Spinal Interneurons

Spinal Interneurons
Author: Lyandysha Zholudeva,Michael Lane
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 300
Release: 2021-06-15
ISBN 10: 9780128192603
ISBN 13: 0128192607
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Spinal Interneurons Book Review:

Spinal Interneurons: Plasticity after Spinal Cord Injury provides neuroscientists, clinicians and trainees a reference book exclusively concentrating on spinal interneurons and the techniques and experiments employed to identify and study these cells as part of normal, diseased and injured neural circuits. In addition, the book highlights the therapeutic potential of these cells by presenting relevant pre-clinical and clinical work that has been performed. The book's focus on the latest in therapeutic strategies for targeting spinal interneurons, considerations for the development and use of treatments, and how such treatments work make this a comprehensive source of information. Provides a comprehensive overview of the techniques used to identify, characterize and classify spinal interneurons and their role in neural circuits Presents an in-depth discussion of the therapeutic potential of spinal interneurons for SCI injury and/or disease Represents the first book to discuss spinal interneurons and translational research

Spinal Interneurons in Sensorimotor Integration

Spinal Interneurons in Sensorimotor Integration
Author: Ting Ting Liu
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 271
Release: 2009
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:757083246
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Spinal Interneurons in Sensorimotor Integration Book Review:

Even though spinal cord research has expanded enormously during the past decades, we still lack a precise understanding of how spinal interneuron networks perfectly integrate sensory feedback with motor control, and how these neuron circuits give rise to specific functions. The present study thus has three basic aims: (1) to investigate propriospinal interneurons connecting rostral and caudal lumbar spinal cord in the rat; (2) to investigate input properties of identified spinal interneurons interposed in different pathways; (3) to investigate cholinergic terminals in the ventral horn of adult rat and cat. There was no evidence to support the presence of vesicular glutamate transporters in motoneuron axon terminals of either species. In addition, there was no obvious relationship between motoneuron terminals and R2 subunit of the AMPA receptor (GluR2). However, a population of cholinergic terminals in lamina VII, which did not originate from motoneurons, was found to be immunoreactive for VGLUT2 and formed appositions with GluR2 subunits. These terminals were smaller than motoneuron terminals and, unlike them, formed no relationship with Renshaw cells. The evidence suggests that glutamate does not act as a cotransmitter with acetylcholine at central synapses of motoneurons in the adult cat and rat. However, glutamate is present in a population of cholinergic terminals which probably originate from interneurons where its action is via an AMPA receptor. In conclusion, the present studies add to the understanding of the organization of neuronal networks involved in sensorimotor integration. Propriospinal interneurons located within the lumbar segments have extensive intra-segmental projections to motor nuclei. First order interneurons interposed in reflex pathways and descending pathways receive a significantly different pattern of inputs. A similar proportion of monosynaptic excitatory input from primary afferents has been found in both excitatory and inhibitory interneurons and these two types of cells are subject to presynaptic inhibitory control of this input.

Pathology of Spinal Interneurons in Motor Neuron Disease

Pathology of Spinal Interneurons in Motor Neuron Disease
Author: Benjamin Stephens,University of London (GB)
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2001
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:78613568
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Pathology of Spinal Interneurons in Motor Neuron Disease Book Review:

Lumbar Spinal Interneuron Activity as it Relates to Rhythmic Motor Output in the Adult Spinal Air stepping Cat

Lumbar Spinal Interneuron Activity as it Relates to Rhythmic Motor Output in the Adult  Spinal  Air stepping Cat
Author: Chantal Marie McMahon
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 410
Release: 2014
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:900615325
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Lumbar Spinal Interneuron Activity as it Relates to Rhythmic Motor Output in the Adult Spinal Air stepping Cat Book Review:

Interneurons of the lumbar spinal cord inherently maintain and modulate stepping. In order to advance therapeutic interventions for spinal cord injury, it is necessary to clearly understand both the localized locomotor spinal circuitry as well as the activation patterns within the spinal cord. In this study, the structural organization of interneurons regulating antagonistic motor pools and the neural activation patterns driving behavior were investigated. In-vivo extracellularly recorded neurons of the intermediate zone and ventral horn of the lumbar spinal cord were concurrently measured with hindlimb EMGs in the adult, air-stepping, spinal cat. Our results demonstrate that spinal interneurons participate in one of two ensembles which are highly correlated to opposing muscle bursts during stepping. Furthermore, the interneurons' firing phases were independent of their rostrocaudal locations. These findings suggest that spinal interneurons act within networks tuned to opposing phases of stepping which are heterogeneously mixed throughout the lumbar enlargement. Spectral power of extracellularly recorded continuous multiunit signals was found to be greater in mid-lumbar segments L3-L5 during stepping, supportive of previous lesioning studies isolating lumbar rhythmic generating centers to these segments in the cat. There was also greater multiunit power during the flexion phase of stepping than the extension phase of stepping in all lumbar segments. Finally, the multiunit power showed no phase lag at coherent frequencies throughout the lumbar enlargement indicative of a longitudinal standing wave of neural activation. Together, these results support that the spinal multiunit activity behaves as a synchronously active distributed network of caudally decreasing rhythmogenic potential, with greater power during the flexion phase of stepping. Furthermore, the results are unique in that it verifies and extends previous findings from the isolated, neonatal spinal cord to the in-vivo, mature and behaving system.

