Psychostimulants

Psychostimulants
Author: George F. Koob,Michael A. Arends,Many Mccracken,Michel Lemoal
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 262
Release: 2020-05-05
ISBN 10: 0128169915
ISBN 13: 9780128169919
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Psychostimulants Book Review:

A current survey and synthesis of the most important findings in our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms of addiction are detailed in our Neurobiology of Addiction series, each volume addressing a specific area of addiction. Psychostimulants, Volume 2 in the series, explores the molecular and cellular systems in the brain responsible for psychostimulant addiction, including both direct/indirect sympathomimetics and nonsympathomimetics. This volume introduces the readers to the history of psychostimulant use. The authors clearly differentiate the neurobiological effects into three distinct stages of the addiction cycle: binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation. Highlights recent advances in psychostimulant addiction Includes neurocircuitry, cellular and molecular neurobiological mechanisms of psychostimulant addiction Defines the abuse and addiction potentials of both direct and indirect sympathomimetics and nonsympathomimetics

Responding to Challenging Situations Related to the Use of Psychostimulants

Responding to Challenging Situations Related to the Use of Psychostimulants
Author: Department of Health and Ageing Staff
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 37
Release: 2008
ISBN 10: 9781741866346
ISBN 13: 1741866340
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Responding to Challenging Situations Related to the Use of Psychostimulants Book Review:

Behavioral Actions of Psychostimulants Within the Lateral Hypothalamus

Behavioral Actions of Psychostimulants Within the Lateral Hypothalamus
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2012
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:819532627
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Behavioral Actions of Psychostimulants Within the Lateral Hypothalamus Book Review:

Psychostimulants are a widely abused class of drugs. These drugs exert robust arousal-enhancing, reinforcing, and locomotor-activating effects. These behavioral actions involve drug-induced elevations in extracellular norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) within a variety of cortical and subcortical regions. The lateral hypothalamus (LH) receives both NE and DA input and substantial evidence implicates this region in both appetitive- and arousal-related processes. Additional work demonstrates that systemically administered amphetamine (AMPH) activates neurons within the LH. Combined, these observations suggest the LH may be a site of action in the behavioral effects of psychostimulants. The studies described in Chapter 2 were designed to determine the degree to which psychostimulants act within the LH to promote arousal, reinforcement and locomotor-activation. Additional studies in Chapter 3 were undertaken to investigate the potential role NE plays in stimulant-like arousal within the LH. A significant challenge in the treatment of psychostimulant abuse is the prevention of relapse. Relapse, or the reinstatement of drug seeking behavior, can be triggered by re-exposure to drug, stress and/or contextually-conditioned cues in humans and animals. Extensive work demonstrates an important role of DA in drug-induced reinstatement and NE in stressor-induced reinstatement of drug seeking behavior. Recent work implicates the LH in the reinstatement of psychostimulant seeking behavior. Thus, additional studies described in Chapter 4 were designed to examine the degree to which psychostimulants act within the LH to reinstate drug seeking. Combined, the studies in this thesis demonstrate that psychostimulants act within the LH to elicit affectively-neutral arousal and to reinstate drug seeking behavior, and this likely occurs, in part, through actions of NE in the LH. These results provide novel insight into the neural mechanisms that underlie the behavioral actions of a widely-abused class of drugs and further support the hypothesis that the LH plays a key role in drug abuse.

New Concepts of Psychostimulants Induced Neurotoxicity

New Concepts of Psychostimulants Induced Neurotoxicity
Author: Hari Shanker Sharma
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 472
Release: 2009-11-05
ISBN 10: 9780080922904
ISBN 13: 0080922902
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

New Concepts of Psychostimulants Induced Neurotoxicity Book Review:

Published since 1959, International Review of Neurobiology is a well-known series appealing to neuroscientists, clinicians, psychologists, physiologists, and pharmacologists. Led by an internationally renowned editorial board, this important serial publishes both eclectic volumes made up of timely reviews and thematic volumes that focus on recent progress in a specific area of neurobiology research. With recent advancements in new knowledge, it has become evident that psychostimulants and related drugs of abuse are influencing our central nervous system (CNS) remarkably and could alter their function for a longtime. This volume is the first to focus on substance abuse induced brain pathology in the widest sense as it covers alterations in neuronal, glial and endothelial cell functions under the influence of acute or chronic usage of substance abuse.

