Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Degradation

Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Degradation
Author: Matthew M. Mench,Emin Caglan Kumbur,T. Nejat Veziroglu
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 460
Release: 2011
ISBN 10: 0123869366
ISBN 13: 9780123869364
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Degradation Book Review:

For full market implementation of PEM fuel cells to become a reality, two main limiting technical issues must be overcome- cost and durability. This cutting-edge volume directly addresses the state-of-the-art advances in durability within every fuel cell stack component. [...] chapters on durability in the individual fuel cell components -- membranes, electrodes, diffusion media, and bipolar plates -- highlight specific degradation modes and mitigation strategies. The book also includes chapters which synthesize the component-related failure modes to examine experimental diagnostics, computational modeling, and laboratory protocol"--Back cover.

Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Durability

Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Durability
Author: Felix N. Büchi,Minoru Inaba,Thomas J. Schmidt
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 510
Release: 2009-02-08
ISBN 10: 038785536X
ISBN 13: 9780387855363
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Durability Book Review:

This book covers a significant number of R&D projects, performed mostly after 2000, devoted to the understanding and prevention of performance degradation processes in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). The extent and severity of performance degradation processes in PEFCs were recognized rather gradually. Indeed, the recognition overlapped with a significant number of industrial dem- strations of fuel cell powered vehicles, which would suggest a degree of technology maturity beyond the resaolution of fundamental failure mechanisms. An intriguing question, therefore, is why has there been this apparent delay in addressing fun- mental performance stability requirements. The apparent answer is that testing of the power system under fully realistic operation conditions was one prerequisite for revealing the nature and extent of some key modes of PEFC stack failure. Such modes of failure were not exposed to a similar degree, or not at all, in earlier tests of PEFC stacks which were not performed under fully relevant conditions, parti- larly such tests which did not include multiple on–off and/or high power–low power cycles typical for transportation and mobile power applications of PEFCs. Long-term testing of PEFCs reported in the early 1990s by both Los Alamos National Laboratory and Ballard Power was performed under conditions of c- stant cell voltage, typically near the maximum power point of the PEFC.

Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells
Author: Alejandro A. Franco
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 616
Release: 2016-04-19
ISBN 10: 9814364401
ISBN 13: 9789814364409
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells Book Review:

This book focuses on the recent research progress on the fundamental understanding of the materials degradation phenomena in PEFC, for automotive applications. On a multidisciplinary basis, through contributions of internationally recognized researchers in the field, this book provides a complete critical review on crucial scientific topics related to PEFC materials degradation, and ensures a strong balance between experimental and theoretical analysis and preparation techniques with several practical applications for both the research and the industrial communities.

High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells
Author: Qingfeng Li,David Aili,Hans Aage Hjuler,Jens Oluf Jensen
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 545
Release: 2015-10-15
ISBN 10: 3319170821
ISBN 13: 9783319170824
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells Book Review:

This book is a comprehensive review of high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). PEMFCs are the preferred fuel cells for a variety of applications such as automobiles, cogeneration of heat and power units, emergency power and portable electronics. The first 5 chapters of the book describe rationalization and illustration of approaches to high temperature PEM systems. Chapters 6 - 13 are devoted to fabrication, optimization and characterization of phosphoric acid-doped polybenzimidazole membranes, the very first electrolyte system that has demonstrated the concept of and motivated extensive research activity in the field. The last 11 chapters summarize the state-of-the-art of technological development of high temperature-PEMFCs based on acid doped PBI membranes including catalysts, electrodes, MEAs, bipolar plates, modelling, stacking, diagnostics and applications.

Modeling and Diagnostics of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

Modeling and Diagnostics of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells
Author: Ugur Pasaogullari,Chao-Yang Wang
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 397
Release: 2010-07-23
ISBN 10: 9780387980683
ISBN 13: 0387980687
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Modeling and Diagnostics of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells Book Review:

This volume, presented by leading experts in the field, covers the latest advances in diagnostics and modeling of polymer electrolyte fuel cells, from understanding catalyst layer durability to start-up under freezing conditions.

