This illuminating text/reference presents a review of the key aspects of the modeling and simulation (M&S) life cycle, and examines the challenges of M&S in different application areas. The authoritative work offers valuable perspectives on the future of research in M&S, and its role in engineering complex systems. Topics and features: reviews the challenges of M&S for urban infrastructure, healthcare delivery, automated vehicle manufacturing, deep space missions, and acquisitions enterprise; outlines research issues relating to conceptual modeling, covering the development of explicit and unambiguous models, communication and decision-making, and architecture and services; considers key computational challenges in the execution of simulation models, in order to best exploit emerging computing platforms and technologies; examines efforts to understand and manage uncertainty inherent in M&S processes, and how these can be unified under a consistent theoretical and philosophical foundation; discusses the reuse of models and simulations to accelerate the simulation model development process. This thought-provoking volume offers important insights for all researchers involved in modeling and simulation across the full spectrum of disciplines and applications, defining a common research agenda to support the entire M&S research community.

Parallel Architecture Algorithm and Programming

Parallel Architecture  Algorithm and Programming
Author: Guoliang Chen,Hong Shen,Mingrui Chen
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 629
Release: 2017-10-05
ISBN 10: 9811064423
ISBN 13: 9789811064425
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Parallel Architecture Algorithm and Programming Book Review:

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Parallel Architecture, Algorithm and Programming, PAAP 2017, held in Haikou, China, in June 2017. The 50 revised full papers and 7 revised short papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 192 submissions. The papers deal with research results and development activities in all aspects of parallel architectures, algorithms and programming techniques.

Application of Intelligent Systems in Multi modal Information Analytics

Application of Intelligent Systems in Multi modal Information Analytics
Author: Vijayan Sugumaran
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2021
ISBN 10: 3030748111
ISBN 13: 9783030748111
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Application of Intelligent Systems in Multi modal Information Analytics Book Review:

Handbook of Integration of Cloud Computing Cyber Physical Systems and Internet of Things

Handbook of Integration of Cloud Computing  Cyber Physical Systems and Internet of Things
Author: Rajiv Ranjan
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2021
ISBN 10: 3030437957
ISBN 13: 9783030437954
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Integration of Cloud Computing Cyber Physical Systems and Internet of Things Book Review:

Large Scale and Big Data

Large Scale and Big Data
Author: Sherif Sakr,Mohamed Gaber
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 636
Release: 2014-06-25
ISBN 10: 1466581506
ISBN 13: 9781466581500
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Large Scale and Big Data Book Review:

Large Scale and Big Data: Processing and Management provides readers with a central source of reference on the data management techniques currently available for large-scale data processing. Presenting chapters written by leading researchers, academics, and practitioners, it addresses the fundamental challenges associated with Big Data processing tools and techniques across a range of computing environments. The book begins by discussing the basic concepts and tools of large-scale Big Data processing and cloud computing. It also provides an overview of different programming models and cloud-based deployment models. The book’s second section examines the usage of advanced Big Data processing techniques in different domains, including semantic web, graph processing, and stream processing. The third section discusses advanced topics of Big Data processing such as consistency management, privacy, and security. Supplying a comprehensive summary from both the research and applied perspectives, the book covers recent research discoveries and applications, making it an ideal reference for a wide range of audiences, including researchers and academics working on databases, data mining, and web scale data processing. After reading this book, you will gain a fundamental understanding of how to use Big Data-processing tools and techniques effectively across application domains. Coverage includes cloud data management architectures, big data analytics visualization, data management, analytics for vast amounts of unstructured data, clustering, classification, link analysis of big data, scalable data mining, and machine learning techniques.

Advances in Mobile Cloud Computing and Big Data in the 5G Era

Advances in Mobile Cloud Computing and Big Data in the 5G Era
Author: Constandinos X. Mavromoustakis,George Mastorakis,Ciprian Dobre
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 382
Release: 2016-11-19
ISBN 10: 3319451456
ISBN 13: 9783319451459
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Mobile Cloud Computing and Big Data in the 5G Era Book Review:

This book reports on the latest advances on the theories, practices, standards and strategies that are related to the modern technology paradigms, the Mobile Cloud computing (MCC) and Big Data, as the pillars and their association with the emerging 5G mobile networks. The book includes 15 rigorously refereed chapters written by leading international researchers, providing the readers with technical and scientific information about various aspects of Big Data and Mobile Cloud Computing, from basic concepts to advanced findings, reporting the state-of-the-art on Big Data management. It demonstrates and discusses methods and practices to improve multi-source Big Data manipulation techniques, as well as the integration of resources availability through the 3As (Anywhere, Anything, Anytime) paradigm, using the 5G access technologies.

