Sources Mechanisms and Toxicity of Nanomaterials in Plants

Sources  Mechanisms and Toxicity of Nanomaterials in Plants
Author: Jose Peralta-Videa,Vijay Pratap Singh,Durgesh Kumar Tripathi
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 450
Release: 2021-08-01
ISBN 10: 0128230096
ISBN 13: 9780128230091
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Sources Mechanisms and Toxicity of Nanomaterials in Plants Book Review:

Plants encounter a wide range of environmental challenges during their life cycle, among which nanoparticle toxicity is a common form of abiotic stress. Nanoparticles can adversely affect various stages of the plant life cycle, such as seed germination, root and shoot growth, chloroplasts ultrastructure and photosynthesis, nutrients assimilation, carbohydrates metabolism, and plant hormonal status, which collectively result in reduced plant yields. Sources, Mechanisms and Toxicity of Nanomaterials in Plants discusses the plant physiology and chemistry involved when plants encounter nanoparticles. Key topics include effects of nanoparticles on photosynthetic responses, regulation of nanoparticle toxicity by nitric oxide, and regulation of nanoparticle toxicity by exogenous application of primary and secondary metabolites. This is the first volume in the new Nanomaterials-Plant Interactions series and is an essential read to all researchers and scientists interested in plant physiology and chemistry, agronomy, nanotechnology and environmental science. Analyses how nanoparticle toxicity impacts the plant life cycle Includes the latest information on the range of coping mechanisms plants use to combat nanotoxicity Reviews protectants, such as endogenous signaling molecules, and their role in protecting the plant from nanotoxicity

Nanomaterials in Plants Algae and Microorganisms

Nanomaterials in Plants  Algae  and Microorganisms
Author: Durgesh Kumar Tripathi,Parvaiz Ahmad,Shivesh Sharma,Devendra Kumar Chauhan,Nawal Kishore Dubey
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 550
Release: 2017-11-20
ISBN 10: 0128116463
ISBN 13: 9780128116463
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nanomaterials in Plants Algae and Microorganisms Book Review:

Nanomaterials in Plants, Algae and Microorganisms: Concepts and Controversies: Volume One discusses the vast amount of nanomaterials that have been released into the environment in a relatively short amount of time. There is a need to understand what the implications to the health of our biota and ecosystems are as the earth is increasingly inundated with these materials. Not all of the effects are negative, but their impacts are increasing exponentially due to their size, quantity and other factors. Covers the issues of nanoparticles on more simple organisms and their ecosystems Presents issues that are specific to terrestrial ecosystems Contains contributions from global experts who help increase understanding at the physiological, biochemical, molecular, and even genomic and proteomic levels Provides a critical assessment of the progress taking place on this topic and sheds light on future research needs

Nanomaterials in Plants Algae and Microorganisms

Nanomaterials in Plants  Algae and Microorganisms
Author: Durgesh Kumar Tripathi,Parvaiz Ahmad,Shivesh Sharma,Devendra Kumar Chauhan,Nawal Kishore Dubey
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 382
Release: 2018-09-14
ISBN 10: 0128116455
ISBN 13: 9780128116456
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nanomaterials in Plants Algae and Microorganisms Book Review:

Nanomaterials in Plants, Algae and Microorganisms: Concepts and Controversies: Volume 2 not only covers all the new technologies used in the synthesis of nanoparticles, it also tests their response on plants, algae and micro-organisms in aquatic ecosystems. Unlike most works in the field, the book doesn’t focus exclusively on the higher organisms. Instead, it explores the smaller life forms on which they feed. Topics include the impacts of plant development, how different nanoparticles are absorbed by biota, the impact different metals—including silver and rare earth metals—have on living organisms, and the effects nanoparticles have on aquatic ecosystems as a whole. As nanotechnology based products have become a trillion-dollar industry, there is a need to understand the implications to the health of our biota and ecosystems as the earth is increasingly inundated with these materials. Covers the issues of nanoparticles on more simple organisms and their ecosystems Draws upon global experts to help increase understanding of the interface mechanisms at the physiological, biochemical, molecular, and even genomic and proteomic level between ENPs and biological systems Provides a critical assessment of the progress taking place on this topic Sheds light on future research needs and scientific challenges that still exist in nanoparticle and living organism interactions

