Synapse Development and Maturation

Synapse Development and Maturation
Author: Pasko Rakic,John Rubenstein,Bin Chen,Kenneth Y. Kwan
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 558
Release: 2020-05-29
ISBN 10: 0128236736
ISBN 13: 9780128236734
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Synapse Development and Maturation Book Review:

Synapse Development and Maturation, the latest release in the Comprehensive Developmental Neuroscience series, presents the latest information on the genetic, molecular and cellular mechanisms of neural development. The book provides a much-needed update that underscores the latest research in this rapidly evolving field, with new section editors discussing the technological advances that are enabling the pursuit of new research on brain development. This volume focuses on the synaptogenesis and developmental sequences in the maturation of intrinsic and synapse-driven patterns. Features leading experts in various subfields as section editors and article authors Presents articles that have been peer reviewed to ensure accuracy, thoroughness and scholarship Includes coverage of mechanisms which regulate synapse formation and maintenance during development Covers neural activity, from cell-intrinsic maturation, to early correlated patterns of activity

From Neurons to Neighborhoods

From Neurons to Neighborhoods
Author: Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Institute of Medicine,Board on Children, Youth, and Families,Committee on Integrating the Science of Early Childhood Development
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 612
Release: 2000-11-13
ISBN 10: 0309069882
ISBN 13: 9780309069885
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

From Neurons to Neighborhoods Book Review:

How we raise young children is one of today's most highly personalized and sharply politicized issues, in part because each of us can claim some level of "expertise." The debate has intensified as discoveries about our development-in the womb and in the first months and years-have reached the popular media. How can we use our burgeoning knowledge to assure the well-being of all young children, for their own sake as well as for the sake of our nation? Drawing from new findings, this book presents important conclusions about nature-versus-nurture, the impact of being born into a working family, the effect of politics on programs for children, the costs and benefits of intervention, and other issues. The committee issues a series of challenges to decision makers regarding the quality of child care, issues of racial and ethnic diversity, the integration of children's cognitive and emotional development, and more. Authoritative yet accessible, From Neurons to Neighborhoods presents the evidence about "brain wiring" and how kids learn to speak, think, and regulate their behavior. It examines the effect of the climate-family, child care, community-within which the child grows.

Discovering the Brain

Discovering the Brain
Author: National Academy of Sciences,Institute of Medicine,Sandra Ackerman
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 194
Release: 1992-01-01
ISBN 10: 0309045290
ISBN 13: 9780309045292
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Discovering the Brain Book Review:

The brain ... There is no other part of the human anatomy that is so intriguing. How does it develop and function and why does it sometimes, tragically, degenerate? The answers are complex. In Discovering the Brain, science writer Sandra Ackerman cuts through the complexity to bring this vital topic to the public. The 1990s were declared the "Decade of the Brain" by former President Bush, and the neuroscience community responded with a host of new investigations and conferences. Discovering the Brain is based on the Institute of Medicine conference, Decade of the Brain: Frontiers in Neuroscience and Brain Research. Discovering the Brain is a "field guide" to the brain--an easy-to-read discussion of the brain's physical structure and where functions such as language and music appreciation lie. Ackerman examines How electrical and chemical signals are conveyed in the brain. The mechanisms by which we see, hear, think, and pay attention--and how a "gut feeling" actually originates in the brain. Learning and memory retention, including parallels to computer memory and what they might tell us about our own mental capacity. Development of the brain throughout the life span, with a look at the aging brain. Ackerman provides an enlightening chapter on the connection between the brain's physical condition and various mental disorders and notes what progress can realistically be made toward the prevention and treatment of stroke and other ailments. Finally, she explores the potential for major advances during the "Decade of the Brain," with a look at medical imaging techniques--what various technologies can and cannot tell us--and how the public and private sectors can contribute to continued advances in neuroscience. This highly readable volume will provide the public and policymakers--and many scientists as well--with a helpful guide to understanding the many discoveries that are sure to be announced throughout the "Decade of the Brain."

