Applications of Next Generation Biosurfactants in the Food Sector

Applications of Next Generation Biosurfactants in the Food Sector
Author: Dr. Inamuddin,Charles Oluwaseun Adetunji
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 524
Release: 2021-05-01
ISBN 10: 0128242841
ISBN 13: 9780128242841
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Applications of Next Generation Biosurfactants in the Food Sector Book Review:

Applications of Next Generation Biosurfactants in the Food Sector provides detailed information on the sustainable approach to the utilization of biosurfactants as a next-generational green biotechnology to mitigate various problems encountered in the food industry. These biosurfactants help to reduce risks such as food spoilage, food poisoning, and post-harvest losses of fruits, vegetable, grains, tubers, cereals and pulses. This book will benefit academics, R&D professionals, and postgrad students in the food science and related fields as they explore recent trends in the application of these green biosurfactants and the many uses they can provide. Provides examples of mathematical modeling, metabolomics, bioinformatics, metabolic engineering, systems biology, and computer technology for solving real-life food challenges using biosurfactants Presents biosurfactants as an innovative, green, biotechnological solution to resolving food safety issues and improving human health Includes applications of biosurfactants for the prevention of mycotoxins and as a biodegradable material with a wide variety of uses

Microbial Bioprospecting for Sustainable Development

Microbial Bioprospecting for Sustainable Development
Author: Joginder Singh,Deepansh Sharma,Gaurav Kumar,Neeta Raj Sharma
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 397
Release: 2018-09-18
ISBN 10: 9811300534
ISBN 13: 9789811300530
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Microbial Bioprospecting for Sustainable Development Book Review:

This book presents a comprehensive overview of the use of microorganisms and microbial metabolites as a future sustainable basis of agricultural, environmental and industrial developments. It provides a holistic approach to the latest advances in the utilization of various microorganism bioprospecting including their wide range of applications, traditional uses, modern practices, and designing strategies to harness their potential. In addition, it highlights advanced microbial bioremediation approaches, including genetic manipulation, metagenomics analysis and bacteriophage-based sensors for the detection of food-borne pathogens. Lastly, it elaborates on the latest advances regarding the role of microbes in the sustainable development of various industrial products.

The Role of Colloidal Systems in Environmental Protection

The Role of Colloidal Systems in Environmental Protection
Author: Monzer Fanun
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 720
Release: 2014-02-08
ISBN 10: 0444632840
ISBN 13: 9780444632845
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Role of Colloidal Systems in Environmental Protection Book Review:

The Role of Colloidal Systems in Environmental Protection describes the importance of colloids in many applications that contribute to environmental protection, including drinking water and wastewater treatment, heavy metal remediation, treatment of radioactive materials, corrosion, and energy conversion. Knowledge of the physical and chemical composition of colloids is important to understand and accurately model the relevant processes. The book familiarizes the reader with the technological features of the application of colloids in environmental protection, and provides chemical engineers, researchers, and scientists in academic and corporate communities with the latest developments in this field. Each chapter covers the whole spectrum of the relevant science, from the fundamentals to applications. Provides the applied technological features of colloids in environmental protection Gives insight into the use of bio-solid colloids as contaminant carriers Covers the natural occurrence of biosurfactants in the environment and their applications Provides information on the use of nanoparticles for environmental applications Chapters written by recognized and respected experts in the field from all over the world

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa
Author: Dinesh Sriramulu
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 122
Release: 2019-10-02
ISBN 10: 1789238153
ISBN 13: 9781789238150
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Book Review:

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, though unfamiliar as an aggressive invader, has gained importance in the scientific community due to its association with cystic fibrosis (CF) and its ability to construct biofilms resilient to host defense. The chronic nature of CF allows this bacterium to colonize, adapt, and evolve at its own pace, thereby causing further complications in CF patients. With its huge genetic repertoire and plasticity of the genome, P. aeruginosa has been able to alter its contents by way of deletions, insertions, inversions, and so on. Therefore scientists and researchers are eager to study this bacterium in diverse and unusual niches. Written by experts from around the world, this book describes and discusses the various mechanisms of adaptation and evolution displayed by P. aeruginosa.