Business Information Systems

Business Information Systems
Author: Witold Abramowicz,Rafael Corchuelo
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 541
Release: 2019-07-13
ISBN 10: 3030204855
ISBN 13: 9783030204853
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Business Information Systems Book Review:

The two-volume set LNBIP 353 and 354 constitutes the proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Business Information Systems, BIS 2019, held in Seville, Spain, in June 2019. The theme of the BIS 2019 was "Data Science for Business Information Systems", inspiring researchers to share theoretical and practical knowledge of the different aspects related to Data Science in enterprises. The 67 papers presented in these proceedings were carefully reviewed and selected from 223 submissions. The contributions were organized in topical sections as follows: Part I: Big Data and Data Science; Artificial Intelligence; ICT Project Management; and Smart Infrastructure. Part II: Social Media and Web-based Systems; and Applications, Evaluations and Experiences.

Advances in the Leading Paradigms of Urbanism and their Amalgamation

Advances in the Leading Paradigms of Urbanism and their Amalgamation
Author: Simon Elias Bibri
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 290
Release: 2020-06-20
ISBN 10: 3030417468
ISBN 13: 9783030417468
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in the Leading Paradigms of Urbanism and their Amalgamation Book Review:

This book explores the recent advances in the leading paradigms of urbanism, namely compact cities, eco-cities, and data–driven smart cities, and the evolving approach to their amalgamation under the umbrella term of smart sustainable cities. It addresses these advances by investigating how and to what extent the strategies of compact cities and eco-cities and their merger have been enhanced and strengthened through new planning and development practices, and are being supported and leveraged by the applied solutions pertaining to data-driven smart cities. The ultimate goal is to advance sustainability and harness its synergistic effects on multiple scales. This entails developing and implementing more effective approaches to the balanced integration of the three dimensions of sustainability, as well as to producing combined effects of the strategies and solutions of the prevailing approaches to urbanism that are greater than the sum of their separate effects in terms of the tripartite value of sustainability. Sustainable urban development is today seen as one of the keys towards unlocking the quest for a sustainable world. And the big data revolution is set to erupt in cities throughout the world, heralding an era where instrumentation, datafication, and computation are increasingly pervading the very fabric of cities and the spaces we live in thanks to the IoT. Big data and the IoT technologies are seen as powerful forces that have tremendous potential for advancing urban sustainability. Indeed, they are instigating a massive change in the way sustainable cities can tackle the kind of special conundrums, wicked problems, and significant challenges they inherently embody as complex systems. They offer a multitudinous array of innovative solutions and sophisticated approaches informed by groundbreaking research and data–driven science. As such, they are becoming essential to the functioning of sustainable cities. Besides, yet knowing to what extent we are making progress towards sustainable cities is problematic, adding to the fragmented, conflicting picture that arises of change on the ground in the face of the escalating rate and scale of urbanization and in the light of emerging ICT and its novel applications. In a nutshell, new circumstances require new responses. This timely and multifaceted book is intended for a wide readership. As such, it will appeal to researchers, academics, urban scientists, urbanists, planners, designers, policy-makers, and futurists, as well as all readers interested in sustainable cities and their ongoing and future data-driven transformation.

