Pseudoelasticity of Shape Memory Alloys

Pseudoelasticity of Shape Memory Alloys
Author: Andrzej Ziolkowski
Publsiher: Butterworth-Heinemann
Total Pages: 270
Release: 2015-03-23
ISBN 10: 0128018011
ISBN 13: 9780128018019
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Pseudoelasticity of Shape Memory Alloys Book Review:

Pseudoelasticity of Shape Memory Alloys: Theory and Experimental Studies is devoted to the phenomenon of pseudoelasticity (superelasticity) exhibited by shape memory alloy materials. It provides extensive introductory content on the state-of-the-art in the field, including SMA materials development, definition of shape memory effects, and discussions on where shape memory behavior is found in various engineering application areas. The book features a survey of modeling approaches targeted at reliable prediction of SMA materials’ behavior on different scales of observation, including atomistic, microscopic, mezoscopic, and macroscopic. Researchers and graduate students will find detailed information on the modern methodologies used in the process of building constitutive models of advanced materials exhibiting complex behavior. Introduces the phenomenon of pseudoelasticity exhibited by shape memory alloy materials Features a survey of modeling approaches targeted at reliable prediction of SMN materials' behavior on different scales of observation Provides extensive coverage of the state-of-the-art in the field Ideal reference for researchers and graduate students interested in the modern methodologies used in the process of building constitutive models of advanced materials

Pseudoelasticity in Shape Memory Alloys an Extreme Case of Thermoelasticity

Pseudoelasticity in Shape Memory Alloys   an Extreme Case of Thermoelasticity
Author: University of Minnesota. Institute for Mathematics and Its Applications,I. Muller
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 28
Release: 1985
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: OCLC:123318391
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Pseudoelasticity in Shape Memory Alloys an Extreme Case of Thermoelasticity Book Review:

Shape Memory Effects in Alloys

Shape Memory Effects in Alloys
Author: Jeff Perkins
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 583
Release: 2012-12-06
ISBN 10: 1468422111
ISBN 13: 9781468422115
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Shape Memory Effects in Alloys Book Review:

The International Symposium on Shape Memory Effects and Appli cations was held at the University of Toronto on May 19-20, 1975, in four sessions over two days, as part of the regular 1975 Spring Meeting of The Metallurgical Society of AlME, sponsored by the Physical Metallurgy Committee of The Metallurgical Society. This was the first symposium on the subject, the only previous meeting at all related being the 1968 NOL Symposium on TiNi and Associated Compounds. One of the major intentions of this Symposium was to provide a forum for cross-communication between workers in the diverse metallurgical areas pertinent to shape memory effects, areas such as martensitic transformation, crystallography and thermodynamics, mechanical behavior, stress-induced transformation, lattice sta bility, and alloy development. Authors were encouraged to place an emphasis on delineation of general controlling factors and mech anisms, and on comparison of shape memory effect alloy systems with systems not exhibiting SME.

Modeling of Shape Memory Alloys

Modeling of Shape Memory Alloys
Author: Harshad Madhukar Paranjape,OhioLINK Electronic Theses and Dissertations Center
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 329
Release: 2014
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: OCLC:903496842
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Modeling of Shape Memory Alloys Book Review:

Shape memory alloys (SMA) show two remarkable properties- pseudoelasticity and shape memory effect. These properties make them an attractive material for a variety of commercial applications. However, the mechanism of austenite to martensite phase transformation, responsible for these properties also induces plastic deformation leading to structural and functional fatigue. Micron scale experiments suggest that the plastic deformation is induced in part due to the local stress field of the fine martensite microstructure. However, the results are qualitative and the nature of transformation-plasticity interaction is dependent on factors like the width of the interfaces.

