Spectroscopy, Diffraction and Tomography in Art and Heritage Science

Spectroscopy, Diffraction and Tomography in Art and Heritage Science
Author: Mieke Adriaens,Mark Dowsett
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 350
Release: 2020-11-01
ISBN 10: 0128188618
ISBN 13: 9780128188613
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Spectroscopy, Diffraction and Tomography in Art and Heritage Science Book Review:

Spectroscopy, Diffraction and Tomography in Art and Heritage Science gives an overview of the main spectroscopy and diffraction techniques currently available for cultural heritage research. It starts with an introductory, general discussion of spectroscopy and diffraction and the kinds of information they can give. Further sections deal with, respectively, typical laboratory methods, mobile equipment, and large-scale instruments and infrastructural methods. The work concludes with comments on combining and comparing multiple techniques, sources of error, and limitations of the analytical methods. Explains spectroscopy and diffraction techniques in detail, yet remains accessible to those without a chemistry or physics background Provides explanations of commonly used terms, such as destructive, non-destructive, non-invasive, in-situ, and ex-situ, and their sometimes-misleading origins Includes real-world examples that demonstrate how each technique is used in the field Highlights the complementary use of different analytical techniques in fully interpreting the data

Physical Techniques in the Study of Art, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage

Physical Techniques in the Study of Art, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 282
Release: 2007-07-06
ISBN 10: 9780080548814
ISBN 13: 0080548814
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Physical Techniques in the Study of Art, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage Book Review:

In Chapter 1 Dudley Creagh writes on "synchrotron radiation and its use in art, archaeometry, and cultural heritage studies". Loic Bertrand has written in Chapter 2 on synchrotron imaging for archaeology and art history, conservation, and palaeontology. Dr. Bertrand is Archaeology and cultural heritage officer at the new French synchrotron, Synchrotron Soleil (Orme les Mesuriers, Gif-sur-Yvette, France). He is charged with the task of raising the awareness of cultural heritage scientists to the use of synchrotron radiation for their research. Chapter 3 has been written by Ivan Cole and his associates Dr David Paterson and Deborah Lau. This is concerned with the holistic modelling of gas and aerosol deposition and the degradation of cultural objects. Dr. Cole is Deputy Chief of the Novel Materials and Processes Division of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (Melbourne, Australia). He has over twenty years experience in involvement in projects concerned with the preservation of cultural heritage. Ivan is an internationally recognized leader in the field of the life cycle of materials and the development of protective coatings for metals. In Chapter 4, Giovanna Di Pietro describes two different types of experiments she has undertaken in the study of the mechanisms underlying the degradation of photographic media. In the first Dr. Di Pietro describes the degradation of old back-and-white plate. In the second she outlines her attempts to understand the mechanisms by which comparatively modern motion picture film degrades. A significant part of this project involved trying to ascertain exactly what dyes were used by Kodak in their motion picture film from about 1980 onwards. An entirely new technique for the remote investigation of the pigments in paintings is presented by Maria Kubik in Chapter 5. This technique will significantly enhance the ability of conservators to study the palette of pigments used by artists, check for repairs by others, and detect fraudulent paintings. · Demonstrates the amazing efforts being made in using physical techniques for the study of art, archaeology and cultural heritage · Provides succinct accounts of how cultural heritage is being preserved. · Looks at how science is being used to enrich our knowledge of the creative arts

Conservation of Easel Paintings

Conservation of Easel Paintings
Author: Joyce Hill Stoner,Rebecca Rushfield
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 914
Release: 2020-11-30
ISBN 10: 042968097X
ISBN 13: 9780429680977
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Conservation of Easel Paintings Book Review:

Conservation of Easel Paintings, Second Edition provides a much-anticipated update to the previous edition, which has come to be known internationally as an invaluable and comprehensive text on the history, philosophy and methods of the treatment of easel paintings. Including 49 chapters written by more than 90 respected authors from around the world, this volume offers the necessary background knowledge in technical art history, artists’ materials and scientific methods of examination and documentation. Later sections of the book provide information about the varying approaches and methods for treatment and issues of preventive conservation, as well as valuable reflections on storage, shipping, and exhibition. Including exciting developments that have taken place since the last edition was published, the book also covers new techniques of examination, especially MacroXRF scanning and Reflectance Transmission Imagery. Drawing on research presented at recent professional conferences, information about innovative methods for cleaning modern and contemporary paintings and insights into modern oil paints is also included. Incorporating the latest regulations and understanding of health and safety practices and integrating theory with practice throughout, Conservation of Easel Paintings, Second Edition will continue to be an indispensable reference for practicing conservators. It will also be an essential resource for students taking conservation courses around the world.

Scientific Methods and Cultural Heritage

Scientific Methods and Cultural Heritage
Author: Gilberto Artioli
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 536
Release: 2010-07-08
ISBN 10: 0199548269
ISBN 13: 9780199548262
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Scientific Methods and Cultural Heritage Book Review:

Artioli provides an introduction to the methods and rationales of the scientific investigation of cultural heritage materials, with an emphasis placed on the analytical strategies, modes of operation and resulting information rather than on technicalities.

Analytical Chemistry for Cultural Heritage

Analytical Chemistry for Cultural Heritage
Author: Rocco Mazzeo
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 364
Release: 2017-03-01
ISBN 10: 3319528041
ISBN 13: 9783319528045
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Analytical Chemistry for Cultural Heritage Book Review:

The series Topics in Current Chemistry Collections presents critical reviews from the journal Topics in Current Chemistry organized in topical volumes. The scope of coverage is all areas of chemical science including the interfaces with related disciplines such as biology, medicine and materials science. The goal of each thematic volume is to give the non-specialist reader, whether in academia or industry, a comprehensive insight into an area where new research is emerging which is of interest to a larger scientific audience.Each review within the volume critically surveys one aspect of that topic and places it within the context of the volume as a whole. The most significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years are presented using selected examples to illustrate the principles discussed. The coverage is not intended to be an exhaustive summary of the field or include large quantities of data, but should rather be conceptual, concentrating on the methodological thinking that will allow the non-specialist reader to understand the information presented. Contributions also offer an outlook on potential future developments in the field.

Cultural Heritage Conservation and Environmental Impact Assessment by Non-Destructive Testing and Micro-Analysis

Cultural Heritage Conservation and Environmental Impact Assessment by Non-Destructive Testing and Micro-Analysis
Author: Rene van Grieken,Koen Janssens
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 334
Release: 2005-09-27
ISBN 10: 9780203970782
ISBN 13: 0203970780
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cultural Heritage Conservation and Environmental Impact Assessment by Non-Destructive Testing and Micro-Analysis Book Review:

This book mostly contains contributions by the invited lecturers at the 7th International Conference on Non-Destructive Testing and Micro-Analysis for the Diagnostics and Conservation of the Cultural and Environmental Heritage. The contributors have all been chosen for their individual reputations and the quality of their research, but also because they represent a field deemed highly important. Hence, this book give balanced coverage of the areas that are most relevant in non-destructive testing and micro-analysis in the realm of cultural heritage. The analysis methods provide the clinical composition of cultural artifacts to elucidate their provenance, the rate of alteration as a result of exposure to the environment and the effectiveness of conservation and restoration strategies. The techniques are partially or fully non-destructive, are portable, or allow study of different parts of a heterogeneous work of art.

Synchrotron Radiation

Synchrotron Radiation
Author: Settimio Mobilio,Federico Boscherini,Carlo Meneghini
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 799
Release: 2014-08-06
ISBN 10: 364255315X
ISBN 13: 9783642553158
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Synchrotron Radiation Book Review:

Synchrotron radiation is today extensively used for fundamental and applied research in many different fields of science. Its exceptional characteristics in terms of intensity, brilliance, spectral range, time structure and now also coherence pushed many experimental techniques to previously un-reachable limits, enabling the performance of experiments unbelievable only few years ago. The book gives an up-to-date overview of synchrotron radiation research today with a view to the future, starting from its generation and sources, its interaction with matter, illustrating the main experimental technique employed and provides an overview of the main fields of research in which new and innovative results are obtained. The book is addressed to PhD students and young researchers to provide both an introductory and a rather deep knowledge of the field. It will also be helpful to experienced researcher who want to approach the field in a professional way.

