Spatial Modeling in GIS and R for Earth and Environmental Sciences

Spatial Modeling in GIS and R for Earth and Environmental Sciences
Author: Hamid Reza Pourghasemi,Candan Gokceoglu
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 798
Release: 2019-01-18
ISBN 10: 0128156953
ISBN 13: 9780128156957
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Spatial Modeling in GIS and R for Earth and Environmental Sciences Book Review:

Spatial Modeling in GIS and R for Earth and Environmental Sciences offers an integrated approach to spatial modelling using both GIS and R. Given the importance of Geographical Information Systems and geostatistics across a variety of applications in Earth and Environmental Science, a clear link between GIS and open source software is essential for the study of spatial objects or phenomena that occur in the real world and facilitate problem-solving. Organized into clear sections on applications and using case studies, the book helps researchers to more quickly understand GIS data and formulate more complex conclusions. The book is the first reference to provide methods and applications for combining the use of R and GIS in modeling spatial processes. It is an essential tool for students and researchers in earth and environmental science, especially those looking to better utilize GIS and spatial modeling. Offers a clear, interdisciplinary guide to serve researchers in a variety of fields, including hazards, land surveying, remote sensing, cartography, geophysics, geology, natural resources, environment and geography Provides an overview, methods and case studies for each application Expresses concepts and methods at an appropriate level for both students and new users to learn by example

Soil and Groundwater Remediation Technologies

Soil and Groundwater Remediation Technologies
Author: Yong Sik Ok,Jörg Rinklebe,Deyi Hou,Daniel C.W. Tsang,Filip M.G. Tack
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 338
Release: 2020-04-14
ISBN 10: 1000046966
ISBN 13: 9781000046960
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Soil and Groundwater Remediation Technologies Book Review:

This book offers various soil and water treatment technologies due to increasing global soil and water pollution. In many countries, the management of contaminated land has matured, and it is developing in many others. Topics covered include chemical and ecological risk assessment of contaminated sites; phytomanagement of contaminants; arsenic removal; selection and technology diffusion; technologies and socio-environmental management; post-remediation long-term management; soil and groundwater laws and regulations; and trace element regulation limits in soil. Future prospects of soil and groundwater remediation are critically discussed in this book. Hence, readers will learn to understand the future prospects of soil and groundwater contaminants and remediation measures. Key Features: Discusses conventional and novel aspects of soil and groundwater remediation technologies Includes new monitoring/sensing technologies for soil and groundwater pollution Features a case study of remediation of contaminated sites in the old, industrial, Ruhr area in Germany Highlights soil washing, soil flushing, and stabilization/solidification Presents information on emerging contaminants that exhibit new challenges This book is designed for undergraduate and graduate courses and can be used as a handbook for researchers, policy makers, and local governmental institutes. Soil and Groundwater Remediation Technologies: A Practical Guide is written by a team of leading global experts in the field.

Gully Erosion Studies from India and Surrounding Regions

Gully Erosion Studies from India and Surrounding Regions
Author: Pravat Kumar Shit,Hamid Reza Pourghasemi,Gouri Sankar Bhunia
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 480
Release: 2019-11-19
ISBN 10: 3030232433
ISBN 13: 9783030232436
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Gully Erosion Studies from India and Surrounding Regions Book Review:

This book offers the scientific basis for the ample evaluation of badland management in India and some surrounding regions. It examines the processes operating in the headwaters and main channels of ephemeral rivers in lateritic environments of India. In particular, the book covers a range of vital topics in the areas of gully erosion and water to soil erosion at lateritic uplands regions of India and other regions in Asia. It explores the probable gully erosion modeling through Remote Sensing & GIS Techniques. It is divided into three units. Unit I deals with the introduction of badland, types of badland and the process of badland formation. Unit II is devoted to a description of quantitative measurements. Unit III deals with the control and management processes related to various issues from different regions. As such this book serves as a reference book for research activities in this area. It is an efficient guide for aspiring researchers in applied geography, explaining advanced techniques to help students recognize both simple and complex concepts.