Phytonanotechnology

Phytonanotechnology
Author: N. Thajuddin,Silvy Mathew
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 354
Release: 2020-05-31
ISBN 10: 0128223537
ISBN 13: 9780128223536
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Phytonanotechnology Book Review:

Phytonanotechnology: Challenges and Prospects consolidates information on the use of phytonanoparticles for biomedical, environmental and agricultural applications, covering recent advances in experimental and theoretical studies on various properties of nanoparticles derived from plant sources. The book deals with various attributes of phytonanoparticles, discussing their current and potential applications. In addition, it explores the development of phytonanoparticles, synthesis techniques, characterization techniques, environmental remediation applications, anti-microbial properties, miscellaneous applications, and multi-functional applications. Risks associated with nanoparticles are also discussed. This book is an important reference for materials scientists, engineers, environmental scientists, food scientists and biomedical scientists who want to learn more about the applications of nanoparticles derived from plant sources. Explores synthesis methods of phytonanoparticles from a variety of plant groups Discusses the major biological reactions of phytonanoparticles Outlines the major opportunities and challenges of using phytonanoparticles in biomedical, environmental and agricultural applications

Phytotoxicity of Nanoparticles

Phytotoxicity of Nanoparticles
Author: Mohammad Faisal,Quaiser Saquib,Abdulrahman A. Alatar,Abdulaziz A. Al-Khedhairy
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 407
Release: 2018-06-28
ISBN 10: 3319767089
ISBN 13: 9783319767086
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Phytotoxicity of Nanoparticles Book Review:

This book provides relevant findings on nanoparticles’ toxicity, their uptake, translocation and mechanisms of interaction with plants at cellular and sub-cellular level. The small size and large specific surface area of nanoparticles endow them with high chemical reactivity and intrinsic toxicity. Such unique physicochemical properties draw global attention of scientists to study potential risks and adverse effects of nanoparticles in the environment. Their toxicity has pronounced effects and consequences for plants and ultimately the whole ecosystem. Plants growing in nanomaterials-polluted sites may exhibit altered metabolism, growth reduction, and lower biomass production. Nanoparticles can adhere to plant roots and exert physicochemical toxicity and subsequently cell death in plants. On the other hand, plants have developed various defense mechanisms against this induced toxicity. This books discusses recent findings as well as several unresolved issues and challenges regarding the interaction and biological effects of nanoparticles. Only detailed studies of these processes and mechanisms will allow researchers to understand the complex plant-nanomaterial interactions.

Engineered Nanoparticles and the Environment

Engineered Nanoparticles and the Environment
Author: Baoshan Xing
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 512
Release: 2016-10-10
ISBN 10: 1119275822
ISBN 13: 9781119275824
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Engineered Nanoparticles and the Environment Book Review:

Details the source, release, exposure, adsorption, aggregation, bioavailability, transport, transformation, and modeling of engineered nanoparticles found in many common products and applications Covers synthesis, environmental application, detection, and characterization of engineered nanoparticles Details the toxicity and risk assessment of engineered nanoparticles Includes topics on the transport, transformation, and modeling of engineered nanoparticles Presents the latest developments and knowledge of engineered nanoparticles Written by world leading experts from prestigious universities and companies

Toxicology

Toxicology
Author: Marcelo Larramendy,Sonia Soloneski
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 218
Release: 2016-10-26
ISBN 10: 9535127160
ISBN 13: 9789535127161
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Toxicology Book Review:

This edited book, Toxicology - New Aspects to This Scientific Conundrum, is intended to provide an overview on the different xenobiotics employed every day in our anthropogenic activities. We hope that this book will continue to meet the expectations and needs of all interested in the implications for the living species of known and new toxicants and to guide them in the future investigations.