Cellular Migration and Formation of Neuronal Connections

Cellular Migration and Formation of Neuronal Connections
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 1080
Release: 2013-05-06
ISBN 10: 0123973473
ISBN 13: 9780123973474
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cellular Migration and Formation of Neuronal Connections Book Review:

The genetic, molecular, and cellular mechanisms of neural development are essential for understanding evolution and disorders of neural systems. Recent advances in genetic, molecular, and cell biological methods have generated a massive increase in new information, but there is a paucity of comprehensive and up-to-date syntheses, references, and historical perspectives on this important subject. The Comprehensive Developmental Neuroscience series is designed to fill this gap, offering the most thorough coverage of this field on the market today and addressing all aspects of how the nervous system and its components develop. Particular attention is paid to the effects of abnormal development and on new psychiatric/neurological treatments being developed based on our increased understanding of developmental mechanisms. Each volume in the series consists of review style articles that average 15-20pp and feature numerous illustrations and full references. Volume 2 offers 56 high level articles devoted mainly to Formation of Axons and Dendrites, Migration, Synaptogenesis, Developmental Sequences in the Maturation of Intrinsic and Synapse Driven Patterns. Series offers 144 articles for 2904 full color pages addressing ways in which the nervous system and its components develop Features leading experts in various subfields as Section Editors and article Authors All articles peer reviewed by Section Editors to ensure accuracy, thoroughness, and scholarship Volume 2 sections include coverage of mechanisms which regulate: the formation of axons and dendrites, cell migration, synapse formation and maintenance during development, and neural activity, from cell-intrinsic maturation to early correlated patterns of activity.

Study of a Kinesin Adaptor in Axonal Transport and Synapse Formation

Study of a Kinesin Adaptor in Axonal Transport and Synapse Formation
Author: Tahere Kalantary Dehaghi
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2019
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:1136995245
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Study of a Kinesin Adaptor in Axonal Transport and Synapse Formation Book Review:

To form a synaptic terminal, various components have to be targeted to specific sites in the axon. Presynaptic proteins are synthesized in the cell soma, packaged in vesicular cargos and transported by the motor complexes traveling along microtubules. During synapse development and maturation, the intracellular transport of proteins is highly regulated by mechanisms governing the interactions and movement of motor proteins. Additional specificity and regulation is provided by interaction of motor proteins with their cargos through adaptor and scaffolding proteins. Previous studies have show...

Molecular Mechanisms of Neural Development and Insights into Disease

Molecular Mechanisms of Neural Development and Insights into Disease
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 546
Release: 2021-03-09
ISBN 10: 0128152826
ISBN 13: 9780128152829
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Molecular Mechanisms of Neural Development and Insights into Disease Book Review:

Neural Development and Disease, Volume 142 in the Current Topics in Developmental Biology series highlights new advances in the field, with this new volume presenting interesting chapters by one or more members of an international board of authors. Sections in this new release cover The role of primary cilia in neural development and disease, Mechanisms of axon guidance receptor regulation and signaling, Synaptic recognition molecules in development and disease, The regulation of cortical neurogenesis, Axon guidance in the developing spinal cord, The role of astrocytes in synapse formation and maturation, Development of motor circuits, Molecular mechanisms that mediate dendrite morphogenesis, and more. Provides the authority and expertise of leading contributors from an international board of authors Presents the latest release in the Current Topics in Developmental Biology series

The Synapse

The Synapse
Author: Virginia M. Pickel,Menahem Segal
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 512
Release: 2013-11-16
ISBN 10: 0124186823
ISBN 13: 9780124186828
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Synapse Book Review:

The Synapse summarizes recent advances in cellular and molecular mechanisms of synaptic transmission and provides new insights into neuronal plasticity and the cellular basis of neurological diseases. Part 1 provides an in-depth look at structural differences and distribution of various pre- and post-synaptic proteins found at glutamatergic synapses. Part 2 is dedicated to dendritic spines and their associated perisynaptic glia, which together constitute the tripartite synapse. The spines are portrayed as major sites for calcium sequestration and local protein synthesis. Part 3 highlights the important regional and cellular differences between glutamatergic transmission and that of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and acetylcholine that are commonly found in axon terminals without synaptic membrane specializations. Part 4 provides an overview of the synapse from the time of formation to degeneration under the powerful influence of aging or hormonal decline that leads to severe deficits in cognitive function. Each chapter is illustrated with drawings and images derived from calcium imaging, electron microscopic immunolabeling, or electrophysiology. This book is a valuable reference for neuroscientists and clinical neurologists in both research and clinical settings. A comprehensive reference focused on the structure and function of the synapse Covers the links between the synapse and neural plasticity and the cellular basis of neurologic disease Detailed coverage of dendritic spines and associated perisynaptic glia—the tripartite synapse Includes in-depth coverage of synapse degeneration due to aging or hormonal decline related to severe cognitive impairment

Development of the Nervous System

Development of the Nervous System
Author: Dan H. Sanes,Thomas A. Reh,William A. Harris
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 392
Release: 2005-11-02
ISBN 10: 9780080472492
ISBN 13: 0080472494
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Development of the Nervous System Book Review:

Development of the Nervous System, Second Edition has been thoroughly revised and updated since the publication of the First Edition. It presents a broad outline of neural development principles as exemplified by key experiments and observations from past and recent times. The text is organized along a development pathway from the induction of the neural primordium to the emergence of behavior. It covers all the major topics including the patterning and growth of the nervous system, neuronal determination, axonal navigation and targeting, synapse formation and plasticity, and neuronal survival and death. This new text reflects the complete modernization of the field achieved through the use of model organisms and the intensive application of molecular and genetic approaches. The original, artist-rendered drawings from the First Edition have all been redone and colorized to so that the entire text is in full color. This new edition is an excellent textbook for undergraduate and graduate level students in courses such as Neuroscience, Medicine, Psychology, Biochemistry, Pharmacology, and Developmental Biology. Updates information including all the new developments made in the field since the first edition Now in full color throughout, with the original, artist-rendered drawings from the first edition completely redone, revised, colorized, and updated

Biology of the NMDA Receptor

Biology of the NMDA Receptor
Author: Antonius M. VanDongen
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 350
Release: 2008-10-29
ISBN 10: 9781420044157
ISBN 13: 142004415X
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biology of the NMDA Receptor Book Review:

The NMDA receptor plays a critical role in the development of the central nervous system and in adult neuroplasticity, learning, and memory. Therefore, it is not surprising that this receptor has been widely studied. However, despite the importance of rhythms for the sustenance of life, this aspect of NMDAR function remains poorly studied. Written by one of the world’s leading authorities on NMDA receptors, Biology of the NMDA Receptor brings together virtually all the players in this important field.

Regulation of Mammalian Neuronal Circuit Development by CPG 15

Regulation of Mammalian Neuronal Circuit Development by CPG 15
Author: Jennifer H. Leslie
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 128
Release: 2012
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:783801715
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Regulation of Mammalian Neuronal Circuit Development by CPG 15 Book Review:

The orderly assembly of neuronal circuits is specified by developmental programs of gene expression, however, the final stage in circuit development, maturation and refinement of specific synaptic connections, is strongly influenced by neuronal activity. It is thus not surprising that the products of many activity-regulated genes have been implicated in synapse development and plasticity. The extracellular signaling protein CPG15 is one such activity-regulated gene product that promotes the maturation and growth of synapses, dendrites, and axonal arbors during development. Expression of cpg15 mRNA is spatiotemporally correlated with periods of synapse maturation and refinement, posing it to play a central role in the wiring of developing brain circuits. Here we utilize a mouse mutant, which is null for the cpg15 gene (cpg15 KO), to elucidate the mechanism of CPG15 function in the developing brain. Analysis of the cpg15 KO mouse suggests that CPG15 signaling leads to the selection and stabilization of synapses in the developing brain, as well as in the adult. Loss of CPG 15 results in reduced synapse numbers and synapse maturation with a corresponding reduction in the complexity and growth of neuronal arbors. This is most pronounced during early periods of promiscuous synapse formation and arbor growth that provide a physical substrate upon which subsequent experience-dependent processes act to sculpt mature patterns of neuronal connectivity. Consequently, cpg]5 KO mice do not appear to undergo the same extensive refinement as their wild type (WT) counterparts. cpg15 KO mice are also slow learners, requiring repeated training in learning tasks to perform at WT levels. These results led us to propose that the selection and stabilization of synapses by CPG15 mediates optimal wiring of developing neuronal circuits important for brain function throughout life. To test this possibility we investigated the function of CPG15 in the developing thalamocortical circuit in the visual system. The thalamus is the major hub for sensory information flow (minus olfaction) en route from the periphery to the cortex. As CPG15 is expressed in both input and target structures in this circuit we compared cortical synapse development in the global cpg15 KO mouse which lacks CPG15 expression in both the cortex and thalamus to a cortex-specific cpg15 KO mouse which retains thalamic expression of CPG15. Previous work has shown the importance of cortically-derived signaling factors in the maturation of thalamocortical circuits, however, we were surprised to find that CPG15 signaling by the thalamus has a stronger contribution to cortical synapse development than cortical CPG 15. This work reveals a novel function for thalamic signaling in the maturation of cortical circuits.

Methods in Neurotransmitter and Neuropeptide Research

Methods in Neurotransmitter and Neuropeptide Research
Author: S.H. Parvez,M. Naoi,T. Nagatsu
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 436
Release: 2013-10-22
ISBN 10: 1483290220
ISBN 13: 9781483290225
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Methods in Neurotransmitter and Neuropeptide Research Book Review:

This two-part book provides the most advanced biochemical and histochemical analytical methods on neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and neuropeptides described by international specialists. The biochemical methods include liquid chromatography/electrochemistry, liquid chromatography/fluorescence and chemiluminescence detection, gas chromatography or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry, and immunoassays. Morphological and physiological methods are also described, including immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, in vivo microdialysis, electrophysiological analysis, microwave irradiation, electrophysiological analysis, micro-anatomical dissection, peptide sequence analysis, quantitative autoradiographic analysis, and isolated CNS preparations. The neurotransmitters and neuropeptides include catecholamines, indoleamines, histamine, polyamines, and various neuropeptides, and their related enzymes. The book is the most comprehensive, advanced and versatile volume on the biochemical, morphological and physiological analysis of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides.

Neurochemical Mechanisms in Disease

Neurochemical Mechanisms in Disease
Author: John P. Blass
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 844
Release: 2010-12-01
ISBN 10: 1441971041
ISBN 13: 9781441971043
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Neurochemical Mechanisms in Disease Book Review:

This newest volume of Advances in Neurobiology deals with the Neurochemistry of disease, with chapters covering both human diseases and animal “model” diseases.

Brain Plasticity and Behavior

Brain Plasticity and Behavior
Author: Bryan Kolb
Publsiher: Psychology Press
Total Pages: 210
Release: 2013-06-17
ISBN 10: 1134784147
ISBN 13: 9781134784141
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Brain Plasticity and Behavior Book Review:

There are few books devoted to the topic of brain plasticity and behavior. Most previous works that cover topics related to brain plasticity do not include extensive discussions of behavior. The first to try to address the relationship between recovery from brain damage and changes in the brain that might support the recovery, this volume includes studies of humans as well as laboratory species, particularly rats. The subject matter identifies a consistent correlation between specific changes in the brain and behavioral recovery, as well as various factors such as sex and experience that influence this correlation in consistent ways. Evolving from a series of lectures given as the McEachran Lectures at the University of Alberta, this volume originally began as a summary of the lectures, but has expanded to include more background literature, allowing the reader to see the author's biases, assumptions, and hunches in a broader perspective. In writing this volume, the author had two goals in mind: * to initiate senior undergraduates or graduate psychology, biology, neuroscience or other interested students to the issues and questions regarding the nature of brain plasticity, and * to provide a monograph in the form of an extended summary of the work the author and his colleagues have done on brain plasticity and recovery of function.