GIS Technology Applications in Environmental and Earth Sciences

GIS Technology Applications in Environmental and Earth Sciences
Author: Bai Tian
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 258
Release: 2016-09-19
ISBN 10: 131534985X
ISBN 13: 9781315349855
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

GIS Technology Applications in Environmental and Earth Sciences Book Review:

This book starts with an overview of GIS technology, what GIS technology is, what it can do, what software products are available, etc. Then, throughout the book, the author explains with many case studies, programs, maps, graphics, and 3D models how GIS and other related technologies can be used to automate mapping processes, collect, process, edit, store, manage, and share datasets, statistically analyze data, model, and visualize large datasets to understand patterns, trends, and relationships to make educated decisions. This book is an excellent resource for anyone who is interested in GIS and related technologies, geology, natural resource, and environmental science.

GIS and Environmental Modeling

GIS and Environmental Modeling
Author: Michael F. Goodchild,Louis T. Steyaert,Bradley O. Parks,Carol Johnston,David Maidment,Michael Crane,Sandi Glendinning
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 504
Release: 1996-09-30
ISBN 10: 9780470236772
ISBN 13: 0470236779
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

GIS and Environmental Modeling Book Review:

GIS and Environmental Modeling: Progress and Research Issues Michael F. Goodchild, Louis T. Steyaert, Bradley O. Parks, Carol Johnston, David Maidment, Michael Crane, and Sandi Glendinning, Editors With growing pressure on natural resources and landscapes there is an increasing need to predict the consequences of any changes to the environment. Modelling plays an important role in this by helping our understanding of the environment and by forecasting likely impacts. In recent years moves have been made to link models to Geographical Information Systems to provide a means of analysing changes over an area as well as over time. GIS and Environmental Modeling explores the progress made to date in integrating these two software systems. Approaches to the subject are made from theoretical, technical as well as data stand points. The existing capabilities of current systems are described along with important issues of data availability, accuracy and error. Various case studies illustrate this and highlight the common concepts and issues that exist between researchers in different environmental fields. The future needs and prospects for integrating GIS and environmental models are also explored with developments in both data handling and modelling discussed. The book brings together the knowledge and experience of over 100 researchers from academic, commercial and government backgrounds who work in a wide range of disciplines. The themes followed in the text provide a fund of knowledge and guidance for those involved in environmental modelling and GIS. The book is easily accessible for readers with a basic GIS knowledge and the ideas and results of the research are clearly illustrated with both colour and black and white graphics.

Spatial Data Analysis in the Social and Environmental Sciences

Spatial Data Analysis in the Social and Environmental Sciences
Author: Robert Haining
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 409
Release: 1993-08-26
ISBN 10: 9780521448666
ISBN 13: 0521448662
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Spatial Data Analysis in the Social and Environmental Sciences Book Review:

A spatial data set is a data set in which each observation is referenced to a site or area. Within both the social and environmental sciences, much of the data collected is within a spatial context and requires statistical analysis for interpretation. The purpose of this book, therefore, is to describe to students and research workers in the social and environmental sciences the current methods available for the analyses of spatial data. Methods described include data description, map interpolation, exploratory and explanatory analyses. The book also examines how spatial referencing raises a distinctive set of issues for the data analyst and recognizes the need to test underlying statistical assumptions. Further, methods for detecting problems, assessing their seriousness and taking appropriate action are discussed.

ArcGIS for Environmental and Water Issues

ArcGIS for Environmental and Water Issues
Author: William Bajjali
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 353
Release: 2017-11-24
ISBN 10: 3319611585
ISBN 13: 9783319611587
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

ArcGIS for Environmental and Water Issues Book Review:

This textbook is a step-by-step tutorial on the applications of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in environmental and water resource issues. It provides information about GIS and its applications, specifically using the most advanced ESRI GIS technology and its extensions. Eighteen chapters cover GIS applications in the field of earth sciences and water resources in detail from the ground up. Author William Bajjali explains what a GIS is and what it is used for, the basics of map classification, data acquisition, coordinate systems and projections, vectorization, geodatabase and relational database, data editing, geoprocessing, suitability modeling, working with raster, watershed delineation, mathematical and statistical interpolation, and more advanced techniques, tools and extensions such as ArcScan, Topology, Geocoding, Hydrology, Geostatistical Analyst, Spatial Analyst, Network Analyst, 3-D Analyst. ArcPad, ESRI’s cutting-edge mobile GIS software, is covered in detail as well. Each chapter contains concrete case studies and exercises – many from the author’s own work in the United States and Middle East. This volume is targeted toward advanced undergraduates, but could also be useful for professionals and for anyone who utilizes GIS or practices spatial analysis in relation to geology, hydrology, ecology, and environmental sciences.

Spatial Modeling in Forest Resources Management

Spatial Modeling in Forest Resources Management
Author: Pravat Kumar Shit,Hamid Reza Pourghasemi,Pulakesh Das,Gouri Sankar Bhunia
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 755
Release: 2020-12-23
ISBN 10: 9783030565411
ISBN 13: 3030565416
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Spatial Modeling in Forest Resources Management Book Review:

This book demonstrates the measurement, monitoring, mapping, and modeling of forest resources. It explores state-of-the-art techniques based on open-source software & R statistical programming and modeling specifically, with a focus on the recent trends in data mining/machine learning techniques and robust modeling in forest resources. Discusses major topics such as forest health assessment, estimating forest biomass & carbon stock, land use forest cover (LUFC), dynamic vegetation modeling (DVM) approaches, forest-based rural livelihood, habitat suitability analysis, biodiversity and ecology, and biodiversity, the book presents novel advances and applications of RS-GIS and R in a precise and clear manner. By offering insights into various concepts and their importance for real-world applications, it equips researchers, professionals, and policy-makers with the knowledge and skills to tackle a wide range of issues related to geographic data, including those with scientific, societal, and environmental implications.

Quantitative Analysis and Modeling of Earth and Environmental Data

Quantitative Analysis and Modeling of Earth and Environmental Data
Author: Jiaping Wu,Junyu He,George Christakos
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 420
Release: 2020-12-15
ISBN 10: 9780128163412
ISBN 13: 0128163410
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Quantitative Analysis and Modeling of Earth and Environmental Data Book Review:

Quantitative Analysis and Modeling of Earth and Environmental Data: Applications for Spatial and Temporal Variation offers a systematic, quantitative analysis of multi-sourced data, including the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of natural attributes. It covers data handling techniques that may vary by space and/or time, and aims to improve understanding of physical laws of change underlying available numerical datasets, while also considering in-situ uncertainties and relevant measurement errors (conceptual, technical, computational). Featuring real-world practical applications and practice exercises, this book is a comprehensive step-by-step tutorial of data-driven techniques that will help students and researchers master data analysis in earth and environmental sciences. The notions and methods presented in the book cover a wide range of data in various forms and sources, including hard measurements, soft observations, secondary information and auxiliary variables (ground-level measurements, satellite observations, scientific instruments and records, protocols and surveys, empirical models and charts). Addresses the analysis and processing data that varies spatially and/or temporally, which is the case with the majority of data in scientific and engineering disciplines Covers a wide range of data describing a variety of attributes characterizing physical phenomena and systems including earth, ocean and atmospheric variables, environmental and ecological parameters, population health states, disease indicators, and social and economic characteristics Includes case studies and practice exercises at the end of each chapter for both real-world applications and deeper understanding of the concepts presented

Spatial Modeling and Assessment of Urban Form

Spatial Modeling and Assessment of Urban Form
Author: Biswajeet Pradhan
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 331
Release: 2017-05-08
ISBN 10: 3319542176
ISBN 13: 9783319542171
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Spatial Modeling and Assessment of Urban Form Book Review:

This book discusses the application of Geospatial data, Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) technologies in analysis and modeling of urban growth process, and its pattern, with special focus on sprawl and compact form of urban development. The book explains these two kinds of urban forms (sprawl and compact urban development) in detail regarding their advantages, disadvantages, indicators, assessment, modeling, implementation and their relationship with urban sustainability. It confirms that the proposed modeling approaches, geospatial data and GIS are very practical for identifying urban growth, land use change patterns and their general trends in future. The analyses and modeling approaches presented in this book can be employed to guide the identification and measurements of the changes and growth likely to happen in urban areas. In addition, this book can be helpful for town planning and development in order to design urban areas in a compact form and eventually sustainable manner.

