Sample Return Missions

Sample Return Missions
Author: Andrea Longobardo
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 396
Release: 2021-05-20
ISBN 10: 0128183314
ISBN 13: 9780128183311
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Sample Return Missions Book Review:

Sample Return Missions: The Last Frontier of Solar System Exploration examines the discoveries and results obtained from sample return missions of the past, present, and future. It analyses the results in the context of the current state of knowledge and their relation to the formation and evolution of planetary bodies, as well as to the available technologies and techniques. It provides detailed descriptions of experimental procedures applied to returned samples. Beginning with an overview of previous missions, Sample Return Missions then goes on to provide an overview of facilities throughout the world used to analyze the returned samples. Finally, it addresses techniques for collection, transport, and analysis of the samples, with an additional focus on lessons learned and future perspectives. Providing an in-depth examination of a variety of missions, with both scientific and engineering implications, this book is an important resource for the planetary science community, as well as the experimentalist and engineering communities. Presents sample return results obtained so far in relation to remote sensing measurements, methods and techniques for laboratory analysis, and technology Provides an overview of a variety of sample return missions, from Apollo, to Hayabusa-2, to future missions Examines technological and methodological advances in analyzing returned samples, as well as the resources available globally

Strategic Investments in Instrumentation and Facilities for Extraterrestrial Sample Curation and Analysis

Strategic Investments in Instrumentation and Facilities for Extraterrestrial Sample Curation and Analysis
Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Committee on Extraterrestrial Sample Analysis Facilities
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 138
Release: 2019-03-29
ISBN 10: 0309486726
ISBN 13: 9780309486729
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Strategic Investments in Instrumentation and Facilities for Extraterrestrial Sample Curation and Analysis Book Review:

The United States possesses a treasure-trove of extraterrestrial samples that were returned to Earth via space missions over the past four decades. Analyses of these previously returned samples have led to major breakthroughs in the understanding of the age, composition, and origin of the solar system. Having the instrumentation, facilities and qualified personnel to undertake analyses of returned samples, especially from missions that take up to a decade or longer from launch to return, is thus of paramount importance if the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is to capitalize fully on the investment made in these missions, and to achieve the full scientific impact afforded by these extraordinary samples. Planetary science may be entering a new golden era of extraterrestrial sample return; now is the time to assess how prepared the scientific community is to take advantage of these opportunities. Strategic Investments in Instrumentation and Facilities for Extraterrestrial Sample Curation and Analysis assesses the current capabilities within the planetary science community for sample return analyses and curation, and what capabilities are currently missing that will be needed for future sample return missions. This report evaluates whether current laboratory support infrastructure and NASA's investment strategy is adequate to meet these analytical challenges and advises how the community can keep abreast of evolving and new techniques in order to stay at the forefront of extraterrestrial sample analysis.

Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions

Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions
Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Committee on the Review of Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 90
Release: 2009-06-06
ISBN 10: 0309130735
ISBN 13: 9780309130738
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions Book Review:

NASA maintains a planetary protection policy to avoid the forward biological contamination of other worlds by terrestrial organisms, and back biological contamination of Earth from the return of extraterrestrial materials by spaceflight missions. Forward-contamination issues related to Mars missions were addressed in a 2006 National Research Council (NRC) book, Preventing the Forward Contamination of Mars. However, it has been more than 10 years since back-contamination issues were last examined. Driven by a renewed interest in Mars sample return missions, this book reviews, updates, and replaces the planetary protection conclusions and recommendations contained in the NRC's 1997 report Mars Sample Return: Issues and Recommendations. The specific issues addressed in this book include the following: The potential for living entities to be included in samples returned from Mars; Scientific investigations that should be conducted to reduce uncertainty in the above assessment; The potential for large-scale effects on Earth's environment by any returned entity released to the environment; Criteria for intentional sample release, taking note of current and anticipated regulatory frameworks; and The status of technological measures that could be taken on a mission to prevent the inadvertent release of a returned sample into Earth's biosphere.