Plant Nanotechnology

Plant Nanotechnology
Author: Chittaranjan Kole,D. Sakthi Kumar,Mariya V. Khodakovskaya
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 383
Release: 2016-10-13
ISBN 10: 3319421549
ISBN 13: 9783319421544
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Plant Nanotechnology Book Review:

This book highlights the implications of nanotechnology in plant sciences, particularly its potential to improve food and agricultural systems, through innovative, eco-friendly approaches, and as a result to increase plant productivity. Topics include various aspects of nanomaterials: biophysical and biochemical properties; methods of treatment, detection and quantification; methods of quantifying the uptake of nanomaterials and their translocation and accumulation in plants. In addition, the effects on plant growth and development, the role of nanoparticles in changes in gene and protein expression, and delivery of genetic materials for genetic improvement are discussed. It also explores how nanotechnology can improve plant protection and plant nutrition, and addresses concerns about using nanoparticles and their compliances. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the application potential of nanoparticles in plant science and serves as a valuable resource for students, teachers, researchers and professionals working on nanotechnology.

Nanoscience in Food and Agriculture 5

Nanoscience in Food and Agriculture 5
Author: Shivendu Ranjan,Nandita Dasgupta,Eric Lichtfouse
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 366
Release: 2017-07-12
ISBN 10: 3319584960
ISBN 13: 9783319584966
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nanoscience in Food and Agriculture 5 Book Review:

This book presents comprehensive reviews on the principles, design and applications of nanomaterials in the food and agriculture sectors. This book is the fifth of several volumes on Nanoscience in Food and Agriculture, published in the series Sustainable Agriculture Reviews.

Nanomaterials and Plant Potential

Nanomaterials and Plant Potential
Author: Azamal Husen,Muhammad Iqbal
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 605
Release: 2019-03-01
ISBN 10: 3030055698
ISBN 13: 9783030055691
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nanomaterials and Plant Potential Book Review:

This book discusses the latest developments in plant-mediated fabrication of metal and metal-oxide nanoparticles, and their characterization by using a variety of modern techniques. It explores in detail the application of nanoparticles in drug delivery, cancer treatment, catalysis, and as antimicrobial agent, antioxidant and the promoter of plant production and protection. Application of these nanoparticles in plant systems has started only recently and information is still scanty about their possible effects on plant growth and development. Accumulation and translocation of nanoparticles in plants, and the consequent growth response and stress modulation are not well understood. Plants exposed to these particles exhibit both positive and negative effects, depending on the concentration, size, and shape of the nanoparticles. The impact on plant growth and yield is often positive at lower concentrations and negative at higher ones. Exposure to some nanoparticles may improve the free-radical scavenging potential and antioxidant enzymatic activities in plants and alter the micro-RNAs expression that regulate the different morphological, physiological and metabolic processes in plant system, leading to improved plant growth and yields. The nanoparticles also carry out genetic reforms by efficient transfer of DNA or complete plastid genome into the respective plant genome due to their miniscule size and improved site-specific penetration. Moreover, controlled application of nanomaterials in the form of nanofertilizer offers a more synchronized nutrient fluidity with the uptake by the plant exposed, ensuring an increased nutrient availability. This book addresses these issues and many more. It covers fabrication of different/specific nanomaterials and their wide-range application in agriculture sector, encompassing the controlled release of nutrients, nutrient-use efficiency, genetic exchange, production of secondary metabolites, defense mechanisms, and the growth and productivity of plants exposed to different manufactured nanomaterials. The role of nanofertilizers and nano-biosensors for improving plant production and protection and the possible toxicities caused by certain nanomaterials, the aspects that are little explored by now, have also been generously elucidated.