Environmental Modelling with GIS and Remote Sensing

Environmental Modelling with GIS and Remote Sensing
Author: Andrew Skidmore
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 268
Release: 2017-08-11
ISBN 10: 0203302214
ISBN 13: 9780203302217
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Environmental Modelling with GIS and Remote Sensing Book Review:

Most government agencies and private companies are investing significant resources in the production and use of geographical data. The capabilities of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for data analysis are also improving, to the extent that the potential performance of GIS software and the data available for analysis outstrip the abilities of

Statistics for Earth and Environmental Scientists

Statistics for Earth and Environmental Scientists
Author: John H. Schuenemeyer,Lawrence J. Drew
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 384
Release: 2011-04-12
ISBN 10: 1118102215
ISBN 13: 9781118102213
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Statistics for Earth and Environmental Scientists Book Review:

A comprehensive treatment of statistical applications for solvingreal-world environmental problems A host of complex problems face today's earth science community,such as evaluating the supply of remaining non-renewable energyresources, assessing the impact of people on the environment,understanding climate change, and managing the use of water. Propercollection and analysis of data using statistical techniquescontributes significantly toward the solution of these problems.Statistics for Earth and Environmental Scientists presentsimportant statistical concepts through data analytic tools andshows readers how to apply them to real-world problems. The authors present several different statistical approaches tothe environmental sciences, including Bayesian and nonparametricmethodologies. The book begins with an introduction to types ofdata, evaluation of data, modeling and estimation, randomvariation, and sampling—all of which are explored throughcase studies that use real data from earth science applications.Subsequent chapters focus on principles of modeling and the keymethods and techniques for analyzing scientific data,including: Interval estimation and Methods for analyzinghypothesis testingof means time series data Spatial statistics Multivariate analysis Discrete distributions Experimental design Most statistical models are introduced by concept andapplication, given as equations, and then accompanied by heuristicjustification rather than a formal proof. Data analysis, modelbuilding, and statistical inference are stressed throughout, andreaders are encouraged to collect their own data to incorporateinto the exercises at the end of each chapter. Most data sets,graphs, and analyses are computed using R, but can be worked withusing any statistical computing software. A related websitefeatures additional data sets, answers to selected exercises, and Rcode for the book's examples. Statistics for Earth and Environmental Scientists is anexcellent book for courses on quantitative methods in geology,geography, natural resources, and environmental sciences at theupper-undergraduate and graduate levels. It is also a valuablereference for earth scientists, geologists, hydrologists, andenvironmental statisticians who collect and analyze data in theireveryday work.

GIS and Geostatistical Techniques for Groundwater Science

GIS and Geostatistical Techniques for Groundwater Science
Author: Dr. Senapathi Venkatramanan,Dr. Prasanna Mohan Viswanathan,Sang Yong Chung
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 389
Release: 2019-05-28
ISBN 10: 0128154144
ISBN 13: 9780128154144
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

GIS and Geostatistical Techniques for Groundwater Science Book Review:

GIS and Geostatistical Techniques for Groundwater Science provides a detailed synthesis of the application of GIS and geostatistics in groundwater studies. As the book illustrates, GIS can be a powerful tool for developing solutions for water resource problems, assessing water quality, and managing water resources. Beginning with an introduction to the history of GIS and geostatistical techniques in groundwater studies, the book then describes various spatial techniques, including case studies for various applications, from quality assessment, to resource management. This book assembles the most up-to-date techniques in GIS and geostatistics as they relate to groundwater, one of our most important natural resources. Provides details on the application of GIS and statistics in groundwater studies Includes practical coverage of the use of spatial analysis techniques in groundwater science Bridges the gap between geostatistics and GIS as it relates to groundwater science and management Offers worldwide case studies to illustrate various techniques and applications in addressing groundwater issues