Assessment of Mars Science and Mission Priorities

Assessment of Mars Science and Mission Priorities
Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 144
Release: 2003-07-08
ISBN 10: 9780309167932
ISBN 13: 0309167930
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Assessment of Mars Science and Mission Priorities Book Review:

Within the Office of Space Science of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) special importance is attached to exploration of the planet Mars, because it is the most like Earth of the planets in the solar system and the place where the first detection of extraterrestrial life seems most likely to be made. The failures in 1999 of two NASA missions-Mars Climate Orbiter and Mars Polar Lander-caused the space agency's program of Mars exploration to be systematically rethought, both technologically and scientifically. A new Mars Exploration Program plan (summarized in Appendix A) was announced in October 2000. The Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX), a standing committee of the Space Studies Board of the National Research Council, was asked to examine the scientific content of this new program. This goals of this report are the following: -Review the state of knowledge of the planet Mars, with special emphasis on findings of the most recent Mars missions and related research activities; -Review the most important Mars research opportunities in the immediate future; -Review scientific priorities for the exploration of Mars identified by COMPLEX (and other scientific advisory groups) and their motivation, and consider the degree to which recent discoveries suggest a reordering of priorities; and -Assess the congruence between NASA's evolving Mars Exploration Program plan and these recommended priorities, and suggest any adjustments that might be warranted.

Planetary Protection Classification of Sample Return Missions from the Martian Moons

Planetary Protection Classification of Sample Return Missions from the Martian Moons
Author: European Science Foundation,European Space Sciences Committee,National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Committee on Planetary Protection Requirements for Sample Return Missions from Martian Moons
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 74
Release: 2019-07-20
ISBN 10: 0309488591
ISBN 13: 9780309488594
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Planetary Protection Classification of Sample Return Missions from the Martian Moons Book Review:

An international consensus policy to prevent the biological cross-contamination of planetary bodies exists and is maintained by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) of the International Council for Science, which is consultative to the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. Currently, COSPAR's planetary protection policy does not specify the status of sample-return missions from Phobos or Deimos, the moons of Mars. Although the moons themselves are not considered potential habitats for life or of intrinsic relevance to prebiotic chemical evolution, recent studies indicate that a significant amount of material recently ejected from Mars could be present on the surface of Phobos and, to a lesser extent, Deimos. This report reviews recent theoretical, experimental, and modeling research on the environments and physical conditions encountered by Mars ejecta during certain processes. It recommends whether missions returning samples from Phobos and/or Deimos should be classified as "restricted" or "unrestricted" Earth return in the framework of the planetary protection policy maintained by COSPAR. This report also considers the specific ways the classification of sample return from Deimos is a different case than sample return from Phobos.

Comet Nucleus and Asteroid Sample Return Missions

Comet Nucleus and Asteroid Sample Return Missions
Author: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Publsiher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
Total Pages: 326
Release: 2018-07-23
ISBN 10: 9781723541261
ISBN 13: 1723541265
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Comet Nucleus and Asteroid Sample Return Missions Book Review:

Three Advanced Design Projects have been completed this academic year at Penn State. At the beginning of the fall semester the students were organized into eight groups and given their choice of either a comet nucleus or an asteroid sample return mission. Once a mission had been chosen, the students developed conceptual designs. These were evaluated at the end of the fall semester and combined into three separate mission plans, including a comet nucleus same return (CNSR), a single asteroid sample return (SASR), and a multiple asteroid sample return (MASR). To facilitate the work required for each mission, the class was reorganized in the spring semester by combining groups to form three mission teams. An integration team consisting of two members from each group was formed for each mission so that communication and information exchange would be easier among the groups. The types of projects designed by the students evolved from numerous discussions with Penn State faculty and mission planners at the Johnson Space Center Human/Robotic Spacecraft Office. Robotic sample return missions are widely considered valuable precursors to manned missions in that they can provide details about a site's environment and scientific value. For example, a sample return from an asteroid might reveal valuable resources that, once mined, could be utilized for propulsion. These missions are also more adaptable when considering the risk to humans visiting unknown and potentially dangerous locations, such as a comet nucleus. Unspecified Center NASA-CR-192055, NAS 1.26:192055 NASW-4435...