Functional Nanostructures and Sensors for CBRN Defence and Environmental Safety and Security

Functional Nanostructures and Sensors for CBRN Defence and Environmental Safety and Security
Author: Anatolie Sidorenko,Horst Hahn
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 320
Release: 2020-03-17
ISBN 10: 9402419098
ISBN 13: 9789402419092
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Functional Nanostructures and Sensors for CBRN Defence and Environmental Safety and Security Book Review:

Over the last decade, techniques for materials preparation and processing at nanometer scale have advanced rapidly, leading to the introduction of novel principles for a new generation of sensors and detectors. At the same time, the chemical industry, transport and agriculture produce huge amounts of dangerous waste gases and liquids, leading to soil, air and water contamination. One more modern threat - international terrorism - demands that scientists make efforts to apply new principles and technologies to protect society against chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) attacks and to develop novel effective technologies for the remediation of large contaminated areas. Accordingly, the main goal of this book is to bring together experts (theorists, experimentalists, engineers and technologists) for an extensive discussion covering: novel principles for functional nanostructures and detector fabrication and implementation, the development of novel technologies for the deactivation of CBRN agents, their experimental realization and their application in novel monitoring and control systems, and technological processes for soil and water remediation, with a view to environmental protection and defence against CBRN-based terrorism. In keeping with the book’s main goal, the following topics are highlighted and discussed: - Sensors and detectors - detection of chemicals, principles of “artificial nose” and chemical “micro-lab on a chip” design, surface and underground water quality monitoring systems, molecular electronics, superconducting electronic devices, quantum detectors and Qubits. - Environmental protection and CBRN - detection of infrared, microwave, X-ray and terahertz radiation. Principles for novel IR-, UV-, and Terahertz-wave devices for the detection of low-contrast objects. - Novel technological processes for CBRN destruction and deactivation. All these topics are strongly interrelated, both with regard to fundamental aspects and to fabrication and implementation technologies; in addition, they are highly promising for application in novel functional devices, computer logics, sensing and detection of low-concentration chemicals, weak and extremely weak magnetic and microwave fields, infrared and ultraviolet radiation. Given its scope, the book will be a useful and interesting guide for a broad readership of engineers, scientists, PhD students and experts in the area of defence against environmental terrorism.

Shape Memory Alloy Engineering

Shape Memory Alloy Engineering
Author: Antonio Concilio,Leonardo Lecce
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 448
Release: 2014-09-25
ISBN 10: 0080999212
ISBN 13: 9780080999210
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Shape Memory Alloy Engineering Book Review:

Shape Memory Alloy Engineering introduces materials, mechanical, and aerospace engineers to shape memory alloys (SMAs), providing a unique perspective that combines fundamental theory with new approaches to design and modeling of actual SMAs as compact and inexpensive actuators for use in aerospace and other applications. With this book readers will gain an understanding of the intrinsic properties of SMAs and their characteristic state diagrams, allowing them to design innovative compact actuation systems for applications from aerospace and aeronautics to ships, cars, and trucks. The book realistically discusses both the potential of these fascinating materials as well as their limitations in everyday life, and how to overcome some of those limitations in order to achieve proper design of useful SMA mechanisms. Discusses material characterization processes and results for a number of newer SMAs Incorporates numerical (FE) simulation and integration procedures into commercial codes (Msc/Nastran, Abaqus, and others) Provides detailed examples on design procedures and optimization of SMA-based actuation systems for real cases, from specs to verification lab tests on physical demonstrators One of the few SMA books to include design and set-up of demonstrator characterization tests and correlation with numerical models

Engineering Aspects of Shape Memory Alloys

Engineering Aspects of Shape Memory Alloys
Author: T W Duerig,K N Melton,D Stöckel
Publsiher: Butterworth-Heinemann
Total Pages: 512
Release: 2013-10-22
ISBN 10: 1483144755
ISBN 13: 9781483144757
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Engineering Aspects of Shape Memory Alloys Book Review:

Engineering Aspects of Shape Memory Alloys provides an understanding of shape memory by defining terms, properties, and applications. It includes tutorials, overviews, and specific design examples—all written with the intention of minimizing the science and maximizing the engineering aspects. Although the individual chapters have been written by many different authors, each one of the best in their fields, the overall tone and intent of the book is not that of a proceedings, but that of a textbook. The book consists of five parts. Part I deals with the mechanism of shape memory and the alloys that exhibit the effect. It also defines many essential terms that will be used in later parts. Part II deals primarily with constrained recovery, but to some extent with free recovery. There is an introductory paper which defines terms and principles, then several specific examples of products based on constrained recovery. Both Parts III and IV deal with actuators. Part III introduces engineering principles while Part IV presents several of the specific examples. Finally, Part V deals with superelasticity, with an introductory paper and then several specific examples of product engineering.