Vermeer Illuminated

Vermeer Illuminated
Author: Jørgen Wadum,René Hoppenbrouwers
Publsiher: Anonim
Total Pages: 48
Release: 1994
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: STANFORD:36105017223913
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Vermeer Illuminated Book Review:

X-rays for Archaeology

X-rays for Archaeology
Author: M. Uda,G. Demortier,I. Nakai
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 308
Release: 2005-08-10
ISBN 10: 9781402035807
ISBN 13: 1402035802
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

X-rays for Archaeology Book Review:

The application of X-rays to objects of archaeology and insights into construction and chemical composition in a non-destructive manner date back to the discovery of radiation. This book contains measurement data taken with portable XRF and XRD, and data taken with accelerating ion beams and synchrotron radiations, and with their explanation.

Neutron Methods for Archaeology and Cultural Heritage

Neutron Methods for Archaeology and Cultural Heritage
Author: Nikolay Kardjilov,Giulia Festa
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 349
Release: 2016-12-15
ISBN 10: 3319331639
ISBN 13: 9783319331638
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Neutron Methods for Archaeology and Cultural Heritage Book Review:

This book provides an extensive overview of the application of neutron characterization techniques in cultural heritage to a broad audience and will be of interest to both scientists and non-scientists in the field. Archaeologists, paleontologists, restaurateurs and conservators, historians and collectors will be fascinated by the wealth of information that can be obtained using neutron techniques, while material scientists and engineers will find details of the experimental techniques and materials properties that can be determined. Neutrons, due to their weak interactions with materials, provide a penetrating, but non-invasive probe of bulk properties. They allow the characterization of the composition and mechanical properties of materials, helping to answer questions related to the dating, the manufacturing process or the state of degradation of artefacts. They allow detailed interrogation of the internal structures of objects that may be otherwise hidden from view. The first section of the book is dedicated to stories describing spectacular discoveries brought about by the use of neutron techniques in a range of applications. The second section covers the experimental techniques in appropriate detail: basic principles, limitations and fields of application.

Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials for Diagnostic, Conservation and Restoration of Cultural Heritage

Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials for Diagnostic, Conservation and Restoration of Cultural Heritage
Author: Rawil F. Fakhrullin
Publsiher: Anonim
Total Pages: 336
Release: 2018-08
ISBN 10: 9780128139103
ISBN 13: 0128139102
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials for Diagnostic, Conservation and Restoration of Cultural Heritage Book Review:

Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials for Diagnostic, Conservation and Restoration of Cultural Heritage explores how advanced nanoscale techniques can help preserve artworks. The book covers lab-scale available techniques as well as advanced methods from neutron sources and X-ray spectroscopy. Other sections highlight a variety of nanomaterials with potential uses in treatments for restoration and conservation, with conservation, consolidation and long-term protection protocols analyzed in each case. The final chapter presents case studies, demonstrates how nanoscale techniques are used to conserve art, and shows what happens when misinterpretation of data sources leads to misdiagnosis. The book is intended for scientists from academic and professional conservators, restorers who are involved in the conservation of artistic and historical artifacts, and those who want to learn how nanotechnology can increase the efficiency of conservation and protection techniques. Cogently explains how nanotechnology is used in the preservation, protection and restoration of artworks Explores the best nanomaterials for a variety of situations Shows how nanomaterials can be used in restoration, for cleaning and in conservation treatments Includes guidelines to prevent the misinterpretation of diagnostic data to help avoid misdiagnosis

Handheld XRF for Art and Archaeology

Handheld XRF for Art and Archaeology
Author: Aaron N. Shugar,Jennifer L. Mass
Publsiher: Leuven University Press
Total Pages: 473
Release: 2012
ISBN 10: 9058679071
ISBN 13: 9789058679079
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handheld XRF for Art and Archaeology Book Review:

This volume focuses specifically on the applications, possibilities, and limitations of handheld X-ray fluorescence devices in art conservation and archaeology.