Mars Sample Return

Mars Sample Return
Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications,Task Group on Issues in Sample Return
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 58
Release: 1997-03-28
ISBN 10: 0309057337
ISBN 13: 9780309057332
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Mars Sample Return Book Review:

The Space Studies Board of the National Research Council (NRC) serves as the primary adviser to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on planetary protection policy, the purpose of which is to preserve conditions for future biological and organic exploration of planets and other solar system objects and to protect Earth and its biosphere from potential extraterrestrial sources of contamination. In October 1995 the NRC received a letter from NASA requesting that the Space Studies Board examine and provide advice on planetary protection issues related to possible sample-return missions to near-Earth solar system bodies.

Notes on Earth Atmospheric Entry for Mars Sample Return Missions

Notes on Earth Atmospheric Entry for Mars Sample Return Missions
Author: National Aeronautics Administration
Publsiher: CreateSpace
Total Pages: 134
Release: 2014-11-01
ISBN 10: 9781503338210
ISBN 13: 1503338215
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Notes on Earth Atmospheric Entry for Mars Sample Return Missions Book Review:

There has been interest in obtaining gas, dust, rocks, or soil samples from comets or nearby planets since the beginning of the space age in the 1950s. Flying a spacecraft to the destination and returning a sample in an Earth entry vehicle can accomplish this. The return spacecraft is called a sample return vehicle (SRV). Detailed studies of Martian samples can only be conducted on Earth. In the past decade there have been many studies investigating the feasibility and practicalities of sample return missions to Mars Samples collected on Mars will be sealed in a special capsule to prevent contamination. An ascent vehicle will launch the capsule from the surface of Mars. There are several ways to return the sample to Earth. One way is to use a Mars orbiter to capture the sample container and then begin an interplanetary trajectory to return the sample to Earth. This document is concerned with the Earth entry environment and the Earth entry portion of a sample return mission to the planet Mars. The document is intended to introduce the subject of atmospheric entry to engineers and scientists who do not have strong backgrounds in aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics and flight mechanics. Much of this material can be applied to entry into other planetary atmospheres by using the appropriate atmospheric and gravity models. This document discusses topics in atmospheric entry and presents examples in related disciplines.

Role of Sample Return in Addressing Major Questions in Planetary Sciences

Role of Sample Return in Addressing Major Questions in Planetary Sciences
Author: Mahesh Anand,Sara Russell,Yangting Lin,Meenakshi Wadhwa,Kuljeet Kaur Marhas,Shogo Tachibana
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 503
Release: 2021-11-25
ISBN 10: 9789402420777
ISBN 13: 9402420770
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Role of Sample Return in Addressing Major Questions in Planetary Sciences Book Review:

In the past 50 years, our understanding of the origin and evolution of the Solar System has grown exponentially, in large part due to the availability of meteorites and the success of sample return missions. This book contains fourteen papers, each led by a team of expert scientists, which review our present understanding of Solar System formation and evolution through sample analysis.The chapters are structured around three main themes: (i) initial conditions and workings of the Solar System; (ii) planetary habitats; and (iii) sample curation. Through these themes, the volume presents the outstanding scientific questions to be addressed through future missions, identifies specific target bodies to be studied, and evaluates relevant sample curation facilities. In all, the book is intended to assist in formulating a viable strategy for planning future sample return missions.Previously published in Space Science Reviews in the Topical Collection "Role of Sample Return in Addressing Major Questions in Planetary Sciences”

Notes on Earth Atmospheric Entry for Mars Sample Return Missions

Notes on Earth Atmospheric Entry for Mars Sample Return Missions
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 134
Release: 2006
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: NASA:31769000452527
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Notes on Earth Atmospheric Entry for Mars Sample Return Missions Book Review:

Planetary Protection Classification of Sample Return Missions from the Martian Moons

Planetary Protection Classification of Sample Return Missions from the Martian Moons
Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (U.S.). Committee on Planetary Protection Requirements for Sample Return Missions from Martian Moons
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 57
Release: 2019
ISBN 10: 9780309488600
ISBN 13: 0309488605
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Planetary Protection Classification of Sample Return Missions from the Martian Moons Book Review:

"An international consensus policy to prevent the biological cross-contamination of planetary bodies exists and is maintained by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) of the International Council for Science, which is consultative to the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. Currently, COSPAR's planetary protection policy does not specify the status of sample-return missions from Phobos or Deimos, the moons of Mars. Although the moons themselves are not considered potential habitats for life or of intrinsic relevance to prebiotic chemical evolution, recent studies indicate that a significant amount of material recently ejected from Mars could be present on the surface of Phobos and, to a lesser extent, Deimos. This report reviews recent theoretical, experimental, and modeling research on the environments and physical conditions encountered by Mars ejecta during certain processes. It recommends whether missions returning samples from Phobos and/or Deimos should be classified as "restricted" or "unrestricted" Earth return in the framework of the planetary protection policy maintained by COSPAR. This report also considers the specific ways the classification of sample return from Deimos is a different case than sample return from Phobos"--Publisher's description

Lunar Sourcebook

Lunar Sourcebook
Author: Grant Heiken,David Vaniman,Bevan M. French
Publsiher: CUP Archive
Total Pages: 736
Release: 1991-04-26
ISBN 10: 9780521334440
ISBN 13: 0521334446
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Lunar Sourcebook Book Review:

The only work to date to collect data gathered during the American and Soviet missions in an accessible and complete reference of current scientific and technical information about the Moon.

Planetary Penetrators for Sample Return Missions

Planetary Penetrators for Sample Return Missions
Author: Chad A. Truitt
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 74
Release: 2016
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:954055551
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Planetary Penetrators for Sample Return Missions Book Review:

Sample return missions offer a greater science yield when compared to missions that only employ in situ experiments or remote sensing observations, since they allow the application of more complicated technological and analytical methodologies in controlled terrestrial laboratories that are both repeatable and can be independently verified. The successful return of extraterrestrial materials over the last four decades has contributed to our understanding of the solar system, but retrieval techniques have largely depended on the use of either soft-landing, or touch-and-go procedures that result in high [delta]V requirements, and return yields typically limited to a few grams of surface materials that have experienced varying degrees of alteration from space weathering. Hard-landing methods using planetary penetrators offer an alternative for sample return that significantly reduce a mission’s [delta]V, increase sample yields, and allow for the collection of subsurface materials, and lessons can be drawn from previous sample return missions. The following details progress in the design, development, and testing of penetrator/sampler technology capable of surviving subsonic and low supersonic impact velocities (

Primitive Meteorites and Asteroids

Primitive Meteorites and Asteroids
Author: Neyda M. Abreu
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 558
Release: 2018-07-27
ISBN 10: 0128133260
ISBN 13: 9780128133262
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Primitive Meteorites and Asteroids Book Review:

Primitive Meteorites and Asteroids: Physical, Chemical, and Spectroscopic Observations Paving the Way to Exploration covers the physical, chemical and spectroscopic aspects of asteroids, providing important data and research on carbonaceous chondrites and primitive meteorites. This information is crucial to the success of missions to parent bodies, thus contributing to an understanding of the early solar system. The book offers an interdisciplinary perspective relevant to many fields of planetary science, as well as cosmochemistry, planetary astronomy, astrobiology, geology and space engineering. Including contributions from planetary and missions scientists worldwide, the book collects the fundamental knowledge and cutting-edge research on carbonaceous chondrites and their parent bodies into one accessible resource, thus contributing to the future of space exploration. Presents the most current data and information on the mission-relevant characteristics of primitive asteroids Addresses the physical, chemical and spectral characteristics of carbonaceous chondritic meteorites and the bearings on successful exploration of their parent asteroids Includes chapters on geotechnical properties and resource extraction

Notes on Earth Atmospheric Entry for Mars Sample Return Missions

Notes on Earth Atmospheric Entry for Mars Sample Return Missions
Author: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Publsiher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
Total Pages: 134
Release: 2018-06-15
ISBN 10: 9781721153084
ISBN 13: 172115308X
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Notes on Earth Atmospheric Entry for Mars Sample Return Missions Book Review:

The entry of sample return vehicles (SRVs) into the Earth's atmosphere is the subject of this document. The Earth entry environment for vehicles, or capsules, returning from the planet Mars is discussed along with the subjects of dynamics, aerodynamics, and heat transfer. The material presented is intended for engineers and scientists who do not have strong backgrounds in aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics and flight mechanics. The document is not intended to be comprehensive and some important topics are omitted. The topics considered in this document include basic principles of physics (fluid mechanics, dynamics and heat transfer), chemistry and engineering mechanics. These subjects include: a) fluid mechanics (aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, compressible fluids, shock waves, boundary layers, and flow regimes from subsonic to hypervelocity; b) the Earth s atmosphere and gravity; c) thermal protection system design considerations; d) heat and mass transfer (convection, radiation, and ablation); e) flight mechanics (basic rigid body dynamics and stability); and f) flight- and ground-test requirements; and g) trajectory and flow simulation methods. Rivell, Thomas Ames Research Center WBS 131-02-07-01-09

Special Issue Mars Exploration Program and Sample Return Missions

Special Issue  Mars Exploration Program and Sample Return Missions
Author: Ch Sotin
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 277
Release: 2000
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:248476197
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Special Issue Mars Exploration Program and Sample Return Missions Book Review:

Conceptual Design of a Communications Relay Satellite for a Lunar Sample Return Mission

Conceptual Design of a Communications Relay Satellite for a Lunar Sample Return Mission
Author: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Publsiher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
Total Pages: 70
Release: 2018-05-29
ISBN 10: 9781720450795
ISBN 13: 172045079X
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Conceptual Design of a Communications Relay Satellite for a Lunar Sample Return Mission Book Review:

In 2003, NASA solicited proposals for a robotic exploration of the lunar surface. Submissions were requested for a lunar sample return mission from the South Pole-Aitken Basin. The basin is of interest because it is thought to contain some of the oldest accessible rocks on the lunar surface. A mission is under study that will land a spacecraft in the basin, collect a sample of rock fragments, and return the sample to Earth. Because the Aitken Basin is on the far side of the Moon, the lander will require a communications relay satellite (CRS) to maintain contact with the Earth during its surface operation. Design of the CRS's orbit is therefore critical. This paper describes a mission design which includes potential transfer and mission orbits, required changes in velocity, orbital parameters, and mission dates. Several different low lunar polar orbits are examined to compare their availability to the lander versus the distance over which they must communicate. In addition, polar orbits are compared to a halo orbit about the Earth-Moon L2 point, which would permit continuous communication at a cost of increased fuel requirements and longer transmission distances. This thesis also examines some general parameters of the spacecraft systems for the mission under study. Mission requirements for the lander dictate the eventual choice of mission orbit. This mission could be the first step in a period of renewed lunar exploration and eventual human landings.Brunner, Christopher W.Langley Research CenterRELAY SATELLITES; SAMPLE RETURN MISSIONS; SATELLITE DESIGN; LUNAR GEOLOGY; STRUCTURAL BASINS; COSTS; LUNAR ROCKS; LUNAR SOIL; ECCENTRIC ORBITS; FLYBY MISSIONS; TIME OF FLIGHT SPECTROMETERS; EARTH-MOON SYSTEM

Sample Return Missions to Small Bodies

Sample Return Missions to Small Bodies
Author: COSPAR. Scientific Commission B. B0.1 Symposium (Nagoya, Japan),COSPAR. Scientific Assembly
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 120
Release: 2000
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: STANFORD:36105028811805
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Sample Return Missions to Small Bodies Book Review:

Mars Exploration Program and Sample Return Missions

Mars Exploration Program and Sample Return Missions
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 279
Release: 2000
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:248475193
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Mars Exploration Program and Sample Return Missions Book Review:

Reachable Sets for Multiple Asteroid Sample Return Missions

Reachable Sets for Multiple Asteroid Sample Return Missions
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 123
Release: 2005
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:63042199
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Reachable Sets for Multiple Asteroid Sample Return Missions Book Review:

In support of future NASA asteroid sample return missions, this thesis examines strategies to reduce the number of feasible asteroid targets. Reachable sets are defined in a reduced classical orbital element space. The boundary of this reduced space is obtained by extremizing a family of convex combinations of orbital elements. The resulting group of optimization problems is solved using a direct collocation pseudospectral technique by a MATLAB application package called DIDO. The reachable sets are examined to narrow the possible valid asteroid choices in order to aid in mission design and analysis of alternative targets. A solar electric propulsion system is modeled with the stay times at each asteroid, Earth departure, and Earth arrival hyperbolic excess velocities implemented as constrained optimization parameters.