Nanomaterials

Nanomaterials
Author: Marcelo Larramendy,Sonia Soloneski
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 222
Release: 2015-07-15
ISBN 10: 953512143X
ISBN 13: 9789535121435
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nanomaterials Book Review:

This edited book, Nanomaterials - Toxicity and Risk Assessment, is a collection of current research and information on numerous advances on the toxicity and hazardous effects of nanomaterials, including theoretical and experimental approaches as well as nanotechnology applications in the field of medicine, pharmacology, and the manufacture of nanoscale materials. Based on the large number of nanomaterial applications, a careful understanding of the associated systemic and local toxicity is critically required.

Nanotechnology and Plant Sciences

Nanotechnology and Plant Sciences
Author: Manzer H. Siddiqui,Mohamed H. Al-Whaibi,Firoz Mohammad
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 303
Release: 2015-01-27
ISBN 10: 3319145029
ISBN 13: 9783319145020
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nanotechnology and Plant Sciences Book Review:

This book presents a holistic view of the complex and dynamic responses of plants to nanoparticles, the signal transduction mechanisms involved, and the regulation of gene expression. Further, it addresses the phytosynthesis of nanoparticles, the role of nanoparticles in the antioxidant systems of plants and agriculture, the beneficial and harmful effects of nanoparticles on plants, and the application of nanoparticles and nanotubes to mass spectrometry, aiming ultimately at an analysis of the metabolomics of plants. The growing numbers of inventions in the field of nanotechnology are producing novel applications in the fields of biotechnology and agriculture. Nanoparticles have received much attention because of the unique physico-chemical properties of these compounds. In the life sciences, nanoparticles are used as “smart” delivery systems, prompting the Nobel Prize winner P. Ehrlich to refer to these compounds as “magic bullets.” Nanoparticles also play an important role in agriculture as compound fertilizers and nano-pesticides, acting as chemical delivery agents that target molecules to specific cellular organelles in plants. The influence of nanoparticles on plant growth and development, however, remains to be investigated. Lastly, this book reveals the research gaps that must be bridged in the years to come in order to achieve larger goals concerning the applications of nanotechnology in the plants sciences. In the 21st century, nanotechnology has become a rapidly emerging branch of science. In the world of physical sciences, nanotechnological tools have been exploited for a broad range of applications. In recent years, nanoparticles have also proven useful in several branches of the life sciences. In particular, nanotechnology has been employed in drug delivery and related applications in medicine.

Reactive Oxygen Species ROS Nanoparticles and Endoplasmic Reticulum ER Stress Induced Cell Death Mechanisms

Reactive Oxygen Species  ROS   Nanoparticles  and Endoplasmic Reticulum  ER  Stress Induced Cell Death Mechanisms
Author: Loutfy H. Madkour
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 780
Release: 2020-06-27
ISBN 10: 0128224967
ISBN 13: 9780128224960
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Reactive Oxygen Species ROS Nanoparticles and Endoplasmic Reticulum ER Stress Induced Cell Death Mechanisms Book Review:

Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), Nanoparticles, and Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress-Induced Cell Death Mechanisms presents the role of ROS‒mediated pathways cellular signaling stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, oxidative stress, oxidative damage, nanomaterials, and the mechanisms by which metalloids and nanoparticles induce their toxic effects. The book covers the ecotoxicology of environmental heavy metal ions and free radicals on macromolecules cells organisms, heavy metals‒induced cell responses, oxidative stress, the source of oxidants, and the roles of ROS, oxidative stress and oxidative damage mechanisms. It also examines the nanotoxicity, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity mechanisms of nanomaterials and the effects of nanoparticle interactions. Antioxidant defense therapy and strategies for treatment round out the book, making it an ideal resource for researchers and professional scientists in toxicology, environmental chemistry, environmental science, nanomaterials and the pharmaceutical sciences. Covers the ecotoxicology of environmental heavy metal ions and the interactions between specific heavy metals‒induced cell responses and oxidative stress Provides a better understanding of the mechanism of nanomaterial-induced toxicity as a first defense for hazard prevention Covers recent advances in new nanomedication technologies for the effects of NPs on oxidative stress, ROS and ER stress Discusses the effects of interactions between antioxidant defense therapy, ROS and strategies for treatment