Lasers in the Preservation of Cultural Heritage

Lasers in the Preservation of Cultural Heritage
Author: Costas Fotakis,D. Anglos,V. Zafiropulos,Savas Georgiou,Vivi Tornari
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 336
Release: 2006-10-25
ISBN 10: 9781420012101
ISBN 13: 142001210X
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Lasers in the Preservation of Cultural Heritage Book Review:

With the maturation of laser technology in diagnostic and conservation applications, conservation scientists, archeologists, art historians, researchers, and advanced science-oriented students now have the tools necessary for preserving the future of our past-our cultural heritage. Presenting recent developments in the field, Lasers in the Preservation of Cultural Heritage: Principles and Applications addresses the basic concepts of laser applications and supplies case studies of analytical, structural diagnostic, and laser cleaning applications. The book provides a comprehensive presentation of the fundamental principles and applications of modern laser technology in the analysis of composition, diagnostics of structural integrity, and conservation of artworks and antiquities. Beginning with an introduction to the basic techniques used in art conservation and archeology, the book describes the fundamental aspects of laser-matter interactions, emphasizing laser diagnostics and laser processing applications. The next few chapters focus on laser-based spectroscopic techniques for the analysis of the composition of materials in art and archaeology, including laser-induced breakdown, Raman, and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. The book proceeds to highlight nondestructive diagnostic techniques, laser processing applications, laser applications for the cleaning of paintings and stone, and methods for the removal of encrustations. It concludes with case studies for the conservation of materials like parchment, paper, metal, ivory, and wood, and includes conservation approaches for modern paintings. Bridging science with art, Lasers in the Preservation of Cultural Heritage presents a systematic overview of the fundamentals and applications of laser techniques in artwork conservation and archeological science.

Handbook of X-Ray Spectrometry

Handbook of X-Ray Spectrometry
Author: Rene Van Grieken,A. Markowicz
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 1016
Release: 2001-11-27
ISBN 10: 9780203908709
ISBN 13: 0203908708
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of X-Ray Spectrometry Book Review:

"Updates fundamentals and applications of all modes of x-ray spectrometry, including total reflection and polarized beam x-ray fluorescence analysis, and synchrotron radiation induced x-ray emission. Promotes the accurate measurement of samples while reducing the scattered background in the x-ray spectrum."

Handbook of Practical X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis

Handbook of Practical X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis
Author: Burkhard Beckhoff,Birgit Kanngießer,Norbert Langhoff,Reiner Wedell,Helmut Wolff
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 863
Release: 2007-05-18
ISBN 10: 3540367225
ISBN 13: 9783540367222
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Practical X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis Book Review:

X-Ray fluorescence analysis is an established technique for non-destructive elemental materials analysis. This book gives a user-oriented practical guidance to the application of this method. The book gives a survey of the theoretical fundamentals, analytical instrumentation, software for data processing, various excitation regimes including gracing incidents and microfocus measurements, quantitative analysis, applications in routine and micro analysis, mineralogy, biology, medicine, criminal investigations, archeology, metallurgy, abrasion, microelectronics, environmental air and water analysis. This book is the bible of X-Ray fluorescence analysis. It gives the basic knowledge on this technique, information on analytical equipment and guides the reader to the various applications. It appeals to researchers, analytically active engineers and advanced students.