Microbial Cell Factories

Microbial Cell Factories
Author: Deepansh Sharma,Baljeet Singh Saharan
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 394
Release: 2018-03-22
ISBN 10: 1351668048
ISBN 13: 9781351668040
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Microbial Cell Factories Book Review:

Microbial Cell Factories is a conceptual, reference-based source including chapters covering microbial cell factories for industrial developments, microbial biotechnology, sustainable environmental solutions, agriculture practices, microorganisms in food processing, metabolites as next generation food additives/food processing, and microbial cell factories in alternative energy fuel generation. The book highlights trends and developments in the field of microbial products, written by an international team of leading academic and research scholars. Key Selling Features: Highlights trends and developments in microbial biotechnology Systematically reviews microbial cell factories Explores the potential of microbial cell derived industrial production Synthesizes information on environmental and agricultural uses of microbial biotechnology Contributions from an international team of leading scholars

Oilfield Chemistry and its Environmental Impact

Oilfield Chemistry and its Environmental Impact
Author: Henry A. Craddock
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 576
Release: 2018-08-06
ISBN 10: 1119244250
ISBN 13: 9781119244257
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Oilfield Chemistry and its Environmental Impact Book Review:

Consolidates the many different chemistries being employed to provide environmentally acceptable products through the upstream oil and gas industry This book discusses the development and application of green chemistry in the oil and gas exploration and production industry over the last 25 years — bringing together the various chemistries that are utilised for creating suitable environmental products. Written by a highly respected consultant to the oil and gas industry — it introduces readers to the principles and development of green chemistry in general, and the regulatory framework specific to the oil and gas sector in the North Sea area and elsewhere in the world. It also explores economic drivers pertaining to the application of green chemistry in the sector. Topics covered in Oilfield Chemistry and its Environmental Impact include polymer chemistry, surfactants and amphiphiles, phosphorus chemistry, inorganic salts, low molecular weight organics, silicon chemistry and green solvents. It also looks at sustainability in an extractive industry, examining the approaches used and the other methodologies that could be applied in the development of better chemistries, along with discussions about where the application of green chemistry is leading in this industry sector. Provides the reader with a ready source of reference when considering what chemistries are appropriate for application to oilfield problems and looking for green chemistry solutions Brings together the pertinent regulations which workers in the field will find useful, alongside the chemistries which meet the regulatory requirements Written by a well-known specialist with a combined knowledge of chemistry, manufacturing procedures and environmental issues Oilfield Chemistry and its Environmental Impact is an excellent book for oil and gas industry professionals as well as scientists, academic researchers, students and policy makers.

Biosurfactants in Food

Biosurfactants in Food
Author: Deepansh Sharma
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 86
Release: 2016-07-06
ISBN 10: 3319394150
ISBN 13: 9783319394152
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biosurfactants in Food Book Review:

The present work aims to cover the perspectives of biosurfactants, which can be of interest in food-related industries and biomedical applications. Biosurfactants are a structurally diverse group of surface-active molecules extensively produced by bacteria, yeast and fungi. Despite having significant potential associated with emulsion formation, anti-adhesive and antimicrobial activities, considerably few applications have been reported regarding applications of biosurfactants in food formulations and processing. The utilization of biosurfactants, which are highly functional in food and biomedical applications, has become more and more significant. Along with providing an overview of biosurfactant properties, the book suggests how these properties could be applicable in the food industry.

Biodegradation

Biodegradation
Author: Rolando Chamy
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 380
Release: 2013-06-14
ISBN 10: 953511154X
ISBN 13: 9789535111542
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biodegradation Book Review:

This book contains a collection of different biodegradation research activities where biological processes take place. The book has two main sections: A) Polymers and Surfactants Biodegradation and B) Biodegradation: Microbial Behaviour.

Advances in Bioremediation of Wastewater and Polluted Soil

Advances in Bioremediation of Wastewater and Polluted Soil
Author: Naofumi Shiomi
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 284
Release: 2015-09-09
ISBN 10: 9535121650
ISBN 13: 9789535121657
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Bioremediation of Wastewater and Polluted Soil Book Review:

The pollution of soil and groundwater by heavy metals and other chemicals is becoming a serious issue in many countries. However, the current bioremediation processes do not often achieve sufficient remediation, and more effective processes are desired. This book deals with advances in the bioremediation of polluted soil and groundwater. In the former chapters of this book, respected researchers in this field describe how the optimization of microorganisms, enzymes, absorbents, additives and injection procedures can help to realize excellent bioremediation. In the latter chapters, other researchers introduce bioremediation processes that have been performed in the field and novel bioremediation processes. Thus, the readers will be able to obtain new ideas about effective bioremediation as well as important information about recent advances in bioremediation.

