Spinal Cord Injury SCI Repair Strategies

Spinal Cord Injury  SCI  Repair Strategies
Author: Giuseppe Perale,Filippo Rossi
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 346
Release: 2019-10-30
ISBN 10: 0081028083
ISBN 13: 9780081028087
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Spinal Cord Injury SCI Repair Strategies Book Review:

Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Repair Strategies provides researchers the latest information on potential regenerative approaches to spinal cord injury, specifically focusing on therapeutic approaches that target regeneration, including cell therapies, controlled drug delivery systems, and biomaterials. Dr. Giuseppe Perale and Dr. Filippo Rossi lead a team of authoritative authors in academia and industry in this innovative reference on the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. This book presents all the information readers need to understand the current and potential array of techniques, materials, applications and their benefits for spinal cord repair. Covers current and future repair strategies for spinal cord injury repair Focuses on key research trends, clinics, biology and engineering Provides fundamentals on regenerative engineering and tissue engineering

Indwelling Neural Implants

Indwelling Neural Implants
Author: William M. Reichert
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 296
Release: 2007-12-17
ISBN 10: 9781420009309
ISBN 13: 1420009303
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Indwelling Neural Implants Book Review:

Despite enormous advances made in the development of external effector prosthetics over the last quarter century, significant questions remain, especially those concerning signal degradation that occurs with chronically implanted neuroelectrodes. Offering contributions from pioneering researchers in neuroprosthetics and tissue repair, Indwelling Neural Implants: Strategies for Contending with the In Vivo Environment examines many of these challenges, paying particular attention to how the healing of tissues surrounding an implant can impact the intended use of a device. The contributions are divided into four sections · Part one examines wound healing from the initial insertion trauma through the inflammatory and repair process, explaining how the action of healing varies throughout different areas of the body. · Part two considers various performance issues specific to particular implant components, including those that arise from the chemical, mechanical, thermal, and electrical impact on surrounding tissues. It discusses challenges that result from chronic tissue stimulation and heat effects that occur with on-chip and telemetric processing. · Part three presents both in vitro and in vivo approaches to assessing wound healing response to materials. It includes the contribution of the developer of a chronic hollow fiber membrane implant who explains how an in vivo model is used to assess molecular transport in brain tissue surrounding the implant. · The final section evaluates molecular and materials strategies for intervening in CNS wound repair and enhancing the electrical communication between the electrode surface and the surrounding tissue. It also presents novel approaches to nerve regeneration and repair. This seminal work provides researchers with an up-to-date account of the progress in the field that they can build upon to bring us closer to realizing the full value of neural implants in combating otherwise intractable human health problems.

Neurobiology of Spinal Cord Injury

Neurobiology of Spinal Cord Injury
Author: Robert G. Kalb,Stephen M. Strittmatter
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 284
Release: 1999-10-22
ISBN 10: 1592592007
ISBN 13: 9781592592005
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Neurobiology of Spinal Cord Injury Book Review:

Distinguished researchers review the latest scientific understanding of spinal cord injury (SCI), focusing on the mechanisms causing paralysis after spinal cord trauma, the molecular determinants of neural regeneration, and methods for improving damaged function. The authors examine the role of intracellular Ca2+ in neuronal death, the possibility of spinal learning, growth-promoting molecules for regenerating neurons, and the biochemistry and cell biology of microtubules. Among the treatment possibilities discussed are cell transplantation strategies beyond the use of fetal spinal cord tissue, remyelination in spinal cord demyelination models, high steroid therapy immediately after SCI, and the mixed use of anti- and proinflammatories. Comprehensive and highly promising, Neurobiology of Spinal Cord Injury summarizes and integrates the great progress that has been made in understanding and combating the paralysis that follows spinal cord injury.