PEM Fuel Cell Failure Mode Analysis

PEM Fuel Cell Failure Mode Analysis
Author: Haijiang Wang,Hui Li,Xiao-Zi Yuan
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 364
Release: 2011-08-25
ISBN 10: 1439839182
ISBN 13: 9781439839188
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

PEM Fuel Cell Failure Mode Analysis Book Review:

PEM Fuel Cell Failure Mode Analysis presents a systematic analysis of PEM fuel cell durability and failure modes. It provides readers with a fundamental understanding of insufficient fuel cell durability, identification of failure modes and failure mechanisms of PEM fuel cells, fuel cell component degradation testing, and mitigation strategies against degradation. The first several chapters of the book examine the degradation of various fuel cell components, including degradation mechanisms, the effects of operating conditions, mitigation strategies, and testing protocols. The book then discusses the effects of different contamination sources on the degradation of fuel cell components and explores the relationship between external environment and the degradation of fuel cell components and systems. It also reviews the correlation between operational mode, such as start-up and shut-down, and the degradation of fuel cell components and systems. The last chapter explains how the design of fuel cell hardware relates to failure modes. Written by international scientists active in PEM fuel cell research, this volume is enriched with practical information on various failure modes analysis for diagnosing cell performance and identifying failure modes of degradation. This in turn helps in the development of mitigation strategies and the increasing commercialization of PEM fuel cells.

Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Durability

Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Durability
Author: Felix N. Büchi,Minoru Inaba,Thomas J. Schmidt
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 510
Release: 2009-02-20
ISBN 10: 9780387855349
ISBN 13: 0387855343
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Durability Book Review:

This book covers a significant number of R&D projects, performed mostly after 2000, devoted to the understanding and prevention of performance degradation processes in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). The extent and severity of performance degradation processes in PEFCs were recognized rather gradually. Indeed, the recognition overlapped with a significant number of industrial dem- strations of fuel cell powered vehicles, which would suggest a degree of technology maturity beyond the resaolution of fundamental failure mechanisms. An intriguing question, therefore, is why has there been this apparent delay in addressing fun- mental performance stability requirements. The apparent answer is that testing of the power system under fully realistic operation conditions was one prerequisite for revealing the nature and extent of some key modes of PEFC stack failure. Such modes of failure were not exposed to a similar degree, or not at all, in earlier tests of PEFC stacks which were not performed under fully relevant conditions, parti- larly such tests which did not include multiple on–off and/or high power–low power cycles typical for transportation and mobile power applications of PEFCs. Long-term testing of PEFCs reported in the early 1990s by both Los Alamos National Laboratory and Ballard Power was performed under conditions of c- stant cell voltage, typically near the maximum power point of the PEFC.

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane and Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane and Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology
Author: Christoph Hartnig,Christina Roth
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 430
Release: 2012-03-19
ISBN 10: 0857095471
ISBN 13: 9780857095473
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane and Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology Book Review:

Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) technology are promising forms of low-temperature electrochemical power conversion technologies that operate on hydrogen and methanol respectively. Featuring high electrical efficiency and low operational emissions, they have attracted intense worldwide commercialization research and development efforts. These R&D efforts include a major drive towards improving materials performance, fuel cell operation and durability. In situ characterization is essential to improving performance and extending operational lifetime through providing information necessary to understand how fuel cell materials perform under operational loads. This two volume set reviews the fundamentals, performance, and in situ characterization of PEMFCs and DMFCs. Volume 1 covers the fundamental science and engineering of these low temperature fuel cells, focusing on understanding and improving performance and operation. Part one reviews systems fundamentals, ranging from fuels and fuel processing, to the development of membrane and catalyst materials and technology, and gas diffusion media and flowfields, as well as life cycle aspects and modelling approaches. Part two details performance issues relevant to fuel cell operation and durability, such as catalyst ageing, materials degradation and durability testing, and goes on to review advanced transport simulation approaches, degradation modelling and experimental monitoring techniques. With its international team of expert contributors, Polymer electrolyte membrane and direct methanol fuel cell technology Volumes 1 & 2 is an invaluable reference for low temperature fuel cell designers and manufacturers, as well as materials science and electrochemistry researchers and academics. Covers the fundamental science and engineering of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), focusing on understanding and improving performance and operation Reviews systems fundamentals, ranging from fuels and fuel processing, to the development of membrane and catalyst materials and technology, and gas diffusion media and flowfields, as well as life cycle aspects and modelling approaches Details performance issues relevant to fuel cell operation and durability, such as catalyst ageing, materials degradation and durability testing, and reviews advanced transport simulation approaches, degradation modelling and experimental monitoring techniques

Local Degradation of the Membrane and Catalyst Support in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

Local Degradation of the Membrane and Catalyst Support in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells
Author: Stefan Kreitmeier,Alexander Wokaun (Chemiker),Thomas J. Schmidt
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 329
Release: 2013
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: OCLC:830624158
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Local Degradation of the Membrane and Catalyst Support in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells Book Review:

Fuel Cell Engines

Fuel Cell Engines
Author: Matthew M. Mench
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 515
Release: 2008-03-07
ISBN 10: 0471689580
ISBN 13: 9780471689584
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fuel Cell Engines Book Review:

Fuel Cell Engines is an introduction to the fundamental principles of electrochemistry, thermodynamics, kinetics, material science and transport applied specifically to fuel cells. It covers scientific fundamentals and provides a basic understanding that enables proper technical decision-making.