Fabrication and Processing of Shape Memory Alloys

Fabrication and Processing of Shape Memory Alloys
Author: Kush Mehta,Kapil Gupta
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 84
Release: 2018-09-01
ISBN 10: 3319993070
ISBN 13: 9783319993072
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fabrication and Processing of Shape Memory Alloys Book Review:

This book showcases different processes of fabrication and processing applied to shape memory alloys. It provides details and collective information on working principles, process mechanisms, salient features, novel aspects, process capabilities, properties of material and unique applications of shape memory alloys. The recent progress on fabrication and processing are specially addressed in this book. It covers major topics of manufacturing such as machining, joining, welding and processing of shape memory alloys.

Shape Memory Alloys Handbook

Shape Memory Alloys Handbook
Author: Christian Lexcellent
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 400
Release: 2013-04-08
ISBN 10: 1118577957
ISBN 13: 9781118577950
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Shape Memory Alloys Handbook Book Review:

The aim of this book is to understand and describe themartensitic phase transformation and the process of martensiteplatelet reorientation. These two key elements enable the author tointroduce the main features associated with the behavior ofshape-memory alloys (SMAs), i.e. the one-way shape-memory effect,pseudo-elasticity, training and recovery. Attention is paid in particular to the thermodynamical frame forsolid materials modeling at the macroscopic scale and itsapplications, as well as to the particular use of such alloys– the simplified calculations for the bending of bars andtheir torsion. Other chapters are devoted to key topics such as theuse of the “crystallographical theory of martensite”for SMA modeling, phenomenological and statistical investigationsof SMAs, magneto-thermo-mechanical behavior of magnetic SMAs andthe fracture mechanics of SMAs. Case studies are provided on thedimensioning of SMA elements offering the reader an additionaluseful framework on the subject. Contents 1. Some General Points about SMAs. 2. The World of Shape-memory Alloys. 3. Martensitic Transformation. 4. Thermodynamic Framework for the Modeling of SolidMaterials. 5. Use of the “CTM” to Model SMAs. 6. Phenomenological and Statistical Approaches for SMAs. 7. Macroscopic Models with Internal Variables. 8. Design of SMA Elements: Case Studies. 9. Behavior of Magnetic SMAs. 10. Fracture Mechanics of SMAs. 11. General Conclusion. Appendix 1. Intrinsic Properties of Rotation Matrices. Appendix 2. “Twinning Equation” Demonstration. Appendix 3. Calculation of the Parameters a, n and Q from the“Twinning” Equation. Appendix 4. “Twinned” Austenite/MartensiteEquation. About the Authors Christian Lexcellent is Emeritus Professor at the ÉcoleNational Supérieure de Mécanique et des Microtechniquesde Besançon and a researcher in the Department of AppliedMechanics at FEMTO-ST in France. He is a specialist in themechanics of materials and phase transition and has taught in thesubjects of mechanics of continuum media and shape memory alloys.He is also a member of the International Committee of ESOMAT.