Biosurfactants

Biosurfactants
Author: Ramkrishna Sen
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 331
Release: 2010-12-31
ISBN 10: 9781441959799
ISBN 13: 1441959793
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biosurfactants Book Review:

The microbial world has given us many surprises including microbes that grow under extremely harsh conditions (122C at 40 MPa), novel metabolisms such as the uranium and perchlorate reduction, and novel chemicals that can be used to control diseases. We continually face new and difficult problems such as the need to transition to more carbon-neutral energy sources and to find eco-friendly chemicals and to find new drugs to treat disease. Will it be possible to tap into the seemingly limitless potential of microbial activity to solve our current and future problems?The answer to this question is probably yes. We are already looking to the microbial world to provide new energy sources, green chemicals to replace those made from petroleum, and new drugs to fight disease. To help us along these paths, we are deciphering how microorganisms interact with each other. We know that microbial populations interact and communicate with each other. The language that microbes use is chemical where small molecules are exchanged among different microbial cells. Sometimes, these chemicals suppress activities of competitors and could be used as antibiotics or may have other therapeutic uses. Other times, the chemicals stimulate complex responses in microbial populations such as fruiting body or biofilm formation. By understanding the conversation that microbes are having among themselves, e. g.

New and Future Developments in Microbial Biotechnology and Bioengineering

New and Future Developments in Microbial Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Author: Alexandre Gomes Rodrigues
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 374
Release: 2020-06-10
ISBN 10: 0444643028
ISBN 13: 9780444643025
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

New and Future Developments in Microbial Biotechnology and Bioengineering Book Review:

New and Future Developments in Microbial Biotechnology and Bioengineering: Microbial Biomolecules: Properties, Relevance and Their Translational Applications presents a concise review on microbial biotechnology, along with impacts and recent results from research centers, small companies and large enterprises. The book brings the most relevant information on how we can use resources—in this case from microorganisms—and technology to develop solutions in fields like biofuels, food, cosmetics and medicine. It covers case studies of start-ups in the field and explains how scientists have moved their ideas into profitable bio-based products that are necessary for our current living standards. In addition, the book describes strategic governmental programs designed to exploit biomass in a sustainable way, along with detailed information on research in several high-impact, worldwide laboratories. It gives concrete examples of ongoing research from molecules to methods, such as L-asparaginase, extremophiles, new diagnostics tools and the analytical methods that have raised the quality of the data obtained, thereby boosting the so-called bioeconomy. Comprises a unique source of information on the various applications of microbial biomolecules Provides resourceful material for new ideas and strong rational/application-oriented stories Discusses biotech companies in various areas (biofuel, food, medicine, etc.) who are actively using microbial biomolecules Outlines scientific discoveries and their translation into profitable products Gives an insight perspective of institutional and governmental strategic research programs aiming to preserve, explore and generate benefits from microbial biomolecules

Application and Characterization of Surfactants

Application and Characterization of Surfactants
Author: Reza Najjar
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 316
Release: 2017-07-05
ISBN 10: 953513325X
ISBN 13: 9789535133254
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Application and Characterization of Surfactants Book Review:

The surfactants are among the materials that have a significant importance in everyday life of human. The rapid growth in science and technology has opened new horizons in a very wide range, in which the surfactants play a major and vital role. Hence, the increasing number of applications as well as arising environmental issues has made this relatively old topic still a hot research theme. In the first section of this book, some of the applications of surfactants in various fields such as biology and petroleum industry, as well as their environmental effects, are described. In Section 2 some experimental techniques used for characterization of the surfactants have been discussed.

Industrial Biorefineries and White Biotechnology

Industrial Biorefineries and White Biotechnology
Author: Ashok Pandey,Rainer Höfer,Mohammad Taherzadeh,Madhavan Nampoothiri,Christian Larroche
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 730
Release: 2015-05-08
ISBN 10: 0444634649
ISBN 13: 9780444634641
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Industrial Biorefineries and White Biotechnology Book Review:

Industrial Biorefineries and White Biotechnology provides a comprehensive look at the increasing focus on developing the processes and technologies needed for the conversion of biomass to liquid and gaseous fuels and chemicals, in particular, the development of low-cost technologies. During the last 3-4 years, there have been scientific and technological developments in the area; this book represents the most updated information and technological perspective on the topic. Provides information on the most advanced and innovative pretreatment processes and technologies for biomass Covers information on lignocellulosic and algal biomass to work on the principles of biorefinery Provides information on integration of processes for the pretreatment of biomass Designed as a textbook for both graduate students and researchers