Emerging Targets and Therapeutics in the Treatment of Psychostimulant Abuse

Emerging Targets and Therapeutics in the Treatment of Psychostimulant Abuse
Author: Linda P. Dwoskin
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 656
Release: 2014-01-29
ISBN 10: 0124201776
ISBN 13: 9780124201774
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Emerging Targets and Therapeutics in the Treatment of Psychostimulant Abuse Book Review:

This new volume of Advances in Pharmacology presents the emerging targets and therapeutics in the treatment of psychostimulant abuse. With a variety of chapters and the best authors in the field, the volume is an essential resource for pharmacologists, immunologists and biochemists alike. Contributions from the best authors in the field An essential resource for pharmacologists, immunologists, and biochemists

Psychostimulants As Antidepressants

Psychostimulants As Antidepressants
Author: Craig Russell
Publsiher: Mason Crest Publishers
Total Pages: 112
Release: 2007-09
ISBN 10: 9781422204160
ISBN 13: 1422204162
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Psychostimulants As Antidepressants Book Review:

Sometimes antidepressants aren't enough. In these cases, doctors often turn to drugs called psychostimulants. This book helps you'll learn what psychostimulants are and why they are used to help treat depression. It also informs about the possible risks and side effects of these drugs, as well as their potential for abuse.

An Approach in Determining the Effects of Psychostimulants on Cerebral Electrical Activity in the Non human Primate Une Approche Des Effets De Psychostimulants Sur L Activite Electrique Cerebrale Chez Le Primate Non Humain

An Approach in Determining the Effects of Psychostimulants on Cerebral Electrical Activity in the Non human Primate Une Approche Des Effets De Psychostimulants Sur L Activite Electrique Cerebrale Chez Le Primate Non Humain
Author: D. Lagarde,C. Milhaud,ADVISORY GROUP FOR AEROSPACE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT NEUILLY-SUR-SEINE (FRAN CE)
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 11
Release: 1988
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:228022338
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

An Approach in Determining the Effects of Psychostimulants on Cerebral Electrical Activity in the Non human Primate Une Approche Des Effets De Psychostimulants Sur L Activite Electrique Cerebrale Chez Le Primate Non Humain Book Review:

The purpose of this work was to determine the very original properties of this new psychostimulant agent against two other conventional stimulants; viz., caffeine and d-amphetamine. (The drug d-amphetamine is still given to aircrew in France; and, of course, it has well-known side effects.) The new drug was studied in our laboratory in the non-human primate, the rhesus monkey. At the dosage indicated -- 25 mg/kg -- there were no side effects in the performance of the animal nor in its vegetative parameters; viz., in blood pressure and heart rate. The main effect of the drug was that it kept the animal awake, though not as a stimulant. This effect would give the impression that the drug is not comprised of an amphetamine-like type of molecule. It's an action which is quite specific - as based on other studies in apes and rats -- in that is appears to work on post-synaptic brain centres at that level of dosage. Of course, at a higher dosage it would probably have a doping effect. (js).

CBD Properties on Psychostimulant Addictions All You Need to Know about CBD Properties on Psycho Add

CBD Properties on Psychostimulant Addictions  All You Need to Know about CBD Properties on Psycho Add
Author: Ferdinand H. Quinones MD
Publsiher: Independently Published
Total Pages: 74
Release: 2019-02-12
ISBN 10: 9781796707908
ISBN 13: 1796707902
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

CBD Properties on Psychostimulant Addictions All You Need to Know about CBD Properties on Psycho Add Book Review:

Treatment of psychostimulant addiction has been a major, and not fully met, challenge. For opioid addiction, there is strong evidence for the effectiveness of several medications. For psychostimulants, there is no corresponding form of agonist maintenance that has met criteria for regulatory approval or generally accepted use. Stimulant-use disorders remain prevalent and can result in both short-term and long-term adverse consequences. The mainstay of treatment remains behavioral interventions. Cocaine addiction started becoming prominent in the 1970s when drug cartels in South America began mass producing the drug and exporting it to the United States. Since then, the problem has progressively gotten worse. Today, over four million people in the U.S. are in need of treatment. Likewise, addiction to amphetamine is on the rise, with more than three million Americans suffering from them.When cocaine and amphetamine enter the bloodstream, the drugs interfere with the brain's dopamine transporter (DAT), the protein responsible for removing dopamine from the neural synapses and storing it back into the nerve cells. By blocking the DAT, psychostimulants keep dopamine in our systems and produce intense feelings of euphoria. There are nearly 8 million people in the United States in need of treatment for a psychostimulant addiction; however, there are no FDA approved drugs on the market. There is a need to develop a new, first-in-class treatment to help these people that have long been neglected.Illicit psychostimulant addiction remains a significant problem worldwide, despite decades of research into the neural underpinnings and various treatment approaches. The purpose of this review is to provide a succinct overview of the neurocircuitry involved in drug addiction, as well as the acute and chronic effects of cocaine and amphetamines within this circuitry in humans. Investigational pharmacological treatments for illicit psychostimulant addiction are also reviewed. Our current knowledge base clearly demonstrates that illicit psychostimulants produce lasting adaptive neural and behavioral changes that contribute to the progression and maintenance of addiction. However, attempts at generating pharmacological treatments for psychostimulant addiction have historically focused on intervening at the level of the acute effects of these drugs. The lack of approved pharmacological treatments for psychostimulant addiction highlights the need for new treatment strategies, especially those that prevent or ameliorate the adaptive neural, cognitive, and behavioral changes caused by chronic use of this class of illicit drugsIn this book, we discuss those interventions and some promising candidates in the search for pharmacological interventions.Psychostimulants play a central role in the management of ADHD. Here we review the evidence pertaining to the use of methylphenidate, dexamphetamine and related amphetamine salts, the prodrug lisdexamfetamine and modafinil for the management of comorbid ADHD and non-ADHD indications. There is a growing consensus that stimulant medications are helpful at improving the emotional dysregulation and lability, and oppositional and conduct symptoms that are often associated with ADHD.

Modulation of Synaptic Transmission by Psychostimulants and Dopamine in the Nucleus Accumbens

Modulation of Synaptic Transmission by Psychostimulants and Dopamine in the Nucleus Accumbens
Author: Saleem M. Nicola
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 484
Release: 1997
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: UCAL:X66921
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Modulation of Synaptic Transmission by Psychostimulants and Dopamine in the Nucleus Accumbens Book Review:

Chronic Administration of Psychostimulants Reduces Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Young Adult Non Human Primates

Chronic Administration of Psychostimulants Reduces Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Young Adult Non Human Primates
Author: Rahul Ryan Dutta
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 40
Release: 2015
ISBN 10: 9781321889888
ISBN 13: 1321889887
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Chronic Administration of Psychostimulants Reduces Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Young Adult Non Human Primates Book Review:

Psychostimulants such as methamphetamine, MDMA, MDA have been used as treatment options for attention deficit disorders and narcolepsy; however, the vast majority of users take such amphetamines recreationly which can eventually develop into addiction to these drugs. Pharmacodynamic studies show that chronic exposure to these drugs produces neurotoxicity which is evident as adverse affects on serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons in the limbic system of the brain, and these effects are hypothesized to promote and perpetuate addiction to the drugs. Though monoamine neurotoxicity as a function of cell death is valid for psychostimulant addiction, neurotoxicity by these drugs as a function of decreased neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of hippocampus can be valid for relapse to psychostimulant addiction, as the hippocampus is important for relapse to drug seeking behaviors. In this context, only a small body of research has been devoted to understanding the effect of these drugs on neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Recent studies from others and our lab have found that both MDMA and methamphetamine significantly reduce levels of neurogenesis in the hippocampus of adult rodents. Furthermore, excessive psychostimulant intake was shown to reduce levels of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in adult rodents and have been positively correlated with enhanced relapse to drug seeking behaviors. However, whether the detrimental effects of psychostimulants on developmental stages of neurogenesis are limited to rodent brain or occur in non human primates is unknown and was the focus of the current investigation. Our study investigated the levels of developmental stages of neurogenesis, cell death and the cell density of granule cell neurons after MDMA or MDMA in combination with MDA and methamphetamine exposure in young adult macaque monkeys in hopes to model the effects of these drugs on the young adult human hippocampus. Results from quantitative immunohistochemical analysis show that the two treatment conditions over 9.6 months causes > 80% decrease in the number of Ki-67 (neural progenitor) cells, and > 50% decrease in the number of Neuro D (immature neuron) cells, indicating a neurotoxic environment in the neurogenic niche in the hippocampus by MDMA alone or in combination with other amphetamines. Notably, the reduction in the number of newly born progenitors and neurons were not associated with changes in cell death (via apoptosis) or granule cell neuron numbers, indicating that psychostimulants selectively affected the generation and maturation of newly born granule cell neurons. In sum, our findings suggest that alterations in the cellular composition in the hippocampus during exposure to illicit drugs can promote maladaptive plasticity of hippocampal neurons during withdrawal, which may enhance relapse to drug seeking behaviors.