Electrolyte Degradation and Degradation Mitigration in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

Electrolyte Degradation and Degradation Mitigration in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells
Author: Panagiotis Trogadas
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 360
Release: 2009
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: OCLC:644744444
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Electrolyte Degradation and Degradation Mitigration in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells Book Review:

Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells 17 PEFC 17

Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells 17  PEFC 17
Author: D. J. Jones,F. Buechi,K. E. Swider-Lyons,P. N. Pintauro,H. Uchida,T. J. Schmidt,B. S. Pivovar,H. A. Gasteiger,A. Z. Weber,P. A. Shirvanian,J. M. Fenton,T. F. Fuller,K. Shinohara,K. A. Perry,P. Strasser,C. Coutanceau,S. Mitsushima,R. A. Mantz,S. Narayan,V. Ramani,K. E. Ayers,Y.-T. Kim,H. Xu
Publsiher: The Electrochemical Society
Total Pages: 297
Release: 2021
ISBN 10: 1607688255
ISBN 13: 9781607688259
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells 17 PEFC 17 Book Review:

Development and Application of a Chemical Degradation Model for Reinforced Electrolyte Membranes in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

Development and Application of a Chemical Degradation Model for Reinforced Electrolyte Membranes in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells
Author: Sumit Kundu
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 179
Release: 2008
ISBN 10: 9780494432938
ISBN 13: 0494432934
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Development and Application of a Chemical Degradation Model for Reinforced Electrolyte Membranes in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells Book Review:

Fuel cells are electrochemical devices being developed for a variety of consumer applications including homes and vehicles. Before customers will accept this technology fuel cells must demonstrate suitable durability and reliability. One of the most important parts of a fuel cell stack is the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM). This layer is responsible for conducting protons from anode to cathode and acting as a gas barrier, while operating in a harsh electrochemical environment. In order to develop better and more durable membranes researchers must understand the linkage between the causes of degradation, such as specific material properties and operational conditions. One significant mode of degradation of the electrolyte membrane is through chemical degradation caused by the crossover of reactant gases leading to the formation of peroxide and ultimately radical species. These radicals are able to attack vulnerable groups in the polymer structure of the membrane. The result is membrane thinning, increased gas crossover, fluoride ion release, and voltage degradation. Considerable experimental work has been done to understand these mechanisms, although there has been no attempt to model the connection between the causes of degradation and the physical effects of degradation on the electrolyte membrane. Such a model can be used as a valuable tool when evaluating different degradation mechanisms, developing stronger materials, and enable estimation of the influence of fuel cell operation and system design on degradation. This work presents the development and application of a dynamic semi-mechanistic chemical degradation model for a reinforced membrane in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. The model was developed using single cell testing with GoreTM PRIMEA® series 5510 catalyst coated membranes under open circuit voltage (OCV) conditions. Such conditions are useful for accelerated testing since they are believed to enhance chemical degradation in membranes since reactant gas partial pressures are at their maximum. It was found that the electrolyte layer closer to the cathode catalyst preferentially degraded. Furthermore, cumulative fluoride release curves for the anode and cathode began to reach plateaus at similar times. The developed model proposes that as the cathode electrolyte layer is degraded, fluoride release slows due to a lack of reactants since the inert reinforcement layer creates a barrier between the cathode and anode electrolyte layers. It is also believed that all fluoride release originates at the degradation site at the cathode. By fitting key parameters, the fluoride release trends were simulated. The proposed model links material properties such as the membrane gas permeability, membrane thickness, and membrane reactivity, as well as operating parameters such as hydrogen partial pressure and relative humidity to fluoride release, thickness change, and crossover. Further investigation into degradation at OCV operation and different relative humidity conditions showed that initial hydrogen crossover measurements were a good indicator of degradation rate over long testing times. The proposed semi-mechanistic model was able to best model the results when using a second order dependence on the hydrogen crossover term. In all cases there was some discrepancy between the model and experimental data after long times. This was attributed to the onset and contribution of anode side degradation. The effect of drawing current on fluoride release was also investigated. Experimental results showed that with increasing current density the fluoride release rate decreased. Using the developed semi-mechanistic model it was proposed that a decrease in hydrogen crossover was primarily responsible for the reduction in chemical degradation of the membrane. A macro-homogeneous model of the anode catalyst layer was used to show that a reduction in hydrogen concentration through the catalyst layer when a current is drawn is a possible reason for the reduction in degradation. Finally the model was applied to three different dynamic drive cycles. The model was able to show that over different drive cycles, the fuel cell will experience different degradation rates. Thus the developed model can be used as a potential tool to evaluate degradation in systems.