Bulletin

Bulletin
Author: Special Libraries Association. Geography and Map Division
Publsiher: Anonim
Total Pages: 329
Release: 1997
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: UOM:39015082922652
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Bulletin Book Review:

Natural Hazards GIS-Based Spatial Modeling Using Data Mining Techniques

Natural Hazards GIS-Based Spatial Modeling Using Data Mining Techniques
Author: Hamid Reza Pourghasemi,Mauro Rossi
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 296
Release: 2018-12-13
ISBN 10: 3319733834
ISBN 13: 9783319733838
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Natural Hazards GIS-Based Spatial Modeling Using Data Mining Techniques Book Review:

This edited volume assesses capabilities of data mining algorithms for spatial modeling of natural hazards in different countries based on a collection of essays written by experts in the field. The book is organized on different hazards including landslides, flood, forest fire, land subsidence, earthquake, and gully erosion. Chapters were peer-reviewed by recognized scholars in the field of natural hazards research. Each chapter provides an overview on the topic, methods applied, and discusses examples used. The concepts and methods are explained at a level that allows undergraduates to understand and other readers learn through examples. This edited volume is shaped and structured to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of all covered topics. It serves as a reference for researchers from different fields including land surveying, remote sensing, cartography, GIS, geophysics, geology, natural resources, and geography. It also serves as a guide for researchers, students, organizations, and decision makers active in land use planning and hazard management.

GeoSpatial Visual Analytics

GeoSpatial Visual Analytics
Author: Raffaele de Amicis,R. Stojanovic,Giuseppe Conti
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 508
Release: 2009-07-11
ISBN 10: 9048128994
ISBN 13: 9789048128990
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

GeoSpatial Visual Analytics Book Review:

Access, distribution and processing of Geographic Information (GI) are basic preconditions to support strategic environmental decision-making. The heterogeneity of information on the environment today available is driving a wide number of initiatives, on both sides of the Atlantic, all advocating both the strategic role of proper management and processing of environme- related data as well as the importance of harmonized IT infrastructures designed to better monitor and manage the environment. The extremely wide range of often multidimensional environmental information made available at the global scale poses a great challenge to technologists and scientists to find extremely sophisticated yet effective ways to provide access to relevant data patterns within such a vast and highly dynamic information flow. In the past years the domain of 3D scientific visualization has developed several solutions designed for operators requiring to access results of a simulation through the use of 3D visualization that could support the understanding of an evolving phenomenon. However 3D data visualization alone does not provide model and hypothesis-making neither it provide tools to validate results. In order overcome this shortcoming, in recent years scientists have developed a discipline that combines the benefits of data mining and information visualization, which is often referred to as Visual Analytics (VA).

Spatial Statistics

Spatial Statistics
Author: Mohammed A. Kalkhan
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 184
Release: 2011-05-09
ISBN 10: 1439891117
ISBN 13: 9781439891117
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Spatial Statistics Book Review:

Geospatial information modeling and mapping has become an important tool for the investigation and management of natural resources at the landscape scale. Spatial Statistics: GeoSpatial Information Modeling and Thematic Mapping reviews the types and applications of geospatial information data, such as remote sensing, geographic information systems (GIS), and GPS as well as their integration into landscape-scale geospatial statistical models and maps. The book explores how to extract information from remotely sensed imagery, GIS, and GPS, and how to combine this with field data—vegetation, soil, and environmental—to produce a spatial model that can be reconstructed and displayed using GIS software. Readers learn the requirements and limitations of each geospatial modeling and mapping tool. Case studies with real-life examples illustrate important applications of the models. Topics covered in this book include: An overview of the geospatial information sciences and technology and spatial statistics Sampling methods and applications, including probability sampling and nonrandom sampling, and issues to consider in sampling and plot design Fine and coarse scale variability Spatial sampling schemes and spatial pattern Linear and spatial correlation statistics, including Moran’s I, Geary’s C, cross-correlation statistics, and inverse distance weighting Geospatial statistics analysis using stepwise regression, ordinary least squares (OLS), variogram, kriging, spatial auto-regression, binary classification trees, cokriging, and geospatial models for presence and absence data How to use R statistical software to work on statistical analyses and case studies, and to develop a geospatial statistical model The book includes practical examples and laboratory exercises using ArcInfo, ArcView, ArcGIS, and other popular software for geospatial modeling. It is accessible to readers from various fields, without requiring advanced knowledge of geospatial information sciences or quantitative methods.