The Fragile X Syndrome Where Do We Go

The Fragile X Syndrome     Where Do We Go
Author: Regina Dahlhaus,Christian Gonzalez-Billault
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2021-12-22
ISBN 10: 288971845X
ISBN 13: 9782889718450
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Fragile X Syndrome Where Do We Go Book Review:

Synaptic Function

Synaptic Function
Author: Synaptic Function,Neurosciences Institute (New York, N.Y.)
Publsiher: Wiley-Interscience
Total Pages: 789
Release: 1987
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: UOM:39015012457720
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Synaptic Function Book Review:

This book consists of five sections. The first section details methods for analyzing both presynaptic and postsynaptic function and emphasizes the molecular aspects of synapses. It describes ongoing studies of neurotransmitter release, voltage- sensitive ion channels, and electronic transmission at gap junctions. The second section focuses on the growing menagerie of neurotransmitters: their catagorization into chemical families, their relation to ion channels, their modulation by second messenger systems and their role in pharmacologic action. The third section considers the important relationship of transmitter diversity and synaptic types to the behavior of actual cellular networks. All of the studies described in these sections point to the necessity of considering interactions between anatomy, chemistry, physiology and pharmacology if synaptic function is to be understood at any one of these levels of analysis.

Developmental Neurobiology

Developmental Neurobiology
Author: Greg Lemke
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 771
Release: 2010-05-22
ISBN 10: 9780123751676
ISBN 13: 0123751675
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Developmental Neurobiology Book Review:

Developmental Neuroscience is one of the six core disciplines in Neuroscience, and yet no single volume, non-textbook reference exists on the market that provides researchers with more in-depth, high-level information on developmental neurobiology. Currently, anyone interested in the field at a higher level must sift through review articles published frequently and the more specific handbooks that focus on aspects of development rather than the field as a whole. This reference is the first of its kind to fill this need. It pulls together the relevant articles on the topic from the 10-volume Encyclopedia of Neuroscience (Academic Press, 2008) and serves as an affordable and immediate resource for scientists, postdocs, graduate students with an interest beyond the basic textbook materials on the subject. The first and only comprehensive, single-volume reference for developmental neuroscience that goes beyond the basic textbook information The 93 chapters cover topics ranging from cell fate determination, path finding, synapse generation, neural stem cells, to neurodegeneration and regeneration, carefully selected from the Encyclopedia of Neuroscience by one of the great developmental neuroscientists, Greg Lemke The best researchers in the field provide their conclusions in the context of the latest experimental results

Neurobehavioral Plasticity

Neurobehavioral Plasticity
Author: Norman E. Spear,Linda P. Spear,Michael L. Woodruff
Publsiher: Psychology Press
Total Pages: 490
Release: 2013-06-17
ISBN 10: 1134780850
ISBN 13: 9781134780853
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Neurobehavioral Plasticity Book Review:

This book describes a unique combination of research programs based on a striking variety of hypotheses and procedures directed toward understanding the sources and consequences of neurobehavioral plasticity. This remarkable attribute of the nervous system -- to be pliable and capable of being shaped or formed by natural or artificial sources toward adaptation or maladaptation -- is considered in terms of the neurochemical forces and neuroanatomical structure that has been found to be pivotal for this function. The impetus for this volume was a symposium held to honor Robert L. Isaacson for his scientific and pedagogical achievements as well as his contributions to behavioral neuroscience. Corresponding to his three major research interests, the book is divided into three sections as follows: * the first explores the relationship between the limbic system and behavior, with an emphasis on learning and memory; * the second considers -- through a wide range of approaches -- issues of plasticity in behavior and brain; and * the third deals with neural and chemical determinants of normal and abnormal behavior. This volume is not only a fitting tribute to Isaacson, but also an unusual collection of new evidence, procedures, and theories destined to have significant influence on behavioral neuroscience.

