Social Impacts of Smart Grids

Social Impacts of Smart Grids
Author: Wadim Strielkowski
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 342
Release: 2019-10-22
ISBN 10: 0128177705
ISBN 13: 9780128177709
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Social Impacts of Smart Grids Book Review:

Social Impacts of Smart Grids: The Future of Smart Grids and Energy Market Design explores the significant, unexplored societal consequences of our meteoric evolution towards intelligent, responsive and sustainable power generation and distribution systems-the so-called 'smart grid'. These consequences include new patterns of consumption behavior, systems planning under increasing uncertainty, and the ever- growing complexities involved. The work covers the historical impact of the transformation, examines the changing role of production and consumption behavior, articulates the principles and options for socially responsible smart grid power market design, and explores social acceptance of the smart grid. Where relevant, it examines adjacent literatures from P2P electricity markets, electric vehicles, smart homes and smart cities, and related 'internet of energy' developments. Finally, it provides insights into mitigating the likely social consequences of our integrated low-carbon energy future. Evaluates the connections between the concept of sustainability and the social impacts of the smart grids Analyzes emerging trends in smart grids connected with trends towards the sharing economy Investigates environmental degradation awareness and environmental stewardship goals associated with smart grids Explores how to mitigate social challenges with effective smart grid power market design Integrates energy stewardship and social acceptance literatures into the discussion of the smart grid

Smart Grid and Enabling Technologies

Smart Grid and Enabling Technologies
Author: Shady S. Refaat,Omar Ellabban,Sertac Bayhan,Haitham Abu-Rub,Frede Blaabjerg,Miroslav M. Begovic
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 512
Release: 2021-08-16
ISBN 10: 1119422310
ISBN 13: 9781119422310
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Smart Grid and Enabling Technologies Book Review:

SMART GRID AND ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES Discover foundational topics in smart grid technology as well as an exploration of the current and future state of the industry As the relationship between fossil fuel use and climate change becomes ever clearer, the search is on for reliable, renewable and less harmful sources of energy. Sometimes called the “electronet” or the “energy Internet,” smart grids promise to integrate renewable energy, information, and communication technologies with the existing electrical grid and deliver electricity more efficiently and reliably. Smart Grid and Enabling Technologies delivers a complete vision of smart grid technology and applications, including foundational and fundamental technologies, the technology that enables smart grids, the current state of the industry, and future trends in smart energy. The book offers readers thorough discussions of modern smart grid technology, including advanced metering infrastructure, net zero energy buildings, and communication, data management, and networks in smart grids. The accomplished authors also discuss critical challenges and barriers facing the smart grid industry as well as trends likely to be of importance in its future development. Readers will also benefit from the inclusion of: A thorough introduction to smart grid architecture, including traditional grids, the fundamentals of electric power, definitions and classifications of smart grids, and the components of smart grid technology An exploration of the opportunities and challenges posed by renewable energy integration Practical discussions of power electronics in the smart grid, including power electronics converters for distributed generation, flexible alternating current transmission systems, and high voltage direct current transmission systems An analysis of distributed generation Perfect for scientists, researchers, engineers, graduate students, and senior undergraduate students studying and working with electrical power systems and communication systems. Smart Grid and Enabling Technologies will also earn a place in the libraries of economists, government planners and regulators, policy makers, and energy stakeholders working in the smart grid field.

The Sustainable City

The Sustainable City
Author: Steven Cohen,Guo Dong
Publsiher: Columbia University Press
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2021-06-15
ISBN 10: 0231551703
ISBN 13: 9780231551700
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Sustainable City Book Review:

Living sustainably is not just about preserving the wilderness or keeping nature pristine. The transition to a green economy depends on cities. Economic, technological, and cultural forces are moving people out of rural areas and into urban areas. If we are to avert climate catastrophe, we will need our cities to coexist with nature without destroying it. Urbanization holds the key to long-term sustainability, reducing per capita environmental impacts while improving economic prosperity and social inclusion for current and future generations. The Sustainable City provides a broad and engaging overview of the urban systems of the twenty-first century. It approaches urban sustainability from the perspectives of behavioral change, organizational management, and public policy, looking at case studies of existing legislation, programs, and public-private partnerships that strive to align modern urban life and sustainability. The book synthesizes the disparate strands of sustainable city planning in an approachable and applicable guide that highlights how these issues touch our lives on a daily basis, including the transportation we take, the public health systems that protect us, where our energy comes from, and what becomes of our food waste. This second edition of The Sustainable City dives deeper into the financing of sustainable infrastructure and initiatives and puts additional emphasis on the roles that individual citizens and varied stakeholders can play. It also reviews current trends in urban inequality and discusses whether a model of sustainability that embraces a multidimensional approach to development and a multistakeholder approach to decision making can foster social inclusion. It features many more examples and new international case studies spanning the globe.

Sustainable Energy Technologies

Sustainable Energy Technologies
Author: Eduardo Rincón-Mejía,Alejandro de las Heras
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 399
Release: 2017-11-20
ISBN 10: 1351980688
ISBN 13: 9781351980685
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Sustainable Energy Technologies Book Review:

This book examines the key aspects that will define future sustainable energy systems: energy supply, energy storage, security and limited environmental impacts. It clearly explains the need for an integrated engineering approach to sustainable energies, based on mathematical, biogeophysical, and engineering arguments. Resilient and efficient alternatives are compared to non-sustainable options. This book results from the collaboration of 50 international contributors.

Energy Processing and Smart Grid

Energy Processing and Smart Grid
Author: James A. Momoh
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 448
Release: 2018-06-19
ISBN 10: 1119376238
ISBN 13: 9781119376231
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Energy Processing and Smart Grid Book Review:

The first book in the field to incorporate fundamentals of energy systems and their applications to smart grid, along with advanced topics in modeling and control This book provides an overview of how multiple sources and loads are connected via power electronic devices. Issues of storage technologies are discussed, and a comparison summary is given to facilitate the design and selection of storage types. The need for real-time measurement and controls are pertinent in future grid, and this book dedicates several chapters to real-time measurements such as PMU, smart meters, communication scheme, and protocol and standards for processing and controls of energy options. Organized into nine sections, Energy Processing for the Smart Grid gives an introduction to the energy processing concepts/topics needed by students in electrical engineering or non-electrical engineering who need to work in areas of future grid development. It covers such modern topics as renewable energy, storage technologies, inverter and converter, power electronics, and metering and control for microgrid systems. In addition, this text: Provides the interface between the classical machines courses with current trends in energy processing and smart grid Details an understanding of three-phase networks, which is needed to determine voltages, currents, and power from source to sink under different load models and network configurations Introduces different energy sources including renewable and non-renewable energy resources with appropriate modeling characteristics and performance measures Covers the conversion and processing of these resources to meet different DC and AC load requirements Provides an overview and a case study of how multiple sources and loads are connected via power electronic devices Benefits most policy makers, students and manufacturing and practicing engineers, given the new trends in energy revolution and the desire to reduce carbon output Energy Processing for the Smart Grid is a helpful text for undergraduates and first year graduate students in a typical engineering program who have already taken network analysis and electromagnetic courses.

Power System SCADA and Smart Grids

Power System SCADA and Smart Grids
Author: Mini S. Thomas,John Douglas McDonald
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 335
Release: 2017-12-19
ISBN 10: 1482226758
ISBN 13: 9781482226751
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Power System SCADA and Smart Grids Book Review:

Power System SCADA and Smart Grids brings together in one concise volume the fundamentals and possible application functions of power system supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA). The text begins by providing an overview of SCADA systems, evolution, and use in power systems and the data acquisition process. It then describes the components of SCADA systems, from the legacy remote terminal units (RTUs) to the latest intelligent electronic devices (IEDs), data concentrators, and master stations, as well as: Examines the building and practical implementation of different SCADA systems Offers a comprehensive discussion of the data communication, protocols, and media usage Covers substation automation (SA), which forms the basis for transmission, distribution, and customer automation Addresses distribution automation and distribution management systems (DA/DMS) and energy management systems (EMS) for transmission control centers Discusses smart distribution, smart transmission, and smart grid solutions such as smart homes with home energy management systems (HEMs), plugged hybrid electric vehicles, and more Power System SCADA and Smart Grids is designed to assist electrical engineering students, researchers, and practitioners alike in acquiring a solid understanding of SCADA systems and application functions in generation, transmission, and distribution systems, which are evolving day by day, to help them adapt to new challenges effortlessly. The book reveals the inner secrets of SCADA systems, unveils the potential of the smart grid, and inspires more minds to get involved in the development process.

Smart Grids

Smart Grids
Author: Stuart Borlase
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 806
Release: 2017-11-22
ISBN 10: 1498799566
ISBN 13: 9781498799560
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Smart Grids Book Review:

The latest edition features a new chapter on implementation and operation of an integrated smart grid with updates to multiple chapters throughout the text. New sections on Internet of things, and how they relate to smart grids and smart cities, have also been added to the book. It describes the impetus for change in the electric utility industry and discusses the business drivers, benefits, and market outlook of the smart grid initiative. The book identifies the technical framework of enabling technologies and smart solutions and describes the role of technology developments and coordinated standards in smart grid, including various initiatives and organizations helping to drive the smart grid effort. With chapters written by leading experts in the field, the text explains how to plan, integrate, implement, and operate a smart grid.

Energy Efficiency Improvements in Smart Grid Components

Energy Efficiency Improvements in Smart Grid Components
Author: Moustafa Eissa
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 350
Release: 2015-04-22
ISBN 10: 9535120387
ISBN 13: 9789535120384
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Energy Efficiency Improvements in Smart Grid Components Book Review:

This book is intended for academics and engineers who are working in universities, research institutes, utility and industry sectors wishing to enhance their idea and get new information about the energy efficiency developments in smart grid. The readers will gain special experience with deep information and new idea about the energy efficiency topics. This book includes lots of problems and solutions that can easily be understood and integrated into larger projects and researches. The book enables some studies about monitoring, management and measures related to smart grid components, Energy Efficiency Improvements in smart grid components and new intelligent Control strategies for Distributed energy resources, boosting PV systems, electrical vehicles, etc. It included optimization concepts for power system, promoting value propositions; protection in power system, etc. The book also has some recent developments in solar cell technologies, LEDs and non thermal plasma technology. As I enjoyed preparing this book I am sure that it will be very valuable for large sector of readers.

The Political Economy of Clean Energy Transitions

The Political Economy of Clean Energy Transitions
Author: Douglas Arent,Channing Arndt,Mackay Miller,Finn Tarp,Owen Zinaman
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 544
Release: 2017-03-30
ISBN 10: 0192523007
ISBN 13: 9780192523006
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Political Economy of Clean Energy Transitions Book Review:

This is an open access title available under the terms of a CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO licence. It is free to read at Oxford Scholarship Online and offered as a free PDF download from OUP and selected open access locations. The 21st Conference of the Parties (CoP21) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) shifted the nature of the political economy challenge associated with achieving a global emissions trajectory that is consistent with a stable climate. The shifts generated by CoP21 place country decision-making and country policies at centre stage. Under moderately optimistic assumptions concerning the vigour with which CoP21 objectives are pursued, nearly every country will attempt to design and implement the most promising and locally relevant policies for achieving their agreed contribution to global mitigation. These policies will vary dramatically across countries as they embark on an unprecedented era of policy experimentation in driving a clean energy transition. This book steps into this new world of broad-scale and locally relevant policy experimentation. The chapters focus on the political economy of clean energy transition with an emphasis on specific issues encountered in both developed and developing countries. The authors contribute a broad diversity of experience drawn from all major regions of the world, representing a compendium of what has been learned from recent initiatives, mostly (but not exclusively) at country level, to reduce GHG emissions. As this new era of experimentation dawns, their contributions are both relevant and timely.