Promoting Neuroplasticity to Repair the Injured Spinal Cord

Promoting Neuroplasticity to Repair the Injured Spinal Cord
Author: Nina Weishaupt
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 272
Release: 2013
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:871700569
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Promoting Neuroplasticity to Repair the Injured Spinal Cord Book Review:

This thesis explores strategies to promote neuronal plasticity in a rat model of cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) in an effort to achieve improved recovery of skilled forelimb use. I focused on investigating how motor pathways disrupted by an SCI may connect to spared, lesion-bridging relay pathways to re-establish communication with target regions below the injury level. In chapter 2, I attempted to promote a detour for the cervically injured corticospinal tract (CST) via spared reticulospinal tract (RtST) axons with a combined treatment including the neurotrophins BDNF, NT-3 and rehabilitative training. Although anatomical evidence for the desired rewiring was not obtained, I found a synergistic effect of BDNF treatment and training on recovery of skilled forelimb reaching. No effect of NT-3 administered rostral to the SCI was evident. The experiment in chapter 3 was designed to answer the question whether NT-3-induced CST collateral growth rostral to an SCI can be facilitated by systemic immune activation. Results indicate that NT-3 expression can promote collateral growth from the injured CST, irrespective of immune activation. Since results from chapter 2 did not shed light on the previously suggested role of the RtST in recovery of hand/paw function after cervical SCI, I next examined whether the mostly spared RtST responds to SCI with changes in its anatomical projection pattern. While collateral projections were unchanged rostral to the SCI, I observed a marked withdrawal of collaterals from grey matter regions directly caudal to the SCI. Results from chapter 2 combined with previous reports indicate that task-specific training does often not translate into untrained tasks and may even result in undesired side effects. To elucidate the functional relationship between trained tasks further, I next investigated how training the primarily affected forelimb (PAF) and/or the less affected forelimb (LAF) after unilateral cervical SCI influences performance outcomes for each limb. Results point towards training tasks competitively recruiting available neuronal "hardware". This work identifies promising leads for promoting plasticity of important motor tracts after SCI, and also points out targets for optimization of strategies employed. These new insights contribute to the exploration of urgently needed repair strategies for SCI.

Handbook of Innovations in Central Nervous System Regenerative Medicine

Handbook of Innovations in Central Nervous System Regenerative Medicine
Author: António Salgado
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 710
Release: 2020-06-10
ISBN 10: 0128180854
ISBN 13: 9780128180853
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Innovations in Central Nervous System Regenerative Medicine Book Review:

Handbook of Innovations in CNS Regenerative Medicine provides a comprehensive overview of the CNS regenerative medicine field. The book describes the basic biology and anatomy of the CNS and how injury and disease affect its balance and the limitations of the present therapies used in the clinics. It also introduces recent trends in different fields of CNS regenerative medicine, including cell transplantation, bio and neuro-engineering, molecular/pharmacotherapy therapies and enabling technologies. Finally, the book presents successful cases of translation of basic research to first-in-human trials and the steps needed to follow this path. Areas such as cell transplantation approaches, bio and neuro-engineering, molecular/pharmacotherapy therapies and enabling technologies are key in regenerative medicine are covered in the book, along with regulatory and ethical issues. Describes the basic biology and anatomy of the CNS and how injury and disease affect its balance Discusses the limitations of present therapies used in the clinics Introduces the recent trends in different fields of CNS regenerative medicine, including cell transplantation, bio and neuro-engineering, molecular/pharmacotherapy therapies, and enabling technologies Presents successful cases of translation of basic research to first-in-human trials, along with the steps needed to follow this path

Spinal Cord Injury Therapy

Spinal Cord Injury Therapy
Author: José Juan Antonio Ibarra Arias,Gabriel Guízar-Sahagún,Elisa García-Vences
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 172
Release: 2019-11-27
ISBN 10: 1789841615
ISBN 13: 9781789841619
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Spinal Cord Injury Therapy Book Review:

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the main pathologies causing significant loss of neurological function. Therefore, a variety of pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies are the aims of several studies. To provide the best care, it is important to know and understand the therapeutic approaches that have shown important progress in this topic. This book contains eight chapters that are divided into three sections: Introduction, Pharmacological Therapies, and Non-Pharmacological Therapies. The authors of the chapters deal with the pathophysiology of SCI, the effect of antioxidant and immunosuppressive agents, stem cell-based therapies, the use of cultured cells for transference or transplantation, and the application of non-invasive modalities (transcutaneous electrical spinal cord stimulation, etc.) for SCI rehabilitation.

Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation

Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
Author: Edelle Field-Fote
Publsiher: F.A. Davis
Total Pages: 500
Release: 2009-03-26
ISBN 10: 0803623194
ISBN 13: 9780803623194
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Book Review:

One of the world’s leading authorities in spinal cord injury, and a participant in the Human Brain Project brings you an evidenced-based guide to the state-of-the-art in spinal cord rehabilitation. She has assembled an expert team of clinicians, each with expertise in the content areas they address. Their work encompasses all of the new scientific knowledge and technological advances practitioners need to know to determine the most effective rehabilitation interventions for each patient and to attain maximum restoration of function in individuals with SCI.

Biomimetic Materials And Design

Biomimetic Materials And Design
Author: Angela Dillow,Anthony Lowman
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 696
Release: 2002-08-28
ISBN 10: 9780203908976
ISBN 13: 020390897X
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biomimetic Materials And Design Book Review:

Detailing techniques in wound healing and reconstruction, this reference describes the mechanisms and architecture of biological systems to formulate and design natural and synthetic compounds, degradable and non-degradable scaffolds, and targeted drug delivery devices. It offers strategies to control adhesive interactions, elicit specific cellular responses, and improve the biocompatibility, performance, and durability of prosthetic materials. Covering advances in the field, the book discusses the effect of topographical features on cell behaviors such as orientation, adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentation.

Recovery of Motor Function Following Spinal Cord Injury

Recovery of Motor Function Following Spinal Cord Injury
Author: Heidi Fuller,Monte Gates
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 330
Release: 2016-08-17
ISBN 10: 9535124978
ISBN 13: 9789535124979
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Recovery of Motor Function Following Spinal Cord Injury Book Review:

Restoration of motor function following spinal cord injury is a complex and challenging task. By reviewing emerging cellular, pharmacological, rehabilitative, as well as surgical approaches, this book seeks to highlight promising therapeutic strategies for the repair and regeneration of motor circuitry. The multidisciplinary nature of these approaches illustrates various routes to bridging the gap between the bench and the bedside and to identify the challenges that must be overcome in order to bring about a viable therapeutic strategy for spinal cord injury patients.

Spinal Cord Injury

Spinal Cord Injury
Author: Joost Verhaagen,John W. McDonald III
Publsiher: Newnes
Total Pages: 656
Release: 2012-12-31
ISBN 10: 0444535071
ISBN 13: 9780444535078
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Spinal Cord Injury Book Review:

Handbook of Clinical Neurology: Spinal Cord Injury summarizes advances in the clinical diagnosis, monitoring, prognostication, treatment, and management of spinal cord injuries. More specifically, it looks at new and important developments in areas such as high-resolution noninvasive neuroimaging, surgery, and electrical stimulation of motor, respiratory, bladder, bowel, and sexual functions. It also reviews the latest insights into spontaneous regeneration and recovery of function following rehabilitation, with emphasis on novel therapeutic strategies, such as gene therapy, transcranial stimulation, brain-machine interfaces, pharmacological approaches, molecular target discovery, and the use of olfactory ensheathing cells, stem cells, and precursor cells. Organized in five sections, the book begins with an overview of the development, maturation, biomechanics, and anatomy of the spinal cord before proceeding with a discussion of clinical diagnosis and prognosis as well as natural recovery, ambulation, and function following spinal cord injury. It then examines clinical neurophysiology in the prognosis and monitoring of traumatic spinal cord injury; medical, surgical and rehabilitative management of spinal cord trauma; and some new approaches for improving recovery in patients, including restoration of function by electrical stimulation, locomotor training, and the use of robotics. Other chapters cover cell transplantation, artificial scaffolds, experimental pharmacological interventions, and molecular and combinatorial strategies for repairing the injured spinal cord. This volume should be of interest to neuroscience and clinical neurology research specialists and practicing neurologists. Comprehensive coverage of the latest scientific understanding of spinal cord injuries Detailed coverage of current treatment best practices and potential future treatments Connects leading edge research programs to future treatment opportunities

Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation

Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation
Author: Michael Selzer,Stephanie Clarke,Leonardo Cohen,Gert Kwakkel,Robert Miller
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 760
Release: 2014-04-24
ISBN 10: 110701168X
ISBN 13: 9781107011687
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation Book Review:

Volume 2 of the Textbook of Neural Repair and Rehabilitation stands alone as a clinical handbook for neurorehabilitation.

Locomotor Training

Locomotor Training
Author: Susan Harkema,Susan J. Harkema,Andrea L. Behrman,Hugues Barbeau
Publsiher: Oxford University Press, USA
Total Pages: 185
Release: 2011
ISBN 10: 0195342089
ISBN 13: 9780195342086
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Locomotor Training Book Review:

Locomotor training is aiming to promote recovery after spinal cord injury via activation of the neuromuscular system below the level of the lesion

Spinal Cord Injury New Insights for the Healthcare Professional 2013 Edition

Spinal Cord Injury  New Insights for the Healthcare Professional  2013 Edition
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: ScholarlyEditions
Total Pages: 196
Release: 2013-07-22
ISBN 10: 148166218X
ISBN 13: 9781481662185
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Spinal Cord Injury New Insights for the Healthcare Professional 2013 Edition Book Review:

Spinal Cord Injury: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2013 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ book that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Diagnosis and Screening. The editors have built Spinal Cord Injury: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2013 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Diagnosis and Screening in this book to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Spinal Cord Injury: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2013 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

AOSpine Masters Series Volume 7 Spinal Cord Injury and Regeneration

AOSpine Masters Series  Volume 7  Spinal Cord Injury and Regeneration
Author: Luiz Roberto Gomes Vialle,Michael G. Fehlings,Norbert Weidner
Publsiher: Thieme
Total Pages: 225
Release: 2016-10-30
ISBN 10: 1626232288
ISBN 13: 9781626232280
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

AOSpine Masters Series Volume 7 Spinal Cord Injury and Regeneration Book Review:

World-renowned experts share the latest updates in translational research as well as surgical and nonsurgical strategies for treating spinal cord injury Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating, clinically challenging injury, leading to varying degrees of neurological function impairment and paralysis. Underlying biological mechanisms either inhibit or promote new growth in the spinal cord. Researchers have been making important discoveries about how neurons and their axons grow in the central nervous system and why they fail to regenerate after SCI. Although progress has been steady, there remains an urgent need to address issues in acute management such as early decompression and the use of biologics, as well as potential solutions for regeneration. Written by renowned experts in the ever-evolving field of SCI research and clinical practice, the 7th volume in the AOSpine Masters series is a state-of-the-art compendium on the latest in SCI diagnosis, spine surgery interventions, and long-term management. Each chapter contains pearls from leading spine specialists gleaned from the research laboratory and years of hands-on experience treating SCI patients in the emergency setting and long term. Key Features: Pathobiology, assessment, and diagnostic considerations The use of biomarkers as predictors of functional recovery Surgical and nonsurgical interventions for traumatic SCI The role of neural stem cells and biologics in spinal cord repair Functional and epidural stimulation and brain-computer interfaces The AOSpine Masters series, a copublication of Thieme and the AOSpine Foundation, addresses current clinical issues featuring international masters sharing their expertise in the core areas in the field. The goal of the series is to contribute to an evolving, dynamic model of evidence-based approach to spine care. This essential textbook delivers invaluable insights to spine surgeons, spinal cord injury clinicians and researchers and trainees, from translational researchers to experienced researchers and clinicians experienced in the operative and non-operative management of spinal cord injury.