The Dynamic Synapse

The Dynamic Synapse
Author: Josef T. Kittler,Stephen J. Moss
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 336
Release: 2006-03-27
ISBN 10: 0203486285
ISBN 13: 9780203486283
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Dynamic Synapse Book Review:

Exploring the diverse tools and technologies used to study synaptic processes, The Dynamic Synapse: Molecular Methods in Ionotropic Receptor Biology delineates techniques, methods, and conceptual advances for studying neurotransmitter receptors and other synaptic proteins. It describes a broad range of molecular, biochemical, imaging, and electrophysiological approaches for studying the biology of synapses. Specific topics include the use of proteomics to study synaptic protein complexes, the development of phosphorylation state specific antibodies, post-genomic tools applied to the study of synapses and RNA interference in neurons. In addition, several chapters focus on methods for gene and protein delivery into neuronal tissue. The use of biochemical, electrophysiological and optical tagging techniques to study the movement and membrane trafficking of neurotransmitter receptors in the membrane of live nerve cells are also discussed. To complement these approaches, the application of approaches for achieving long-term alterations in the genetic complement of neurons in vivo using viral vectors or homologous recombination of ES cells are also described.

Intercellular Communication in the Nervous System

Intercellular Communication in the Nervous System
Author: Robert Malenka
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 776
Release: 2010-05-22
ISBN 10: 0123785723
ISBN 13: 9780123785725
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Intercellular Communication in the Nervous System Book Review:

Intercellular communication is part of a complex system of communication that governs basic cellular activities and coordinates cell actions. The ability of cells to perceive and correctly respond to their environment is the basis of growth and development, tissue repair, and immunity as well as normal tissue homeostasis. Errors in cellular information processing are responsible for diseases such as cancer, autoimmunity, diabetes, and neurological and psychiatric disorders. There is substantial drug development concentrating on this and intercellular communication is the basis of much of neuropharmacology. By understanding cell signaling, diseases may be treated effectively and, theoretically, artificial tissues may be yielded. Neurotransmitters/receptors, synaptic structure and organization, gap junctions, neurotrophic factors and neuropeptides are all explored in this volume, as are the ways in which signaling controls neuroendocrinology, neuroimmunology and neuropharmacology. Intercellular Communication in the Nervous System provides a valuable desk reference for all scientists who consider signaling. * Chapters offer impressive scope with topics addressing neurotransmitters/receptors, synaptic structure and organization, neuropeptides, gap junctions, neuropharmacology and more * Richly illustrated in full color with over 200 figures * Contributors represent the most outstanding scholarship in the field, with each chapter providing fully vetted and reliable expert knowledge

Cortical Development

Cortical Development
Author: Christine F. Hohmann
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 181
Release: 2012-12-06
ISBN 10: 3540460063
ISBN 13: 9783540460060
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cortical Development Book Review:

The cerebral neo cortex, unique to mammals, is regarded as the prerequisite for higher cognitive function and is the structure most closely associated with the idea of the "mind" . Expansion of mental capa city between mammals is most typically associated with an evolutionary increase in neocortical volume that culminates in the intricately folded configuration of sulci and gyri so charac teristic of the primate cerebral cortex. Yet, the basic unit structure and funda mental connectivity of cortex appears to have been preserved from the smooth cortex of the mouse or rat to the highly convoluted cortical mantle of the human that, if stretched out as a sheet, would be large enough to wrap the entire human brain multiple times. The basic similarity in structure and func tion has made it possible to conduct studies in the relatively simple cortices of rat or mouse and have the results pertain to the understanding of the primate, including human, cortex. The neo cortex is an intriguing structure for the study of cell differentiation. Its dozens of neuronal cell types and small handful of different glial types have their origin in a pseudostratified germinal epithelium lining the ventricular surface of the forebrain. In its mature form, neocortex is a six-Iayered struc ture; five of its layers contain multiple different but characteristic neuronal types with the sixth occupied by neuronal processes. Various glial cells are dis persed throughout all six layers.