Privacy and Security in the Digital Age

Privacy and Security in the Digital Age
Author: Michael Friedewald,Ronald J Pohoryles
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 206
Release: 2016-01-13
ISBN 10: 1317661060
ISBN 13: 9781317661061
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Privacy and Security in the Digital Age Book Review:

Privacy and data protection are recognized as fundamental human rights. Recent developments, however, indicate that security issues are used to undermine these fundamental rights. As new technologies effectively facilitate collection, storage, processing and combination of personal data government agencies take advantage for their own purposes. Increasingly, and for other reasons, the business sector threatens the privacy of citizens as well. The contributions to this book explore the different aspects of the relationship between technology and privacy. The emergence of new technologies threaten increasingly privacy and/or data protection; however, little is known about the potential of these technologies that call for innovative and prospective analysis, or even new conceptual frameworks. Technology and privacy are two intertwined notions that must be jointly analyzed and faced. Technology is a social practice that embodies the capacity of societies to transform themselves by creating the possibility to generate and manipulate not only physical objects, but also symbols, cultural forms and social relations. In turn, privacy describes a vital and complex aspect of these social relations. Thus technology influences people’s understanding of privacy, and people’s understanding of privacy is a key factor in defining the direction of technological development. This book was originally published as a special issue of Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research.

The Energy Internet

The Energy Internet
Author: Wencong Su,Alex Huang
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 398
Release: 2018-10-26
ISBN 10: 0081022158
ISBN 13: 9780081022153
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Energy Internet Book Review:

The Energy Internet: An Open Energy Platform to Transform Legacy Power Systems into Open Innovation and Global Economic Engines is an innovative concept that changes the way people generate, distribute and consume electrical energy. With the potential to transform the infrastructure of the electric grid, the book challenges existing power systems, presenting innovative and pioneering theories and technologies that will challenge existing norms on generation and consumption. Researchers, academics, engineers, consultants and policymakers will gain a thorough understanding of the Energy Internet that includes a thorough dissemination of case studies from the USA, China, Japan, Germany and the U.K. The book's editors provide analysis of various enabling technologies and technical solutions, such as control theory, communication, and the social and economic aspects that are central to obtaining a clear appreciation of the potential of this complex infrastructure. Presents the first complete resource on the innovative concept of the Energy Internet Provides a clear analysis of the architecture of the Energy Internet to ensure an understanding of the technologies behind generating, distributing and consuming electricity in this way Includes a variety of global case studies of real-world implementation and pilot projects to thoroughly demonstrate the theoretical, technological and economic considerations

Narratives of Low Carbon Transitions

Narratives of Low Carbon Transitions
Author: Susanne Hanger-Kopp,Jenny Lieu,Alexandros Nikas
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 276
Release: 2019-02-21
ISBN 10: 0429858779
ISBN 13: 9780429858772
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Narratives of Low Carbon Transitions Book Review:

"The Open Access version of this book, available at https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429458781, has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 license." This book examines the uncertainties underlying various strategies for a low-carbon future. Most prominently, such strategies relate to transitions in the energy sector, on both the supply and the demand side. At the same time they interact with other sectors, such as industrial production, transport, and building, and ultimately require new behaviour patterns at household and individual levels. Currently, much research is available on the effectiveness of these strategies but, in order to successfully implement comprehensive transition pathways, it is crucial not only to understand the benefits but also the risks. Filling this gap, this volume provides an interdisciplinary, conceptual framework to assess risks and uncertainties associated with low-carbon policies and applies this consistently across 11 country cases from around the world, illustrating alternative transition pathways in various contexts. The cases are presented as narratives, drawing on stakeholder-driven research efforts. They showcase diverse empirical evidence reflecting the complex challenges to and potential negative consequences of such pathways. Together, they enable the reader to draw valuable lessons on the risks and uncertainties associated with choosing the envisaged transition pathways, as well as ways to manage the implementation of these pathways and ultimately enable sustainable and lasting social and environmental effects. This book will be of great interest to students, scholars, and practitioners of environmental and energy policy, low-carbon transitions, renewable energy technologies, climate change action, and sustainability in general.