Lineage Tracing of Ipsilateral Ventral Spinal Interneurons Delineates a Sensorimotor Connectivity Map Based on Developmental Origin and Spatial Distribution

Lineage Tracing of Ipsilateral Ventral Spinal Interneurons Delineates a Sensorimotor Connectivity Map Based on Developmental Origin and Spatial Distribution
Author: Stefania Di Costanzo
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 116
Release: 2021
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:1244546048
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Lineage Tracing of Ipsilateral Ventral Spinal Interneurons Delineates a Sensorimotor Connectivity Map Based on Developmental Origin and Spatial Distribution Book Review:

Movement is a fundamental behavior that is generated and patterned by premotor neural networks that reside in the ventral spinal cord of vertebrates. Despite ongoing investigations in multiple animal models, including humans, non-human primates, cats and rodents, identifying the functional neuron cell types that shape various motor tasks has proved difficult. One of the key issues in the field is the criteria by which neuronal cell types are characterized and defined. This dissertation describes my work tackling this problem using a comprehensive anatomical approach aimed at identifying neuronal subsets within major classes of ipsilateral premotor spinal interneurons. The first chapter provides a historical background of spinal motor system research developed from the beginning of the 20th century that summarizes our current knowledge of motor circuits in the spinal cord and the contribution that this dissertation makes to bridging the gaps that exist in our understanding of premotor interneuron cell types. The second chapter describes the anatomical approach I pursued, which is based on spatial distribution, connectivity and morphology to identify potential groups of functional premotor interneuron cell types. In the third chapter I discuss the relevance of these findings, by highlighting how the strategy used in this work can be applied to other spinal cord populations and used to lay the groundwork to build an anatomical reference for motor functional studies, including electrophysiology and behavioral assays. This work provides an important and necessary framework to understand the complicated logic governing the organization of motor networks in the vertebrate spinal cord.

The Role of Genetically Defined Lamina VII Spinal Interneurons in Generating the Locomotor Rhythm

The Role of Genetically Defined Lamina VII Spinal Interneurons in Generating the Locomotor Rhythm
Author: Jason Dyck
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2013
ISBN 10: 9780494892527
ISBN 13: 0494892528
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Role of Genetically Defined Lamina VII Spinal Interneurons in Generating the Locomotor Rhythm Book Review:

Deconstructing Spinal Interneurons One Cell Type at a Time

Deconstructing Spinal Interneurons  One Cell Type at a Time
Author: Mariano Ignacio Gabitto
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2016
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:1004802614
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Deconstructing Spinal Interneurons One Cell Type at a Time Book Review:

By using our Sparse Bayesian approach, we showed that V1 interneurons, a major inhibitory population that controls motor output, fractionate into diverse subsets on the basis of the expression of nineteen transcription factors. Transcriptionally defined subsets exhibit highly structured spatial distributions with mediolateral and dorsoventral positional biases. These distinctions in settling position are largely predictive of patterns of input from sensory and motor neurons, arguing that settling position is a determinant of inhibitory microcircuit organization. Finally, we extensively validated inferred cell types by direct experimental measurement and then, extend our Bayesian framework to full transcriptome technologies. Together, these findings provide insight into the diversity and organizational logic through which inhibitory microcircuits shape motor output.

Descending influences on responses of lumbar spinal cord interneurons to adequate skin stimulation in chronically prepared cats

Descending influences on responses of lumbar spinal cord interneurons to adequate skin stimulation in chronically prepared cats
Author: Nathaniel Gilbert Pitts
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 294
Release: 1975
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: UCAL:X32082
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Descending influences on responses of lumbar spinal cord interneurons to adequate skin stimulation in chronically prepared cats Book Review:

Transcriptional Code of Differentiation Wiring and Activity of Spinal Interneurons

Transcriptional Code of Differentiation  Wiring and Activity of Spinal Interneurons
Author: Yoav Hadas
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 192
Release: 2013
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:875091241
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Transcriptional Code of Differentiation Wiring and Activity of Spinal Interneurons Book Review:

The Neuroplastic and Therapeutic Potential of Interneurons in the Injured Spinal Cord

The Neuroplastic and Therapeutic Potential of Interneurons in the Injured Spinal Cord
Author: Lyandysha Viktorovna Zholudeva
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 188
Release: 2018
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:1083646855
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Neuroplastic and Therapeutic Potential of Interneurons in the Injured Spinal Cord Book Review:

There is a growing appreciation for spontaneous anatomical and functional changes, or neuroplasticity, after spinal cord injury. One key element of neuroplasticity recently identified are spinal interneurons. The work presented in this thesis identifies a specific population of spinal interneurons that contribute to respiratory plasticity -- the excitatory, ipsilaterally projecting population of V2a SpINs -- after high cervical spinal cord injury (Aim 1). Building upon these results, we transplanted neural progenitor cells enriched with stem-cell derived V2a interneurons and found that donor cells promoted anatomical and functional repair of the phrenic (respiratory) circuit. These studies serve as a basis for ongoing work focused on identifying other interneuronal phenotypes that may be beneficial for both motor and sensory repair after injury. Understanding the neuroplastic and therapeutic potential of spinal interneurons may help identify novel therapeutic targets for functional repair of the central nervous system.

The Specification of Spinal Interneuron Identity by Evx1

The Specification of Spinal Interneuron Identity by Evx1
Author: Laura Moran Rivard
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 230
Release: 2001
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: UCSD:31822018090167
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Specification of Spinal Interneuron Identity by Evx1 Book Review:

The Interneuron

The Interneuron
Author: Mary Agnes Burniston Brazier
Publsiher: Univ of California Press
Total Pages: 552
Release: 1969
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: 9182736450XXX
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Interneuron Book Review:

Evidence for Programmed Cell Death in the Spinal Interneurons of the Chick Embryo

Evidence for Programmed Cell Death in the Spinal Interneurons of the Chick Embryo
Author: Laura Willard Sherrill,Guilford College
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 78
Release: 2007
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:870653934
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Evidence for Programmed Cell Death in the Spinal Interneurons of the Chick Embryo Book Review:

Motor Neurobiology of the Spinal Cord

Motor Neurobiology of the Spinal Cord
Author: Timothy C. Cope
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 360
Release: 2001-06-26
ISBN 10: 1420042645
ISBN 13: 9781420042641
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Motor Neurobiology of the Spinal Cord Book Review:

Traumatic injuries of the spinal cord continue to be the most common cause of permanent paralysis in young adults in the United States. New information has emerged on the response of spinal neurons to injury of either the spinal cord or peripheral nerves demonstrating that dendrites of injured motoneurons take on characteristics of axons. These and other new developments have helped to promote an exciting new era in the study of spinal cord neurobiology. Motor Neurobiology of the Spinal Cord provides a description of the recent conceptual and technical advances in the field. It provides a description of the new experimental tools available for investigating the neuronal properties that allow populations of spinal cord neurons to control muscles responsible for limb movements and posture. It covers topics ranging from genetics to kinematics and examines cells, tissues, or whole animals in species ranging from fish to humans that are normal, injured, or diseased. By integrating data derived from many new approaches, you'll learn about how spinal cord circuits operate under a variety conditions and about new and exciting inroads being made in motor neurobiology of the spinal cord. Motor Neurobiology of the Spinal Cord elucidates concepts and principles relevant to function and structure throughout the nervous system and presents information about changes induced by injury and disease.

Movement Control

Movement Control
Author: Paul Cordo,Stevan Harnad
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 276
Release: 1994-05-27
ISBN 10: 9780521456074
ISBN 13: 052145607X
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Movement Control Book Review:

This volume addresses issues about how the central nervous system controls movement.

AXOTOMIZED SPINAL COMMISSURAL INTERNEURONS OF THE ADULT FELINE A Study of Axonal Growth from Dendrites and Cut Axons

AXOTOMIZED SPINAL COMMISSURAL INTERNEURONS OF THE ADULT FELINE  A Study of Axonal Growth from Dendrites and Cut Axons
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2009
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:680286756
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

AXOTOMIZED SPINAL COMMISSURAL INTERNEURONS OF THE ADULT FELINE A Study of Axonal Growth from Dendrites and Cut Axons Book Review:

Acquiring knowledge of the morphological, molecular, and functional changes that occur to neurons following axotomy is a key step for a comprehensive understanding of the nervous system and how it reacts to injury. Propriospinal commissural interneurons (PCIs or CINs) are a class of neuron with axons that project through the ventral commissure to the contralateral spinal cord. My goal was to examine the morphological, molecular, and functional changes that occur to adult feline PCIs following a proximal axotomy. We first determined whether proximally axotomized PCIs develop de novo axons from their dendrites. C3 PCIs were proximally axotomized and several weeks later we stained PCIs and prepared the tissue for histological evaluation. Two primary classes of axotomized PCI were identified: those with a very short axon (called permanently axotomized) and those with an axon that projected across the injury site. Permanently axotomized PCIs had processes with morphological features typical of axons that emerged from their distal dendrites. These axonal processes of the distal dendrites also had GAP-43 (an axonal marker) and lacked MAP2a/b (a dendritic marker). We concluded that permanently axotomized PCIs develop de novo axons from distal dendrites. We then determined whether the axons that crossed the lesion site were representative of spontaneous functional regeneration. First, we showed that PCI axons regenerate through an environment that is typically highly inhibitory to regenerating axons. Second, we established that the regenerated axons conduct action potentials. Finally, we found that regenerated PCI axons form functional synaptic connections with neurons in the contralateral spinal cord. Collectively, these data indicated that spinal interneurons are capable of spontaneous functional regeneration through an injured spinal cord. PCI growth cones are complex and unlike growth cones previously described in the literature. The final study of the thesis examines th.