Big Data Concepts Theories and Applications

Big Data Concepts  Theories  and Applications
Author: Shui Yu,Song Guo
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 437
Release: 2016-03-03
ISBN 10: 3319277634
ISBN 13: 9783319277639
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Big Data Concepts Theories and Applications Book Review:

This book covers three major parts of Big Data: concepts, theories and applications. Written by world-renowned leaders in Big Data, this book explores the problems, possible solutions and directions for Big Data in research and practice. It also focuses on high level concepts such as definitions of Big Data from different angles; surveys in research and applications; and existing tools, mechanisms, and systems in practice. Each chapter is independent from the other chapters, allowing users to read any chapter directly. After examining the practical side of Big Data, this book presents theoretical perspectives. The theoretical research ranges from Big Data representation, modeling and topology to distribution and dimension reducing. Chapters also investigate the many disciplines that involve Big Data, such as statistics, data mining, machine learning, networking, algorithms, security and differential geometry. The last section of this book introduces Big Data applications from different communities, such as business, engineering and science. Big Data Concepts, Theories and Applications is designed as a reference for researchers and advanced level students in computer science, electrical engineering and mathematics. Practitioners who focus on information systems, big data, data mining, business analysis and other related fields will also find this material valuable.

Web Based Services Concepts Methodologies Tools and Applications

Web Based Services  Concepts  Methodologies  Tools  and Applications
Author: Management Association, Information Resources
Publsiher: IGI Global
Total Pages: 2418
Release: 2015-11-09
ISBN 10: 146669467X
ISBN 13: 9781466694675
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Web Based Services Concepts Methodologies Tools and Applications Book Review:

The recent explosion of digital media, online networking, and e-commerce has generated great new opportunities for those Internet-savvy individuals who see potential in new technologies and can turn those possibilities into reality. It is vital for such forward-thinking innovators to stay abreast of all the latest technologies. Web-Based Services: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications provides readers with comprehensive coverage of some of the latest tools and technologies in the digital industry. The chapters in this multi-volume book describe a diverse range of applications and methodologies made possible in a world connected by the global network, providing researchers, computer scientists, web developers, and digital experts with the latest knowledge and developments in Internet technologies.

Cloud Computing with e Science Applications

Cloud Computing with e Science Applications
Author: Olivier Terzo,Lorenzo Mossucca
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 320
Release: 2017-12-19
ISBN 10: 1466591161
ISBN 13: 9781466591165
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cloud Computing with e Science Applications Book Review:

The amount of data in everyday life has been exploding. This data increase has been especially significant in scientific fields, where substantial amounts of data must be captured, communicated, aggregated, stored, and analyzed. Cloud Computing with e-Science Applications explains how cloud computing can improve data management in data-heavy fields such as bioinformatics, earth science, and computer science. The book begins with an overview of cloud models supplied by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and then: Discusses the challenges imposed by big data on scientific data infrastructures, including security and trust issues Covers vulnerabilities such as data theft or loss, privacy concerns, infected applications, threats in virtualization, and cross-virtual machine attack Describes the implementation of workflows in clouds, proposing an architecture composed of two layers—platform and application Details infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS), platform-as-a-service (PaaS), and software-as-a-service (SaaS) solutions based on public, private, and hybrid cloud computing models Demonstrates how cloud computing aids in resource control, vertical and horizontal scalability, interoperability, and adaptive scheduling Featuring significant contributions from research centers, universities, and industries worldwide, Cloud Computing with e-Science Applications presents innovative cloud migration methodologies applicable to a variety of fields where large data sets are produced. The book provides the scientific community with an essential reference for moving applications to the cloud.

Intelligent Agents in Data intensive Computing

Intelligent Agents in Data intensive Computing
Author: Joanna Kołodziej,Luís Correia,José Manuel Molina
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 216
Release: 2015-09-21
ISBN 10: 331923742X
ISBN 13: 9783319237428
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Intelligent Agents in Data intensive Computing Book Review:

This book presents new approaches that advance research in all aspects of agent-based models, technologies, simulations and implementations for data intensive applications. The nine chapters contain a review of recent cross-disciplinary approaches in cloud environments and multi-agent systems, and important formulations of data intensive problems in distributed computational environments together with the presentation of new agent-based tools to handle those problems and Big Data in general. This volume can serve as a reference for students, researchers and industry practitioners working in or interested in joining interdisciplinary work in the areas of data intensive computing and Big Data systems using emergent large-scale distributed computing paradigms. It will also allow newcomers to grasp key concepts and potential solutions on advanced topics of theory, models, technologies, system architectures and implementation of applications in Multi-Agent systems and data intensive computing.