Low Carbon Smart Cities

Low Carbon Smart Cities
Author: Kwi-Gon Kim
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 342
Release: 2017-07-10
ISBN 10: 3319596187
ISBN 13: 9783319596181
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Low Carbon Smart Cities Book Review:

This book aims to integrate climate mitigation and adaptation tools into conventional urban planning. It emphasizes the value and importance of ICT as connected technology. The author believes that ICT and IOT can facilitate controlling climate change attributes when deployed with appropriate ingredients and composition in cities in an integrated comprehensive manner. It was written with the author's firm belief that cities play an important role in mitigating climate change by reducing energy consumption, promoting the use of renewable energy sources, or by trading emission permits and selling Certified Emission Rights (CERs). This book looks at green growth based on the circular economy using green smart technology as a sustainable tool for green economic development. Also for climate change adaptation, cities have to take actions to reduce the adverse impacts of climate change on people, property and ecosystems in the urban planning process. It has been written with the author's works for Urban Environment Accords (UEA) and International Urban Training Center (IUTC) in collaboration with UNEP, World Bank, UNFCCC and UN-HABITAT. It can be used as a training source book for city climate planners and urban practitioners of local governments. It will be utilized as a more practical guidebook for climate change policy makers as well as a futuristic research agenda for next generations.

Ubiquitous Computing and Multimedia Applications

Ubiquitous Computing and Multimedia Applications
Author: G.S. Tomar,William I. Grosky,Tai-hoon Kim,Sabah Mohammed,Sanjoy Saha
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 159
Release: 2010-06-09
ISBN 10: 3642134661
ISBN 13: 9783642134661
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Ubiquitous Computing and Multimedia Applications Book Review:

Advanced Science and Technology, Advanced Communication and Networking, Information Security and Assurance, Ubiquitous Computing and Multimedia Appli- tions are conferences that attract many academic and industry professionals. The goal of these co-located conferences is to bring together researchers from academia and industry as well as practitioners to share ideas, problems and solutions relating to the multifaceted aspects of advanced science and technology, advanced communication and networking, information security and assurance, ubiquitous computing and m- timedia applications. This co-located event included the following conferences: AST 2010 (The second International Conference on Advanced Science and Technology), ACN 2010 (The second International Conference on Advanced Communication and Networking), ISA 2010 (The 4th International Conference on Information Security and Assurance) and UCMA 2010 (The 2010 International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing and Multimedia Applications). We would like to express our gratitude to all of the authors of submitted papers and to all attendees, for their contributions and participation. We believe in the need for continuing this undertaking in the future. We acknowledge the great effort of all the Chairs and the members of advisory boards and Program Committees of the above-listed events, who selected 15% of over 1,000 submissions, following a rigorous peer-review process. Special thanks go to SERSC (Science & Engineering Research Support soCiety) for supporting these - located conferences.

Integration of Renewable Energy Sources with Smart Grid

Integration of Renewable Energy Sources with Smart Grid
Author: M. Kathiresh,A. Mahaboob Subahani,G. R. Kanagachidambaresan
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 384
Release: 2021-08-16
ISBN 10: 1119751888
ISBN 13: 9781119751885
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Integration of Renewable Energy Sources with Smart Grid Book Review:

This book starts with an overview of renewable energy technologies, smart grid technologies, energy storage systems, and covers the details of renewable energy integration with smart grid and the corresponding controls. This book provides better views on power scenario in developing countries. The requirement of the integration of smart grid along with the energy storage systems are deeply discussed to acknowledge the importance of sustainable development of smart city. The methodologies are made quite possible with the high-efficient power convertor topologies and intelligent control schemes. These control schemes are capable to provide better control with the help of machine intelligence techniques and artificial intelligence. The book also addresses the modern power convertor topologies and the corresponding control schemes for renewable energy integration with smart grid. The design and analysis of power converters that are used for grid integration of solar PV along with simulation and experimental results are illustrated. The protection aspects of the microgrid with power electronic configurations for wind energy systems are elucidated.