A Multiscale Study of NiTi Shape Memory Alloys

A Multiscale Study of NiTi Shape Memory Alloys
Author: Reza Mirzaeifar
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 329
Release: 2013
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: OCLC:865476921
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

A Multiscale Study of NiTi Shape Memory Alloys Book Review:

Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are widely used in a broad variety of applications in multiscale devices ranging from nano-actuators used in nano-electrical-mechanical systems (NEMS) to large energy absorbing elements in civil engineering applications. This research introduces a multiscale analysis for SMAs, particularly Nickel-Titanium alloys (NiTi). SMAs are studied in a variety of length scales ranging from macroscale to nanoscale. In macroscale, a phenomenological constitutive framework is adopted and developed by adding the effect of phase transformation latent heat. Analytical closed-form solutions are obtained for modeling the coupled thermomechanical behavior of various large polycrystalline SMA devices subjected to different loadings, including uniaxial loads, torsion, and bending. Thermomechanical responses of several SMA devices are analyzed using the introduced solutions and the results are validated by performing various experiments on some large SMA elements. In order to study some important properties of polycrystalline SMAs that the macroscopic phenomenological frameworks cannot capture, including the texture and intergranular effects in polycrystalline SMAs, a micromechanical framework with a realistic modeling of the grains based on Voronoi tessellations is used. The local form of the first law of thermodynamics is used and the energy balance relations for the polycrystalline SMAs are obtained. Generalized coupled thermomechanical governing equations considering the phase transformation latent heat are derived for polycrystalline SMAs. A three-dimensional finite element framework is used and different polycrystalline samples are modeled. By considering appropriate distributions of crystallographic orientations in the grains obtained from experimental texture measurements of NiTi samples the effects of texture and the tension-compression asymmetry on the thermomechanical response of polycrystalline SMAs are studied. The interaction between the stress state (tensile or compressive), number of grains, and the texture on the thermomechanical response of polycrystalline SMAs is also studied. For studying some aspects of the thermomechanical properties of SMAs that cannot be studied neither by the phenomenological constitutive models nor by the micromechanical models, molecular dynamics simulations are used to explore the martensitic phase transformation in NiTi alloys at the atomistic level. The martensite reorientation, austenite to martensite phase transformation, and twinning mechanisms in NiTi nanostructures are analyzed and the effect of various parameters including the temperature and size on the phase transformation at the atomistic level is studied. Results of this research provide insight into studying pseudoelasticity and shape memory response of NiTi alloys at different length scales and are useful for better understanding the solid-to-solid phase transformation at the atomistic level, and the effects of this transformation on the microstructure of polycrystal SMAs and the macroscopic response of these alloys.

Shape Memory Alloys

Shape Memory Alloys
Author: Francisco Manuel Braz Fernandes
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 292
Release: 2013-04-03
ISBN 10: 9535110845
ISBN 13: 9789535110842
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Shape Memory Alloys Book Review:

Shape memory alloys have become in the past decades a well established research subject. However, the complex relations between properties and structure have created a continuously growing interest for a deeper insight all this time. The complexity of relationships between structure and properties is mostly related to the fact that strong ?multidimensional? interactions are taking place: from the early studies focusing on the thermal and/or mechanical induced phase transformations to the more recent findings on the magnetically induced structural changes. On the other hand, these singular behavioral characteristics have driven a great industrial interest due to the innovative aspects that the applications of shape memory alloys may provide. This makes this subject a highly attractive source of continuous studies, ranging from basics crystallography and thermodynamics to mechanical analysis and electrical and magnetic properties characterization. In this book, a group of recent studies is compiled focusing on a wide range of topics from processing to the relationship between the structure and properties, as well as new applications.

Shape Memory Alloys

Shape Memory Alloys
Author: M. Fremond,S. Miyazaki
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 147
Release: 2014-05-04
ISBN 10: 3709143489
ISBN 13: 9783709143483
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Shape Memory Alloys Book Review:

This book consists of two chapters. The first chapter deals with the thermomechanical macroscopic theory describing the transformation and deformation behavior of shape memory alloys. The second chapter deals with the extensive and fundamental review of the experimental works which include crystallography, transformations and mechanical characteristics in Ti-Ni, Cu-base and ferrous shape memory alloys.