Applied Spatial Data Analysis with R

Applied Spatial Data Analysis with R
Author: Roger S. Bivand,Edzer Pebesma,Virgilio Gómez-Rubio
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 405
Release: 2013-06-21
ISBN 10: 1461476186
ISBN 13: 9781461476184
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Applied Spatial Data Analysis with R Book Review:

Applied Spatial Data Analysis with R, second edition, is divided into two basic parts, the first presenting R packages, functions, classes and methods for handling spatial data. This part is of interest to users who need to access and visualise spatial data. Data import and export for many file formats for spatial data are covered in detail, as is the interface between R and the open source GRASS GIS and the handling of spatio-temporal data. The second part showcases more specialised kinds of spatial data analysis, including spatial point pattern analysis, interpolation and geostatistics, areal data analysis and disease mapping. The coverage of methods of spatial data analysis ranges from standard techniques to new developments, and the examples used are largely taken from the spatial statistics literature. All the examples can be run using R contributed packages available from the CRAN website, with code and additional data sets from the book's own website. Compared to the first edition, the second edition covers the more systematic approach towards handling spatial data in R, as well as a number of important and widely used CRAN packages that have appeared since the first edition. This book will be of interest to researchers who intend to use R to handle, visualise, and analyse spatial data. It will also be of interest to spatial data analysts who do not use R, but who are interested in practical aspects of implementing software for spatial data analysis. It is a suitable companion book for introductory spatial statistics courses and for applied methods courses in a wide range of subjects using spatial data, including human and physical geography, geographical information science and geoinformatics, the environmental sciences, ecology, public health and disease control, economics, public administration and political science. The book has a website where complete code examples, data sets, and other support material may be found: http://www.asdar-book.org. The authors have taken part in writing and maintaining software for spatial data handling and analysis with R in concert since 2003.

Spatial Data Analysis

Spatial Data Analysis
Author: Robert P. Haining,Robert Haining
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 432
Release: 2003-04-17
ISBN 10: 9780521774376
ISBN 13: 0521774373
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Spatial Data Analysis Book Review:

Table of contents

An Introduction to R for Spatial Analysis and Mapping

An Introduction to R for Spatial Analysis and Mapping
Author: Chris Brunsdon,Lex Comber
Publsiher: SAGE
Total Pages: 336
Release: 2018-12-10
ISBN 10: 152645422X
ISBN 13: 9781526454225
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

An Introduction to R for Spatial Analysis and Mapping Book Review:

This is a new edition of the accessible and student-friendly 'how to' for anyone using R for the first time, for use in spatial statistical analysis, geocomputation and digital mapping. The authors, once again, take readers from ‘zero to hero’, updating the now standard text to further enable practical R applications in GIS, spatial analyses, spatial statistics, web-scraping and more. Revised and updated, each chapter includes: example data and commands to explore hands-on; scripts and coding to exemplify specific functionality; self-contained exercises for students to work through; embedded code within the descriptive text. The new edition includes detailed discussion of new and emerging packages within R like sf, ggplot, tmap, making it the go to introduction for all researchers collecting and using data with location attached. This is the introduction to the use of R for spatial statistical analysis, geocomputation, and GIS for all researchers - regardless of discipline - collecting and using data with location attached.