Psychostimulants Information for Health Workers Booklet

Psychostimulants Information for Health Workers  Booklet
Author: Turning Point Alcohol And Drug Centre Staff
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 52
Release: 2006
ISBN 10: 9780734529299
ISBN 13: 0734529295
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Psychostimulants Information for Health Workers Booklet Book Review:

Association Between Psychostimulants and Suicide Related Events in Individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Association Between Psychostimulants and Suicide Related Events in Individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Author: Christine Leigh Bagley
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 117
Release: 2016
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:956653998
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Association Between Psychostimulants and Suicide Related Events in Individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Book Review:

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common condition among the pediatric population with escalating use of psychostimulant agents to treat ADHD. No previous studies have directly aimed to evaluate the potential association between psychostimulant medications and suicide related events. Over the past decade there has been an increasing awareness for the potential of prescription medications to increase the risk of suicide related events, including agents such as antidepressants, leukotriene modifying agents, atomoxetine, and antiepileptics. Given the lack of data to support or refute the association between psychostimulants and suicide related events, additional, more definitive studies are warranted. Therefore, it was the objective of this dissertation to determine if a potential association exists between psychostimulants and suicide related events utilizing three different methodologies. This series of analyses were the first well-conducted observational studies investigating this association. We conducted an ecologic study utilizing Food and Drug Administration (FDA) adverse event data, a time series analysis describing overall Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnosis and treatment characteristics as well as suicide attempt trends using aggregated medical claims data, and a nested case-control study utilizing person level medical claims data. Each aim provided additional insight on the potential association of suicide related events and psychostimulants. Our first analysis using FDA data indicated that psychostimulants had no statistically significant association with suicide related events with the exception of lisdexamfetamine. Our second study showed that the percentage of suicide attempts and psychostimulant coverage declined over time among our ADHD cohort. Our third analysis, a case control study in an ADHD cohort of children and adolescents showed that psychostimulants are not associated with an increased risk of suicide attempt. Based on our findings across all analyses and accounting for the limitations of each, we conclude that psychostimulant treatment is not associated with an increased risk of suicide related events. In fact, while not statistically significant our findings suggest a potentially protective role in this association thus further supporting the safety of these agents which play a beneficial in the treatment of ADHD.

Psychostimulants

Psychostimulants
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 24
Release: 2004
ISBN 10: 9780642825230
ISBN 13: 0642825238
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Psychostimulants Book Review:

The Role of Psychostimulants in Addiction related Learning and Memory in Mice

The Role of Psychostimulants in Addiction related Learning and Memory in Mice
Author: Tristan Shuman
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 194
Release: 2012
ISBN 10: 9781267426956
ISBN 13: 1267426950
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Role of Psychostimulants in Addiction related Learning and Memory in Mice Book Review:

Learning requires some form of long-lasting modification of neural activity that underlies a change in behavior. The mechanisms of long-lasting changes in the brain are likely to be conserved indicating that there is likely to be overlap in the mechanisms of memory and drug addiction. This dissertation will demonstrate how psychostimulants can modulate memory processes and create addiction-like memories in mice. First, we showed that a low dose of modafinil, a psychomotor stimulant, selectively enhances contextual fear memories, while a high dose disrupts this memory. This high dose can, however, enhance water maze learning. Second, we demonstrated that modafinil can induce a conditioned place preference and can elicit locomotor sensitization in cocaine-trained animals. These results indicate that modafinil can induce and modulate both contextual and addiction-related memory processes. To further explore the action of modafinil and other psychostimulants, we conducted a literature review to identify regions of the brain involved in the induction and expression of addiction-related memories. We found a diverse range of brain areas implicated in drug addiction but also a lack of consistency perhaps due to limitations of classical techniques. In order to localize the neural correlate of addiction-related memories, we used a histone-GFP mouse that expresses a long-term tag of neuronal activity within a specified tagging window. We tagged neurons active during initial drug exposure and compared them to a marker of neurons active during place preference testing, using the immediate early gene zif. When cocaine was paired with the conditioning context rather than the home cage neurons in the dorsal striatum were more likely to be activated during both time points. This indicates that the dorsal striatum is one site of neural plasticity that underlies conditioned place preference to cocaine. Finally, to localize the neural correlate of locomotor sensitization we tagged initial exposure to cocaine and compared these neurons to immediate early gene expression after a subsequent exposure to cocaine. The medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens shell appear to store a memory of the drug experience, but are unlikely to be involved in the contextual control of sensitization.

Dose Dependent Effects of Psychostimulants on Affect Following Repeated Administration to Laboratory Rats

Dose Dependent Effects of Psychostimulants on Affect Following Repeated Administration to Laboratory Rats
Author: Cristian Cervantes Aldana
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2020
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:1176372295
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Dose Dependent Effects of Psychostimulants on Affect Following Repeated Administration to Laboratory Rats Book Review:

Psychostimulants produce strong pleasurable effects in users which are thought to play a role in the development of drug addiction. Two highly rewarding and abused psychostimulant drugs are methamphetamine and d-amphetamine. Although there has been extensive investigation of the rewarding effects of these drugs, we used a relatively new approach, drug-induced ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), to examine the dose-dependent rewarding and aversive effects of these drugs following a single and repeated administration. The inverted-U shaped dose-response curve is seen across many drugs of abuse and behaviors, however this phenomenon has not been reported with USVs. Broadly, it was hypothesized that animals treated with methamphetamine or d-amphetamine would show inverted U dose-dependent responses with ambulations and 50 kHz USVs and that repeated administration of methamphetamine or d-amphetamine would lead to complex changes across doses and behaviors. We conducted two experiments, identical in methodology, with the only difference being the drug (methamphetamine and d-amphetamine). The four major results obtained from the present thesis were: 1) acute administration of methamphetamine and d-amphetamine produced an inverted U dose-response with locomotor activity and reward-related ultrasonic vocalizations (FM 50 kHz USVs); 2) acute administration of the highest dose of methamphetamine or d-amphetamine produced aversive effects and an interplay of reward (FM 50 kHz USVs) and aversion (22 kHz USVs) that helps to explain the inverted U shaped dose response; 3) repeated administration of methamphetamine and d- amphetamine produced sensitization to locomotor effects and USVs at low and moderate doses; and 4) sensitization persisted following a period without drug administration. These data provide a revealing picture of the complex relationship between dose and response, with particular attention to the affective component in drug addiction and abuse.

Use of Psychostimulants and Risk of Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit hyperactivity Disorder

Use of Psychostimulants and Risk of Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit hyperactivity Disorder
Author: Digvijay C. Yeola
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2012
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:905538909
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Use of Psychostimulants and Risk of Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit hyperactivity Disorder Book Review:

Objectives: The aim of our study is to compare effectiveness of psycho stimulants on risk of developing Bipolar Disorder in children and adolescents with ADHD diagnosis. Methods: This is an observational, retrospective cohort study with longitudinal follow-up of minimum 12 months and maximum up to 4 years and 6 months. The cohort consists of incident ADHD children and adolescents (6-18 years old) and prescription filled for Psychostimulants within 30 days of diagnosis were identified by using files from 2003-2007 from Medicaid Analytic Xtract (MAX). Children and adolescents with prior history of ADHD or/and BD or/and psycho stimulants were excluded. Time to development of bipolar disorder was conducted using survival analysis. Main outcome variable was time to bipolar and status variable was development of BD. Use of psycho stimulants was main independent dichotomous variable. All analysis was conducted using SAS 9.3 with significance level of 0.05. Results: Out of 3942935 children and adolescents without any history of ADHD and BD, 252388 children and adolescents developed ADHD during July 31, 2003 till December 31, 2006. Out of these Children and adolescents 68173 filled prescription for psycho stimulants within 30 days. Mean age of children and adolescents with ADHD diagnosis was 9.0 years (±3.12). Seventy two percent children were boys, majority (46% of cohort) of them were white by race, were from Texas (43.67%) region. Common co-morbidities were learning conduct disorder (7.8%) followed by adjustment disorder (5.4%) and depression (3.3%). 5029 were diagnosed with bipolar disorder which accounts for 7.37%. The age of onset of ADHD was found to be 9.0 years (±3.12) and that for BD was 10.49 years (± 3.44). Age of onset of BD for those who were exposed to stimulants and those who filled prescription of stimulants for just one time vs more than one time (12.11±3.60 vs 10.37±3.40 years p =

Neurochemical Mechanisms Underlying Responses to Psychostimulants

Neurochemical Mechanisms Underlying Responses to Psychostimulants
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 32
Release: 1994
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:68214612
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Neurochemical Mechanisms Underlying Responses to Psychostimulants Book Review:

This study employed positron emission tomography (PET) to investigate biochemical and metabolic characteristics of the brain of individuals which could put them at risk for drug addiction. It takes advantage of the normal variability between individuals in response to psychoactive drugs to investigate relation between mental state, brain neurochemistry and metabolism and the behavioral response to drugs. We discuss its use to assess if there is an association between mental state and dompaminergic reactivity in response to the psychostimulant drug methylphenidate (MP). Changes in synaptic dopamine induced by MP were evaluated with PET and [11C]raclopride, a D2 receptor radioligand that is sensitive to endogenous dopamine. Methylpphenidate significantly decreased striatal [11C]raclopride binding. The study showed a correlation between the magnitude of the dopamine-induced changes by methylphenidate, and the mental state of the subjects. Subjects reporting high levels of anxiety and restlessness at baseline had larger changes in MP-induced dopamine changes than those that did not. Further investigations on the relation between an individual's response to a drug and his/her mental state and personality as well as his neurochemical brain composition may enable to understand better differences in drug addiction vulnerability.

Drug Aware Psychostimulants Post Campaign Evaluation

Drug Aware Psychostimulants Post Campaign Evaluation
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2003
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:225435104
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Drug Aware Psychostimulants Post Campaign Evaluation Book Review:

A Review of the Use and Possible Overuse of Psychostimulants in Particular Ritalin in Preschoolers and Children

A Review of the Use and Possible Overuse of Psychostimulants  in Particular Ritalin  in Preschoolers and Children
Author: Linda S. Smith
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 58
Release: 2002
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:51111597
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

A Review of the Use and Possible Overuse of Psychostimulants in Particular Ritalin in Preschoolers and Children Book Review:

The Neurobiology of Cocaine

The Neurobiology of Cocaine
Author: Ronald P. Hammer, Jr.
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 272
Release: 1995-07-17
ISBN 10: 9780849383113
ISBN 13: 0849383110
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Neurobiology of Cocaine Book Review:

Representing the latest data from active research groups, The Neurobiology of Cocaine is designed to educate students and inform experts in a rapidly changing field. This volume presents current research regarding the mechanisms of cocaine's action in the brain. Recent developments of cellular, molecular, and brain imaging methods provide new evidence that chemical and molecular substrates underlie cocaine reinforcement, dependence, and withdrawal. This book explores the biological bases of such effects, describing the brain circuits affected by cocaine, neuroendocrine and neurophysiological actions of cocaine, neurochemistry and pharmacology of cocaine, and cocaine effects on signal transduction, gene expression, and protein phosphorylation. This up-to-date text also describes the recently cloned class of neurotransporters affected by cocaine and characterizes their interaction with the drug. These reports focus on the effects of chronic exposure and subsequent withdrawal, which are differentiated from acute cocaine actions. Thus, they provide information on brain mechanisms likely active during long-term use and abuse in humans. Such commonalities are illustrated by a discussion of cocaine action in the human brain as visualized by positron emission tomography. This volume is a must for anyone interested in the mechanisms underlying cocaine abuse.