Microbial Nanotechnology

Microbial Nanotechnology
Author: Mahendra Rai,Patrycja Golińska
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 302
Release: 2020-09-17
ISBN 10: 1000196488
ISBN 13: 9781000196481
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Microbial Nanotechnology Book Review:

This book provides an account of the biogenic synthesis of nanomaterials by using different microorganisms. The chapters are focused on the biosynthesis of various metal and metal oxide nanosized materials by using bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, and algae, including mechanisms of microbial synthesis. Other chapters summarize recent developments of microbial-based nanostructures for the management of food-borne pathogens, plant pathogenic fungi, as nutrients, and biomedical applications. Microorganisms are discussed not only as biofactories for the synthesis of nanomaterials but also as removal agents of toxic metals from the environment. Exposure sources and ecotoxicity of microbially synthesized nanoparticles are also discussed.

Environmental Toxicity of Nanomaterials

Environmental Toxicity of Nanomaterials
Author: Vineet Kumar,Nandita Dasgupta,Shivendu Ranjan
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 523
Release: 2018-04-17
ISBN 10: 1351252941
ISBN 13: 9781351252942
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Environmental Toxicity of Nanomaterials Book Review:

Environmental Toxicity of Nanomaterials focuses on causes and prevention of environmental toxicity induced by various nanomaterials. In sixteen chapters it describes the basic principles, trends, challenges, and future directions of nanoecotoxicity. The future acceptance of nanomaterials in various industries depends on the impacts of nanomaterials on the environment and ecosystem. This book analyzes the safe utilization of nanotechnology so the tremendous prospect of nanotechnology can be achieved without harming either living beings or the environment. Environmental Toxicity of Nanomaterials introduces nanoecotoxicity, describes various factors affecting the toxicity of nanomaterials, discusses various factors that can impart nanoecotoxicity, reviews various studies in the area of nanoecotoxicity evaluation, and describes the safety and risk assessment of nanomaterials. In addition, the book discusses strategies for mitigating nanoecotoxicity. Lastly, the authors provide guidelines and protocols for nanotoxicity evaluation and discuss regulations for safety assessment of nanomaterials. In addition to environmental toxicologists, this book is aimed at policy makers, industry personnel, and doctoral and postdoctoral scholars.

New Visions in Plant Science

New Visions in Plant Science
Author: Özge Çelik
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 170
Release: 2018-09-19
ISBN 10: 1789237025
ISBN 13: 9781789237023
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

New Visions in Plant Science Book Review:

Over the past decade, progress in plant science and molecular technologies has grown considerably. This book focuses on plant biotechnology applications specializing in certain aspects of breeding and molecular marker-assisted selection processes, omic strategies, usage of bioinformatic tools, and nanotechnological improvements in agricultural sciences. Most farmers and breeders can no longer simply turn to the older strategies, and new instructions are needed to adapt their systems to achieve their production goals. The book covers new information on using metabolomics and nanotechnology in agriculture. In these circumstances, all new data and technology are very important in plant science. The topics in this book are practical and user-friendly. They allow practitioners, students, and academicians with specific background knowledge to feel confident about the principles presented on a new generation of molecular plant biotechnology applications.

Role of Plant Growth Promoting Microorganisms in Sustainable Agriculture and Nanotechnology

Role of Plant Growth Promoting Microorganisms in Sustainable Agriculture and Nanotechnology
Author: Ajay Kumar,Amit Kishore Singh,Krishna Kumar Choudhary
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 352
Release: 2019-06-20
ISBN 10: 0128170050
ISBN 13: 9780128170052
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Role of Plant Growth Promoting Microorganisms in Sustainable Agriculture and Nanotechnology Book Review:

Role of Plant Growth Promoting Microorganisms in Sustainable Agriculture and Nanotechnology explores PGPMs (actinomycetes, bacteria, fungi and cyanobacteria) and their multidimensional roles in agriculture, including their increasing applications in sustainable agriculture. In addition to their traditional understanding and applications in agriculture, PGPMs are increasingly known as a source of nano-particles production that are gaining significant interest in their ability to provide more economically, environmentally friendly and safe technologies to crop growers. The book considers new concepts and current developments in plant growth, thus promoting microorganisms research and evaluating its implications for sustainable productivity. Users will find this to be an invaluable resource for researchers in applied microbial biotechnology, soil science, nano-technology of microbial strains, and industry personnel in these areas. Presents basic and applied aspects of sustainable agriculture, including nano-technology in sustainable agriculture Identifies molecular tools/omics approaches for enhancing plant growth promoting microorganisms Discusses plant growth promoting microorganisms in bioactive compounds production, and as a source of nano-particles

Antimicrobial Nanoarchitectonics

Antimicrobial Nanoarchitectonics
Author: Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 574
Release: 2017-06-22
ISBN 10: 0323527345
ISBN 13: 9780323527347
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Antimicrobial Nanoarchitectonics Book Review:

Antimicrobial Nanoarchitectonics: From Synthesis to Applications brings together recent research in antimicrobial nanoparticles, specifically in the sustained and controlled delivery of antimicrobials. Particular attention is given to i) reducing the side effects of antibiotics, ii) increasing the pharmacological effect, and iii) improving aqueous solubility and chemical stability of different antimicrobials. In addition, antimicrobial nanoparticles in drug delivery are discussed extensively. The book also evaluates the pros and cons of using nanostructured biomaterials in the prevention and eradication of infections. It is an important reference resource for materials scientists and bioengineers who want to learn how nanomaterials are used in antimicrobial therapy. Provides readers with the information necessary to select the appropriate bionanomaterial to solve particular infection problems Includes case studies, showing how particular bionanomaterials have been used to cure infections Explains the central role that nanotechnology plays in modern antimicrobial therapy Evaluates the pros and cons of using nanostructured biomaterials in the prevention and eradication of infections

Current Topics in Public Health

Current Topics in Public Health
Author: Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 744
Release: 2013-05-15
ISBN 10: 9535111213
ISBN 13: 9789535111214
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Current Topics in Public Health Book Review:

Public Health is regarded as the basis and cornerstone of health, generally and in medicine. Defined as the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals, this discipline has been renewed by the incorporation of multiple actors, professions, knowledge areas and it has also been impacted and promoted by multiple technologies, particularly - the information technology. As a changing field of knowledge, Public Health requires evidence-based information and regular updates. Current Topics in Public Health presents updated information on multiple topics related to actual areas of interest in this growing and exciting medical science, with the conception and philosophy that we are working to improve the health of the population, rather than treating diseases of individual patients, taking decisions about collective health care that are based on the best available, current, valid and relevant evidence, and finally within the context of available resources. With participation of authors from multiple countries, many from developed and developing ones, this book offers a wide geographical perspective. Finally, all these characteristics make this book an excellent update on many subjects of world public health.

Inorganic Pollutants in Water

Inorganic Pollutants in Water
Author: Pooja Devi,Pardeep Singh,Sushil Kumar Kansal
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 444
Release: 2020-03
ISBN 10: 0128189657
ISBN 13: 9780128189658
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Inorganic Pollutants in Water Book Review:

Inorganic Pollutants in Water provides a clear understanding of inorganic pollutants and the challenges they cause in aquatic environments. The book explores the point of source, how they enter water, the effects they have, and their eventual detection and removal. Through a series of case studies, the authors explore the success of the detection and removal techniques they have developed. Users will find this to be a single platform of information on inorganic pollutants that is ideal for researchers, engineers and technologists working in the fields of environmental science, environmental engineering and chemical engineering/ sustainability. Through this text, the authors introduce new researchers to the problem of inorganic contaminants in water, while also presenting the current state-of-the-art in terms of research and technologies to tackle this problem.