Microscopy Applied to Materials Sciences and Life Sciences

Microscopy Applied to Materials Sciences and Life Sciences
Author: Ajay Vasudeo Rane,Sabu Thomas,Nandakumar Kalarikkal
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 502
Release: 2018-11-21
ISBN 10: 1351251570
ISBN 13: 9781351251570
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Microscopy Applied to Materials Sciences and Life Sciences Book Review:

This new volume, Microscopy Applied to Materials Sciences and Life Sciences. focuses on recent theoretical and practical advances in polymers and their blends, composites, and nanocompos¬ites related to their microscopic characterization. It highlights recent accomplishments and trends in the field of polymer nanocomposites and filled polymers related to microstructural characterization. This book gives an insight and better understanding into the development in microscopy as a tool for characterization. The book emphasizes recent research work in the field of microscopy in life sciences and materials sciences mainly related to its synthesis, characterizations, and applications. The book explains the application of microscopic techniques in life sciences and materials sciences, and their applications and state of current research carried out. The book aims to foster a better understanding of the properties of polymer composites by describing new techniques to measure microstructure property relationships and by utilizing techniques and expertise developed in the conventional filled polymer composites. Characterization techniques, particularly microstructural characterization, have proven to be extremely difficult because of the range of length-scales associated with these materials. Topics include: •Instrumentation and Techniques: advances in scanning probe microscopy, SEM, TEM, OM. 3D imaging and tomography, electron diffraction techniques and analytical microscopy, advances in sample preparation techniques in-situ microscopy, correlative microscopy in life and material sciences, low voltage electron microscopy. •Life Sciences: Structure and imaging of biomolecules, live cell imaging, neurobiology, organelles and cellular dynamics, multi-disciplinary approaches for medical and biological sciences, microscopic application in plants, microorganism and environmental science, super resolution microscopy in biological sciences. •Materials Sciences: materials for nanotechnology, metals alloys and inter-metallic, ceramics, composites, minerals and microscopy in cultural heritage, thin films, coatings, surfaces and interfaces, carbon based materials, polymers and soft materials and self-assembled materials, semiconductors and magnetic materials. Polymers and inorganic nanoparticles. The volume will be of significant interest to scientists working on the basic issues surrounding polymers, nanocomposites, and nanoparticulate-filled polymers, as well as those working in industry on applied problems, such as processing. Because of the multidisciplinary nature of this research, the book will be valuable to chemists, materials scientists, physicists, chemical engineers, and processing specialists who are involved and interested in the future frontiers of blends.

Heritage Wood

Heritage Wood
Author: Austin Nevin,Malgorzata Sawicki
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 226
Release: 2019-10-12
ISBN 10: 3030110540
ISBN 13: 9783030110543
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Heritage Wood Book Review:

This volume highlights recent research efforts in the conservation and investigation of works of art on wood. Through eleven case studies it showcases different experimental methods ranging from X-ray analysis of objects to the study of cross-sections made from micro-samples. New research focusing on the technical study, treatment and assessment of works of art on wood in its many forms is featured in this edited volume. Technical studies include the attribution and investigations of a triptych by Hans Memling and a sculpture from workshop of Michel and Gregor Erhart, decorated Syrian rooms, and investigations of finely carved Gothic wooden objects. Synchrotron-based methods are presented for studying the alteration of 19th c. verdigris in Norway, and multi-analytical methods are employed for the investigations of 16th to 19th c. East Asian lacquer from the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna. Novel methods for the cleaning of gilded surfaces using gels and emulsions are shown, as are innovative strategies for the consolidation for waterlogged wood, providing key data for the assessment of risks and benefits of new methods, and the short and long-term effects on gilding layers and archaeological wood. The book clearly shows how collaboration between engineers, physicists, biologists and chemists and conservators of different types of materials can lead to new research in conservation science. This book is crucial reading for conservators and conservation scientists, as well as for technical art historians, providing key methodological case studies of polychromy from different temporal and geographical contexts.