Antimicrobial Food Packaging

Antimicrobial Food Packaging
Author: Jorge Barros-Velazquez
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 676
Release: 2015-12-27
ISBN 10: 0128008105
ISBN 13: 9780128008102
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Antimicrobial Food Packaging Book Review:

Antimicrobial Food Packaging takes an interdisciplinary approach to provide a complete and robust understanding of packaging from some of the most well-known international experts. This practical reference provides basic information and practical applications for the potential uses of various films in food packaging, describes the different types of microbial targets (fungal, bacteria, etc.), and focuses on the applicability of techniques to industry. Tactics on the monitoring of microbial activity that use antimicrobial packaging detection of food borne pathogens, the use of biosensors, and testing antimicrobial susceptibility are also included, along with food safety and good manufacturing practices. The book aims to curtail the development of microbiological contamination of food through anti-microbial packaging to improve the safety in the food supply chain. Presents the science behind anti-microbial packaging and films reflecting advancements in chemistry, microbiology, and food science Includes the most up-to-date information on regulatory aspects, consumer acceptance, research trends, cost analysis, risk analysis and quality control Discusses the uses of natural and unnatural compounds for food safety and defense

Bioprocess Engineering for a Green Environment

Bioprocess Engineering for a Green Environment
Author: V. Sivasubramanian
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 426
Release: 2018-05-04
ISBN 10: 1351867873
ISBN 13: 9781351867870
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Bioprocess Engineering for a Green Environment Book Review:

Bioprocess Engineering for a Green Environment examines numerous bioprocesses that are crucial to our day-to-day life, specifically the major issues surrounding the production of energy relating to biofuels and waste management. The nuance of this discussion is reflected by the text’s chapter breakdown, providing the reader with a fulsome investigation of the energy sector; the importance of third-generation fuels; and the application of micro- and macroalgae for the production of biofuels. The book also provides a detailed exploration of biocatalysts and their application to the food industry; bioplastics production; conversion of agrowaste into polysaccharides; as well as the importance of biotechnology in bio-processing. Numerous industries discharge massive amounts of effluents into our rivers, seas, and air systems. As such, two chapters are dedicated to the treatment of various pollutants through biological operation with hopes of achieving a cleaner, greener, environment. This book represents the most comprehensive study of bioprocessing—and its various applications to the environment—available on the market today. It was furthermore written with various researchers in mind, ranging from undergraduate and graduate students looking to enhance their knowledge of the topics presented to scholars and engineers interested in the bioprocessing field, as well as members of industry and policy-makers. Provides a comprehensive overview of bioprocesses that apply to day-to-day living. Is learner-centered, providing detailed diagrams for easy understanding. Explores the importance of biocatalysts and their applications to the food industry, as well as bioplastics production. Examines the unique capabilities of bioprocess engineering and its ability to treat various pollutants. .

Adhesion of Microbial Pathogens

Adhesion of Microbial Pathogens
Author: Ron J. Doyle,Itzhak Ofek
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 600
Release: 1995-07-25
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: UVA:X002761355
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Adhesion of Microbial Pathogens Book Review:

The critically acclaimed laboratory standard for forty years, Methods in Enzymology is one of the most highly respected publications in the field of biochemistry. Since 1955, each volume has been eagerlyawaited, frequently consulted, and praised by researchers and reviewers alike. More than 250 volumes have been published (all of them still in print) and much of the material is relevant even today--truly an essential publication for researchers in all fields of life sciences. Key Features * Strategies involved in studying adhesion * Genetic manipulation of adhesions * Adhesion and receptor isolation and characterization * Distinguishes between adhesion and invasion * Assays for adhesion * Kinetic and epidemiological considerations of adhesion and infection

Biosurfactants

Biosurfactants
Author: Naim Kosaric,Fazilet Vardar Sukan
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 389
Release: 2014-11-03
ISBN 10: 1466596708
ISBN 13: 9781466596702
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biosurfactants Book Review:

Stresses the Potential Applications of Biosurfactants in Various Industries Environmental concerns and a demand for sustainable chemical production have become important issues in recent years. As a result, microbial biosurfactant-producing systems are gaining momentum as potential replacements for chemical surfactants. Biosurfactants: Production and Utilization—Processes, Technologies, and Economics explores the production, utilization, and industrial/economic use of biosurfactants in modern biotechnology. This book represents comprehensive material developed by contemporary experts in the field. Focusing on research and developments within the last 20 years, it highlights relevant changes in the industry. It provides a detailed account of the current applications of biosurfactants, considers the potential for further environmental, biological, and industrial applications, and concentrates on surfactants and organisms with possibilities for future use. Emphasizes Process Scale-Up and Commercialization Factoring in the industrial application of biosurfactant production based on renewable resources, the book determines how biosurfactants can enhance or replace the properties of chemically synthesized surface-active agents. It discusses moving beyond the laboratory scale of research and development and on to the industrial scale of commercial interest. The book consists of 17 chapters and features expert authors discussing topics that include: Understanding the regulatory processes controlling the production of biosurfactants Strategies for feasible commercial biosurfactant production Examples of cost analysis based on published information The viability of industrial applications in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals Patents for future trends Biosurfactants: Production and Utilization—Processes, Technologies, and Economics contains special sections devoted to the overview and evaluation of specific patents relating to biosurfactants, and methods for production of biosurfactants on a laboratory and industrial/commercial scale. It also presents novel and proven applications for biosurfactants from a number of biotechnology laboratories and research facilities around the world. In addition, it introduces the reader to a variety of real-world industry techniques readily applicable for practical use.

Refining Biomass Residues for Sustainable Energy and Bioproducts

Refining Biomass Residues for Sustainable Energy and Bioproducts
Author: R. Praveen Kumar,Edgard Gnansounou,Jegannathan Kenthorai Raman,Gurunathan Baskar
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 642
Release: 2019-11-08
ISBN 10: 0128189975
ISBN 13: 9780128189979
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Refining Biomass Residues for Sustainable Energy and Bioproducts Book Review:

The utilization of various types of biomass residue to produce products such as biofuels and biochemicals means biorefinery technology using biomass residues may become a one-stop solution to the increasing need for sustainable, non-fossil sources of energy and chemicals. Refining Biomass Residues for Sustainable Energy and Bioproducts: Technology, Advances, Life Cycle Assessment and Economics focuses on the various biorefineries currently available and discusses their uses, challenges, and future developments. This book introduces the concept of integrated biorefinery systems, as well as their operation and feedstock sourcing. It explores the specificities, current developments, and potential end products of various types of residue, from industrial and municipal to agricultural and marine, as well as residue from food industries. Sustainability issues are discussed at length, including life cycle assessment, economics, and cost analysis of different biorefinery models. In addition, a number of global case studies examine successful experiences in different regions. This book is an ideal resource for researchers and practitioners in the field of bioenergy and waste management who are looking to learn about technologies involved in residue biorefinery systems, how to reduce their environmental impacts, and how to ensure their commercial viability. Explores a range of different biorefinery categories, such as industrial, agricultural, and marine biomass residues Includes a Life Cycle Assessment of biorefinery models, in addition to costs and market analysis. Features case studies from around the world and is written by an international team of authors

Nanoemulsions

Nanoemulsions
Author: Seid Mahdi Jafari,D. Julian McClements
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 664
Release: 2018-02-24
ISBN 10: 0128118393
ISBN 13: 9780128118399
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nanoemulsions Book Review:

Nanoemulsions: Formulation, Applications, and Characterization provides detailed information on the production, application and characterization of food nanoemulsion as presented by experts who share a wealth of experience. Those involved in the nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries will find this a useful reference as it addresses findings related to different preparation and formulation methods of nanoemulsions and their application in different fields and products. As the last decade has seen a major shift from conventional emulsification processes towards nanoemulsions that both increase the efficiency and stability of emulsions and improve targeted drug and nutraceutical delivery, this book is a timely resource. Summarizes general aspects of food nanoemulsions and their formulation Provides detailed information on the production, application, and characterization of food nanoemulsion Reveals the potential of nanoemulsions, as well as their novel applications in functional foods, nutraceutical products, delivery systems, and cosmetic formulations Explains preparation of nanoemulsions by both low- and high-energy methods

Emulsions

Emulsions
Author: Tharwat F. Tadros
Publsiher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Total Pages: 242
Release: 2016-03-21
ISBN 10: 3110452243
ISBN 13: 9783110452242
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Emulsions Book Review:

Chapter 1 General Introduction Definition of emulsions and the role of the emulsifier. Classification based on the nature of the emulsifier. Classification based on the structure of the system. General instability problems with emulsions : creaming/sedimentation, flocculation, Ostwald ripening, coalescence and phase inversion. Importance of emulsions in various industrial applications. Chapter 2 Thermodynamics of Emulsion Formation and Breakdown Application of the second law of thermodynamics for emulsion formation : Balance of energy and entropy and non-spontaneous formation of emulsions. Breakdown of the emulsion by flocculation and coalescence in the absence of an emulsifier. Role of the emulsifier in preventing flocculation and coalescence by creating an energy barrier resulting from the repulsive energies between the droplets. Chapter 3 Interaction Forces between Emulsion Droplets Van der Waals attraction and its dependence on droplet size, Hamaker constant and separation distance between the droplets. Electrostatic repulsion resulting from the presence of electrical double layers and its dependence on surface (or zeta) potential and electrolyte concentration and valency. Combination of the van der Waals attraction with double layer repulsion and the theory of colloid stability. Steric repulsion resulting from the presence of adsorbed non-ionic surfactants and polymers. Combination of van der Waals attraction with steric repulsion and the theory of steric stabilisation. Chapter 4 Adsorption of Surfactants at the Oil/Water Interface Thermodynamic analysis of surfactant adsorption and the Gibbs adsorption isotherm. Calculation of the amount of surfactant adsorption and area per surfactant molecule at the interface. Experimental techniques for measuring the interfacial tension. Chapter 5 Mechanism of Emulsification and the Role of the Emulsifier Description of the factors responsible for droplet deformation and its break-up. Role of surfactant in preventing coalescence during emulsification. Definition of the Gibbs dilational elasticity and the Marangoni effect in preventing coalescence. Chapter 6 Methods of Emulsification Pipe flow, static mixers and high speed stirrers (rotor-stator mixer). Laminar and turbulent flow. Membrane emulsification. High pressure homogenisers and ultrasonic methods. Chapter 7 Selection of Emulsifiers The hydrophilic-lipophilic-balance (HLB) and its application in surfactant selection. Calculation of HLB numbers and the effect of the nature of the oil phase. The phase inversion temperature (PIT) method for emulsifier selection. The cohesive energy ratio method for emulsifier selection. Chapter 8 Creaming/Sedimentation of Emulsions and its prevention Driving force for creaming/sedimentation: effect of gravity, droplet size and density difference between the oil and continuous phase. Calculation of the rate of creaming/sedimentation in dilute emulsions. Influence of increase of the volume fraction of the disperse phase on the rate of creaming/sedimentation. Reduction of creaming/sedimentation: Balance of the density of the two phases, reduction of droplet size and effect of addition of ''thickeners'. Chapter 9 Flocculation of Emulsions and its Prevention Factors affecting flocculation. Calculation of fast and slow flocculation rate. Definition of stability ratio and its dependence on electrolyte concentration and valency. Definition of the critical coagulation concentration and its dependence on electrolyte valency. Reduction of flocculation by enhancing the repulsive forces. Chapter 10 Ostwald Ripening and its Reduction Factors responsible for Ostwald ripening : difference in solubility between small and large droplets and the Kelvin equation. Calculation of the rate of Ostwald ripening. Reduction of Ostwald ripening by incorporation of a small amount of highly insoluble oil. Reduction of Ostwald ripening by the use of strongly adsorbed polymeric surfactant and enhancement of the Gibbs elasticity. Chapter 11 Emulsion Coalescence and its Prevention Driving force for emulsion coalescence : Thinning and disruption of the liquid film between the droplets. The concept of disjoining pressure for prevention of coalescence. Methods for reduction or elimination of coalescence : Use of mixed surfactant films, use of lamellar liquid crystalline phases and use of polymeric surfactants. Chapter 12 Phase Inversion and its Prevention Distinction between catastrophic and transient phase inversion. Influence of the disperse volume fraction and surfactant HLB number. Explanation of the factors responsible for phase inversion. Chapter 13 Characterisation of Emulsions Measurement of droplet size distribution : Optical microscopy and image analysis. Phase contrast and polarising microscopyDiffraction methods. Confocal laser microscopy. Back scattering methods Chapter 14 Industrial Application of Emulsions 14.1 Application in Pharmacy 14.2 Application in Cosmetics 14.3 Application in Agrochemicals 14.4 Application in Paints 14.5 Application in the Oil Industry