Spinal Trauma

Spinal Trauma
Author: Eric D. Schwartz,Adam E. Flanders
Publsiher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Total Pages: 419
Release: 2007
ISBN 10: 0781762480
ISBN 13: 9780781762489
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Spinal Trauma Book Review:

Written by recognized experts, this volume is a comprehensive reference on the use of advanced imaging techniques in the diagnosis and management of spinal trauma. In one cohesive source, the book brings together information on state-of-the-art clinical imaging—including multidetector CT and high-field MRI techniques—and the pathophysiology, neurologic evaluation, medical management, surgical treatment, and postoperative assessment of spine trauma and spinal cord injury. Also included are cutting-edge reviews of experimental imaging techniques and their applications and experimental therapies such as neurotransplantation. More than 700 illustrations—including 180 in full color—complement the text.

Regenerative Biology of the Spine and Spinal Cord

Regenerative Biology of the Spine and Spinal Cord
Author: Rahul Jandial,Mike Y. Chen
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 215
Release: 2013-04-13
ISBN 10: 1461440904
ISBN 13: 9781461440901
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Regenerative Biology of the Spine and Spinal Cord Book Review:

Editors hope that Regenerative Biology of the Spine and Spinal Cord appeals to the nostalgic sentiments of investigators and intellectuals in that it can be held in hand and provide a broad survey of leading edge science. At the same time its chapters can be digitally acquired for those established in the field to refine particular knowledge interests or gaps. Most importantly, we ask the reader, whomever that may be, to peruse without prejudice as countless more chapters will have been written before total spinal regeneration is achieved.

Essentials of Spinal Cord Injury Medicine

Essentials of Spinal Cord Injury Medicine
Author: Yannis Dionyssiotis
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 166
Release: 2018-06-13
ISBN 10: 1789232481
ISBN 13: 9781789232486
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Essentials of Spinal Cord Injury Medicine Book Review:

Spinal cord injury is a severe condition leading to serious neurological dysfunctions and changes a person's life in a sudden way. Understanding the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury will improve the prognosis and reintegration to the society of spinal cord-injured subjects. The book Essentials in Spinal Cord Injury Medicine includes seven chapters with valuable information addressing hot topics related to spinal cord injury, ranging from pathophysiology, nontraumatic spinal cord injury, complications to exoskeletons, and research therapies with mesenchymal stem cells. The book could be a valued reference for physiatrists, neurosurgeons, orthopedic surgeons, neurologists and physical therapists.

Therapeutic Strategies to Spinal Cord Injury

Therapeutic Strategies to Spinal Cord Injury
Author: Pavla Jendelova
Publsiher: MDPI
Total Pages: 238
Release: 2018-11-29
ISBN 10: 3038974064
ISBN 13: 9783038974062
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Therapeutic Strategies to Spinal Cord Injury Book Review:

This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Therapeutic Strategies to Spinal Cord Injury" that was published in IJMS

Investigation of Plasma Membrane Compromise and Citicoline mediated Repair After Spinal Cord Injury Repair

Investigation of Plasma Membrane Compromise and Citicoline mediated Repair After Spinal Cord Injury Repair
Author: Crystal Michelle Simon
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2008
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:456082613
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Investigation of Plasma Membrane Compromise and Citicoline mediated Repair After Spinal Cord Injury Repair Book Review:

Although spinal cord injury (SCI) is a debilitating condition that presents a large socioeconomic problem in the United States, there is currently no treatment that reliably reduces morbidity and mortality. Current research is aimed at identifying mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of SCI and using this knowledge to develop rational treatments. We have observed plasma membrane compromise in the acute (within 10 minutes), sub-acute (3 days), and chronic phases (5 weeks) in a rat model of contusion SCI and postulate that it negatively affects neurological outcome. Holes/tears in the plasma membrane were assessed with a dye exclusion assay, in which a fluorescent cell-impermeant dye was injected into the cerebrospinal fluid prior to sacrifice; therefore, cellular uptake of the dye is indicative of plasma membrane compromise. As early as 10 minutes after SCI, widespread uptake of permeability markers was evident in neuronal cell bodies as well as axonal projections. The number of permeable cells and the size of the membrane breaches (measured by using permeability markers of various sizes) varied with distance from the injury site, with larger disruptions located closer to the epicenter. Greater cellular uptake was observed when the impact force was increased (200> 150> 100 kdyn> sham). At longer time points (3 days and 5 weeks), substantial permeability marker uptake was observed in axons but not in cell bodies. Cells with increased permeability displayed a variety of pathomorphological alterations, including swelling, blebbing, retraction bulb formation, neurofilament loss, and fragmentation, suggesting that increased plasma membrane permeability is detrimental to cell survival and function. We therefore investigated a clinically-relevant treatment strategy designed to restore plasma membrane integrity. Animals were treated with citicoline, a molecule utilized in the endogenous synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (the major membrane component in mammalian cells). Citicoline has been shown to be beneficial in numerous studies of neurological disease, improving overall outcome by increasing phospholipid synthesis and attenuating phospholipid destruction (by reducing phospholipase A2 activity). However, these mechanisms have not been explored in a model of SCI. When compared to injured animals receiving vehicle (saline) injections, citicoline treatment after SCI did not have a statistically significant effect on cytoplasmic PLA2 activity (at 24h post-injury), the density of permeable axons (at 3 days post-injury), or the lesion volume (at 3 days post-injury). Since citicoline may improve neurological outcome after SCI through mechanisms we did not directly assess, we then conducted a longer-term study to evaluate the overall efficacy of citicoline treatment in terms of longer-term functional and histological consequences. Citicoline did not have a biologically significant effect on behavioral recovery (evaluated during open field locomotion, grid walk and hyperalgesia testing weekly for up to 5 weeks post-injury) or lesion volume (at 5 weeks post-injury). The lack of citicoline-mediated effect may be attributed to experimental parameters (e.g., dosing or sensitivity of outcome measures) or biological inefficacy. Although we were not able to demonstrate that citicoline improves outcome after SCI, the finding that plasma membrane damage occurs in a persistent fashion and is associated with pathophysiological cellular alterations may provide fundamental knowledge necessary for developing treatments targeted at membrane repair. Future work examining the complex mechanisms causing prolonged membrane damage after SCI and evaluating strategies for manipulating these pathways (potentially using citicoline in combination with other pharmacological agents) may lead to a clinically effective therapy.

The Cognitive Neurosciences

The Cognitive Neurosciences
Author: Michael S. Gazzaniga,George R. Mangun,Sarah-Jayne Blakemore
Publsiher: MIT Press
Total Pages: 1106
Release: 2014-10-24
ISBN 10: 0262027771
ISBN 13: 9780262027779
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Cognitive Neurosciences Book Review:

The fifth edition of a work that defines the field of cognitive neuroscience, with entirely new material that reflects recent advances in the field. Each edition of this classic reference has proved to be a benchmark in the developing field of cognitive neuroscience. The fifth edition of The Cognitive Neurosciences continues to chart new directions in the study of the biological underpinnings of complex cognition—the relationship between the structural and physiological mechanisms of the nervous system and the psychological reality of the mind. It offers entirely new material, reflecting recent advances in the field. Many of the developments in cognitive neuroscience have been shaped by the introduction of novel tools and methodologies, and a new section is devoted to methods that promise to guide the field into the future—from sophisticated models of causality in brain function to the application of network theory to massive data sets. Another new section treats neuroscience and society, considering some of the moral and political quandaries posed by current neuroscientific methods. Other sections describe, among other things, new research that draws on developmental imaging to study the changing structure and function of the brain over the lifespan; progress in establishing increasingly precise models of memory; research that confirms the study of emotion and social cognition as a core area in cognitive neuroscience; and new findings that cast doubt on the so-called neural correlates of consciousness.