Metal Soaps in Art

Metal Soaps in Art
Author: Francesca Casadio,Katrien Keune,Petria Noble,Annelies Van Loon,Ella Hendriks,Silvia A. Centeno,Gillian Osmond
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 424
Release: 2019-03-23
ISBN 10: 3319906178
ISBN 13: 9783319906171
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Metal Soaps in Art Book Review:

This go-to reference work surveys the current state of knowledge in the field of metal soap-related degradation phenomena in art works. It contains detailed descriptions and images of the different phenomena and addresses the practical aspects of soap formation, preventive conservation, and treatment. The occurrence of metal soaps is one of the defining issues in the conservation of painted surfaces, and one that presently leaves innumerable open questions. It is estimated that around 70% of paintings in museum collections are affected by some form of metal soap-related degradation. In recent years, significant advances have been made in the detection and characterization of these compounds through interdisciplinary approaches including conventional spectroscopy and microscopy as well as emerging synchrotron-based techniques. This book for the first time captures a panoramic overview of the state of knowledge of metal soaps related to both scientific analysis and implications for conservation and treatment. It also critically examines open questions. The book is accessible to audiences with varied backgrounds (e.g. conservators, students of conservation science) while simultaneously presenting the technical details indispensable for academics and researchers active in this field.

Radiation in Art and Archeometry

Radiation in Art and Archeometry
Author: D.C. Creagh,D.A. Bradley
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 520
Release: 2000-06-14
ISBN 10: 9780080540191
ISBN 13: 0080540198
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Radiation in Art and Archeometry Book Review:

/inca/publications/misc/creaghcov.htmAbout the cover This book contains twenty chapters covering a wide range of research in the fields of scientific conservation of art and archaeometry. The common thread is the use of radiation in these analyses. The term "radiation" is used in the widest possible sense. The book encompasses the use of electromagnetic radiation in its microwave, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x ray and &ggr; ray forms and the use of particulate forms such as electrons, neutrons and charged particles for which the Planck's Law relation applies. In many cases there is an interplay between the two forms: for example, proton induced x ray emission (PIXE), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). As far as possible the chapters have been arranged in order of ascending particle energy. Thus it commences with the use of microwaves and finishes with the use of &ggr; rays. The authors were chosen on the basis of their expertise as practitioners of their particular field of study. This means that, for example, the mature fields of study such as the IR and UV study of paintings have been written by senior researchers, whereas for the emerging fields of synchrotron and neutron techniques the chapters have been written by talented researchers at the commencement of their careers.

Microscopic X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis

Microscopic X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis
Author: Koen H. A. Janssens,Freddy C. V. Adams,Anders Rindby
Publsiher: Wiley-Blackwell
Total Pages: 419
Release: 2000-06-15
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: UOM:39015050127631
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Microscopic X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis Book Review:

Microscopic X-ray Fluorescence Analysis Edited by Koen H. A. Janssens, Freddy C. V. Adams Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Belgium and Anders Rindby Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden In the last 10-15 years many analytical advances in X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) have taken place, giving rise to non-destructive ultrasensitive surface analyses of materials. One of the variants of XRF developed is micro-XRF (μ-XRF), which is able to analyse the distribution of major, minor and trace elements in microscopic sample surface areas. Due to the availability of commercial instrumentation and the development of simple devices for focusing X-rays, μ-XRF has increased in popularity and is able to fill the gap between bulk X-ray fluorescence and electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPXMA). Microscopic X-ray Fluorescence Analysis is the first single volume to bring together introductory and advanced information on the essential aspects of the technique, thereby providing an excellent overview of the developments and applications of μ-XRF. Topics discussed in the book include: * Interaction of X-rays with matter * Micro-focusing X-ray optics * Instrumentation for μ-XRF with laboratory and synchrotron sources * Evaluation and calibration of μ-XRF data * Comparison of μ-XRF to other microanalytical techniques. In addition, the final chapters of the book describe applications of μ-XRF in the geosciences, in art and archaeology, environmental and biological applications, and the use of μ-XRF for industrial purposes. Finally an overview is presented of some of the new directions both laboratory and synchrotron μ-XRF are likely to take in the 21st Century.