First Principles Modelling of Shape Memory Alloys

First Principles Modelling of Shape Memory Alloys
Author: Oliver Kastner
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 176
Release: 2012-07-31
ISBN 10: 3642286194
ISBN 13: 9783642286193
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

First Principles Modelling of Shape Memory Alloys Book Review:

Materials sciences relate the macroscopic properties of materials to their microscopic structure and postulate the need for holistic multiscale research. The investigation of shape memory alloys is a prime example in this regard. This particular class of materials exhibits strong coupling of temperature, strain and stress, determined by solid state phase transformations of their metallic lattices. The present book presents a collection of simulation studies of this behaviour. Employing conceptually simple but comprehensive models, the fundamental material properties of shape memory alloys are qualitatively explained from first principles. Using contemporary methods of molecular dynamics simulation experiments, it is shown how microscale dynamics may produce characteristic macroscopic material properties. The work is rooted in the materials sciences of shape memory alloys and covers thermodynamical, micro-mechanical and crystallographical aspects. It addresses scientists in these research fields and their students.

Shape Memory Alloys

Shape Memory Alloys
Author: Corneliu Cismasiu
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 218
Release: 2010-10-18
ISBN 10: 9533071060
ISBN 13: 9789533071060
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Shape Memory Alloys Book Review:

In the last decades, the Shape Memory Alloys, with their peculiar thermo-mechanical properties, high corrosion and extraordinary fatigue resistance, have become more popular in research and engineering applications. This book contains a number of relevant international contributions related to their properties, constitutive models and numerical simulation, medical and civil engineering applications, as well as aspects related to their processing.

Design of Shape Memory Alloy SMA Actuators

Design of Shape Memory Alloy  SMA  Actuators
Author: Ashwin Rao,A. R. Srinivasa,J. N. Reddy
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 130
Release: 2015-05-08
ISBN 10: 3319031880
ISBN 13: 9783319031880
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Design of Shape Memory Alloy SMA Actuators Book Review:

This short monograph presents an analysis and design methodology for shape memory alloy (SMA) components such as wires, beams, and springs for different applications. The solid-solid, diffusionless phase transformations in thermally responsive SMA allows them to demonstrate unique characteristics like superelasticity and shape memory effects. The combined sensing and actuating capabilities of such materials allows them to provide a system level response by combining multiple functions in a single material system. In SMA, the combined mechanical and thermal loading effects influence the functionality of such materials. The aim of this book is to make the analysis of these materials accessible to designers by developing a "strength of materials" approach to the analysis and design of such SMA components inspired from their various applications with a review of various factors influencing the design process for such materials.

Shape Memory Alloys for Biomedical Applications

Shape Memory Alloys for Biomedical Applications
Author: T Yoneyama,S Miyazaki
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 352
Release: 2008-11-21
ISBN 10: 1845695240
ISBN 13: 9781845695248
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Shape Memory Alloys for Biomedical Applications Book Review:

Shape memory alloys are suitable for a wide range of biomedical applications, such as dentistry, bone repair and cardiovascular stents. Shape memory alloys for biomedical applications provides a comprehensive review of the use of shape memory alloys in these and other areas of medicine. Part one discusses fundamental issues with chapters on such topics as mechanical properties, fabrication of materials, the shape memory effect, superelasticity, surface modification and biocompatibility. Part two covers applications of shape memory alloys in areas such as stents and orthodontic devices as well as other applications in the medical and dental fields. With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Shape memory alloys for biomedical applications is an essential reference for materials scientists and engineers working in the medical devices industry and in academia. A comprehensive review of shape memory metals and devices for medical applications Discusses materials, mechanical properties, surface modification and biocompatibility Chapters review medical and dental devices using shape memory metals, including stents and orthodontic devices

Biomaterials in Clinical Practice

Biomaterials in Clinical Practice
Author: Fatima Zivic,Saverio Affatato,Miroslav Trajanovic,Matthias Schnabelrauch,Nenad Grujovic,Kwang Leong Choy
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 830
Release: 2017-10-20
ISBN 10: 3319680250
ISBN 13: 9783319680255
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biomaterials in Clinical Practice Book Review:

This book covers the properties of biomaterials that have found wide clinical applications, while also reviewing the state-of-the-art in the development towards future medical applications, starting with a brief introduction to the history of biomaterials used in hip arthroplasty. The book then reviews general types of biomaterials – polymers, ceramics, and metals, as well as different material structures such as porous materials and coatings and their applications – before exploring various current research trends, such as biodegradable and porous metals, shape memory alloys, bioactive biomaterials and coatings, and nanometals used in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. In turn, the book discusses a range of methods and approaches used in connection with biomaterial properties and characterization – chemical properties, biocompatibility, in vivo behaviour characterisation, as well as genotoxicity and mutagenicity – and reviews various diagnostic techniques: histopathological analysis, imagining techniques, and methods for physicochemical and spectroscopic characterization. Properties of stent deployment procedures in cardiovascular surgeries, from aspects of prediction, development and deployment of stent geometries are presented on the basis of novel modelling approaches. The last part of the book presents the clinical applications of biomaterials, together with case studies in dentistry, knee and hip prosthesis. Reflecting the efforts of a multidisciplinary team of authors, gathering chemical engineers, medical doctors, physicists and engineers, it presents a rich blend of perspectives on the application of biomaterials in clinical practice. The book will provide clinicians with an essential review of currently available solutions in specific medical areas, also incorporating non-medical solutions and standpoints, thus offering them a broader selection of materials and implantable solutions. This work is the result of joint efforts of various academic and research institutions participating in WIMB Tempus project, 543898-TEMPUS-1-2013-1-ES-TEMPUS-JPHES, "Development of Sustainable Interrelations between Education, Research and Innovation at WBC Universities in Nanotechnologies and Advanced Materials where Innovation Means Business", co-funded by the Tempus Programme of the European Union.

IUTAM Symposium on Smart Structures and Structronic Systems

IUTAM Symposium on Smart Structures and Structronic Systems
Author: Ulrich Gabbert,Hornsen Tzou
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 362
Release: 2001-06-30
ISBN 10: 9780792369684
ISBN 13: 0792369688
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

IUTAM Symposium on Smart Structures and Structronic Systems Book Review:

Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium on Smart Structures and Structronic Systems, held in Magdeburg, Germany, 26-29 September 2000

Shape Memory Alloys

Shape Memory Alloys
Author: Dimitris C. Lagoudas
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 436
Release: 2008-06-05
ISBN 10: 0387476857
ISBN 13: 9780387476858
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Shape Memory Alloys Book Review:

This book provides a working knowledge of the modeling and engineering applications of shape memory alloys (SMAs), beginning with a rigorous introduction to continuum mechanics and continuum thermodynamics as they relate to the development of SMA modeling.Modern SMAs can recover from large amounts of bending and deformation, and millions of repetitions within recoverable ranges. SMAs are used in the medical industry to create stents, in the dental industry to create dental and orthodontic archwires, and in the aerospace industry to create fluid fittings. The text presents a unified approach to the constitutive modeling of SMAs, including modeling of magnetic and high temperature SMAs.

Shape Memory Alloys

Shape Memory Alloys
Author: Ivo Szurman,Radim Kocich,Miroslav Kursa
Publsiher: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
Total Pages: 112
Release: 2012-03
ISBN 10: 9783848425358
ISBN 13: 3848425351
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Shape Memory Alloys Book Review:

Shape Memory Alloys include a wide range of various materials. These materials exhibit unique properties including thermal (shape memory effect) and mechanical (pseudoelasticity) memory, whereas both these characteristics depend on the martensitic phase transformation and diffusion-free transformation of the solid state. One of the main reasons is their attractiveness due to shape memory and pseudoelastic properties, excellent biocompability and high corrosive resistance. The most attention (even today) goes to Ni-Ti and Ni-Ti-Me systems, where Me represents another alloying element. This book covers mainly Ni-Ti based materials. Alloys from these systems have characteristic features of long-range structure, thermoelastic martensite and crystallographic reversible phase transformations. This book is focused on fabrication, conventional as well as non-conventional forming techniques. Among others there are stated methods for transformation temperatures measurement and evaluation of microstructural characteristic.