The Central Nervous System

The Central Nervous System
Author: Per Brodal
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 515
Release: 2004
ISBN 10: 0195165608
ISBN 13: 9780195165609
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Central Nervous System Book Review:

Providing clear, well-illustrated descriptions of brain structures in light of their functions, this cohesive and well-established textbook fosters understanding of the intimate relationship between the structure and function of the nervous system. Its focus on the integration of basic sciences with their clinical applications makes the book particularly well-suited for medical students needing knowledge of neuroscience as a basis for clinical thinking. For the third edition, two new chapters have been added on the vestibular system and control of eye movements, and all other chapters have been thoroughly revised.

Peripheral and Spinal Mechanisms in the Neural Control of Movement

Peripheral and Spinal Mechanisms in the Neural Control of Movement
Author: M.D. Binder
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 479
Release: 1999-12-17
ISBN 10: 9780080862484
ISBN 13: 0080862489
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Peripheral and Spinal Mechanisms in the Neural Control of Movement Book Review:

In the last decade, we have witnessed a striking maturation of our understanding of how neurons in the spinal cord control muscular activity and movement. Paradoxically, a host of new findings have revealed an unexpected versatility in the behavior of these well-studied neural elements and circuits. In this volume, the world's leading experts review the current state of our knowledge of motor control, outline their latest results and developments, and delineate the seminal unresolved questions in this vibrant field of research. The volume begins with a commentary and overview of our current understanding of the peripheral and spinal basis of motor control. The remainder of the volume is divided into seven sections, each focused on a different problem. The first chapter in each section provides some historical review and presages the experimental findings and hypotheses that are discussed in subsequent chapters. Topics include the biomechanics of neuromuscular systems, the properties of motoneurons and the muscle units they control, spinal interneurons, pattern generating circuits, locomotion, descending control of spinal circuits, comparative physiology of motor systems, and motor systems neurophysiology studied in man. The book serves as a unique reference volume and should be essential reading for anyone interested in motor systems. Moreover, the volume's comprehensive coverage of a wide range of topics make it an effective textbook for graduate level courses in motor control neurobiology, kinesiology, physical therapy, and rehabilitation medicine.

Characterization of Changes in Dopamine hydroxylase Neuropeptide Y Substance P and Growth Associated Protein 43 Expression in Spinal Autonomic Nuclei After Spinal Cord Injury

Characterization of Changes in Dopamine    hydroxylase  Neuropeptide Y  Substance P and Growth Associated Protein 43 Expression in Spinal Autonomic Nuclei After Spinal Cord Injury
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 1997
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:654183810
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Characterization of Changes in Dopamine hydroxylase Neuropeptide Y Substance P and Growth Associated Protein 43 Expression in Spinal Autonomic Nuclei After Spinal Cord Injury Book Review:

Autonomic Dysfunction After Spinal Cord Injury

Autonomic Dysfunction After Spinal Cord Injury
Author: Lynne C. Weaver,Canio Polosa
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 472
Release: 2005-10-11
ISBN 10: 9780080460109
ISBN 13: 0080460100
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Autonomic Dysfunction After Spinal Cord Injury Book Review:

Autonomic dysfunction is a major and poorly understood consequence of spinal cord injury. It is a cause of very serious disability and requires much more research. It should be a focus of treatment strategies. This book will be of interest to anyone involved in research and treatment of spinal cord injury since it helps to explain the tremendously negative impact on the body caused by cord injury that is not as obvious as paralysis and loss of sensation. It contains a compilation of what is known about bladder, cardiovascular, bowel and sexual dysfunction after spinal cord injury, as it relates to the changes within the autonomic nervous system control of these functions. The book begins with a description of the time course of autonomic dysfunctions and their ramifications from the first hours after a spinal cord injury to the more stable chronic states. The next section contains three chapters that address anatomical findings that may provide some of the foundation for autonomic dysfunctions in many of the systems. The system-specific chapters then follow in four sections. Each section begins with a chapter or two defining the clinical problems experienced by people with cord injury. The following chapters present research, basic and clinical, that address the autonomic dysfunctions.