Big Data Analytics Strategies for the Smart Grid

Big Data Analytics Strategies for the Smart Grid
Author: Carol L. Stimmel
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 256
Release: 2016-04-19
ISBN 10: 1482218291
ISBN 13: 9781482218299
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Big Data Analytics Strategies for the Smart Grid Book Review:

By implementing a comprehensive data analytics program, utility companies can meet the continually evolving challenges of modern grids that are operationally efficient, while reconciling the demands of greenhouse gas legislation and establishing a meaningful return on investment from smart grid deployments.Readable and accessible, Big Data Analytic

Transportation and Power Grid in Smart Cities

Transportation and Power Grid in Smart Cities
Author: Hussein T. Mouftah,Melike Erol-Kantarci,Mubashir Husain Rehmani
Publsiher: Wiley
Total Pages: 688
Release: 2018-12-06
ISBN 10: 1119360080
ISBN 13: 9781119360087
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Transportation and Power Grid in Smart Cities Book Review:

With the increasing worldwide trend in population migration into urban centers, we are beginning to see the emergence of the kinds of mega-cities which were once the stuff of science fiction. It is clear to most urban planners and developers that accommodating the needs of the tens of millions of inhabitants of those megalopolises in an orderly and uninterrupted manner will require the seamless integration of and real-time monitoring and response services for public utilities and transportation systems. Part speculative look into the future of the world’s urban centers, part technical blueprint, this visionary book helps lay the groundwork for the communication networks and services on which tomorrow’s “smart cities” will run. Written by a uniquely well-qualified author team, this book provides detailed insights into the technical requirements for the wireless sensor and actuator networks required to make smart cities a reality.

Smart Grid Control

Smart Grid Control
Author: Jakob Stoustrup,Anuradha Annaswamy,Aranya Chakrabortty,Zhihua Qu
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 288
Release: 2018-09-25
ISBN 10: 3319983105
ISBN 13: 9783319983103
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Smart Grid Control Book Review:

This book focuses on the role of systems and control. Focusing on the current and future development of smart grids in the generation and transmission of energy, it provides an overview of the smart grid control landscape, and the potential impact of the various investigations presented has for technical aspects of power generation and distribution as well as for human and economic concerns such as pricing, consumption and demand management. A tutorial exposition is provided in each chapter, describing the opportunities and challenges that lie ahead. Topics in these chapters include: wide-area control; issues of estimation and integration at the transmission; distribution, consumers, and demand management; and cyber-physical security for smart grid control systems. The contributors describe the problems involved with each topic, and what impact these problems would have if not solved. The tutorial components and the opportunities and challenges detailed make this book ideal for anyone interested in new paradigms for modernized, smart power grids, and anyone in a field where control is applied. More specifically, it is a valuable resource for students studying smart grid control, and for researchers and academics wishing to extend their knowledge of the topic.

Advances in Smart Grid Automation and Industry 4 0

Advances in Smart Grid Automation and Industry 4 0
Author: M. Jaya Bharata Reddy
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2021
ISBN 10: 9811576750
ISBN 13: 9789811576751
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Smart Grid Automation and Industry 4 0 Book Review:

E Democracy for Smart Cities

E Democracy for Smart Cities
Author: T.M. Vinod Kumar
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 551
Release: 2017-05-16
ISBN 10: 9811040354
ISBN 13: 9789811040351
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

E Democracy for Smart Cities Book Review:

This book highlights the rightful role of citizens as per the constitution of the country for participation in Governance of a smart city using electronic means such as high speed fiber optic networks, the internet, and mobile computing as well as Internet of Things that have the ability to transform the dominant role of citizens and technology in smart cities. These technologies can transform the way in which business is conducted, the interaction of interface with citizens and academic institutions, and improve interactions between business, industry, and city government.