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell
Author: Tolga Taner
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 212
Release: 2018-05-09
ISBN 10: 1789230667
ISBN 13: 9781789230666
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Book Review:

The main idea of this study is to scrutinize the performance efficiency and enhancement of modelling and simulations of PEM fuel cell. Besides, the research of PEM fuel cell performance can figure out many critical issues for an alternative resource energy. The chapters collected in the book are contributions by invited researchers with a long-standing experience in different research areas. I hope that the material presented here is understandable to a wide audience, not only energy engineers but also scientists from various disciplines. The book contains nine chapters in three sections: (1) "General Information About PEM Fuel Cell", (2) "PEM Fuel Cell Technology" and (3) "Many Different Applications of PEM Fuel Cell". This book presents detailed and up-to-date evaluations in different areas and was written by academics with experience in their field. It is anticipated that this book will make a scientific contribution to PEM fuel cell and other alternative energy resource workers, researchers, academics, PhD students and other scientists both in the present and in the future.

Characterization of Structural Degradation in a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Cathode Catalyst Layer

Characterization of Structural Degradation in a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Cathode Catalyst Layer
Author: Alan P. Young
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 329
Release: 2010
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: OCLC:1032889058
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Characterization of Structural Degradation in a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Cathode Catalyst Layer Book Review:

Modelling Cathode Catalyst Degradation in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

Modelling Cathode Catalyst Degradation in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells
Author: Steven Giordano Rinaldo
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 108
Release: 2013
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: OCLC:929729369
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Modelling Cathode Catalyst Degradation in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells Book Review:

Nano-sized Pt particles in the cathode catalyst layer of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell afford a high initial electrochemically active surface-area. However, the gain in active surface area for desired surface reactions is offset in part by enhanced rates of degradation processes that cause losses in catalyst mass, catalyst surface-area, and electrocatalytic activity. The loss of electrochemically active surface-area of the catalyst causes severe performance degradation over relevant lifetimes of polymer electrolyte fuel cells yet a consistent theoretical approach, linking experimental observations of surface-area loss related phenomena to purported mechanisms of degradation was missing. Accordingly, a dynamic model of surface-area loss and Pt mass balance phenomena based on the theories of Lifshitz, Slyozov and Wagner, and Smoluchowski is developed. It relates kinetic rates of degradation processes to the evolution of the particle-size distribution and its moments. We pursue model validation and evaluation by analyzing an extensive set of electrochemical surface-area loss experiments probing the impact of accelerated stress test control levers. Our Pt mass balance model unifies degradation characterization approaches and accordingly discriminates the predominant degradation mechanisms. The evaluation and validation approaches established a firm link between surface-area loss, Pt dissolution and Pt oxidation. As a consequence of our evaluation results, a kinetic model for Pt(111) oxide formation and reduction is developed and validated against a wide range of electrochemical, spectroscopic and theoretical work found in the relevant literature. The model provides a comprehensive picture of surface electrochemical processes that occur at Pt(111). In closing we discuss future routes of research. Foremost is the extension of cyclic voltammetry work to polycrystalline Pt and Pt nanoparticle electrodes, we suggest that these are the logical steps towards linking dynamic Pt oxidation with surface tension, Pt dissolution, surface-area loss and the oxygen reduction reaction.

The Chemistry of Membranes Used in Fuel Cells

The Chemistry of Membranes Used in Fuel Cells
Author: Shulamith Schlick
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 304
Release: 2018-02-13
ISBN 10: 1119196051
ISBN 13: 9781119196051
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Chemistry of Membranes Used in Fuel Cells Book Review:

The evolution of fuel cells and their components -- Degradation mechanism of perfluorinated membranes -- Ranking the stability of perfluorinated membranes to attack by hydroxyl radicals -- Stabilization of perfluorinated membranes using Ce3+ and Mn2+ redox scavengers: mechanism and applications -- Hydrocarbon proton exchange membranes -- Stabilization of perfluorinated membranes using nanoparticle additives -- Degradation mechanism in aquivion perfluorinated membranes and stabilization strategies -- Anion exchange membrane: stability and synthetic approach -- Profiling of membrane degradation processes in a fuel cell by 2D spectral-spatial FTIR-- Quantum mechanical calculation of the degradation in perfluorinated membranes used in fuel cells

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
Author: Alhussein Albarbar,Mohmad Alrweq
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 163
Release: 2017-11-17
ISBN 10: 3319707272
ISBN 13: 9783319707273
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Book Review:

This book examines the characteristics of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells with a focus on deriving realistic finite element models. The book also explains in detail how to set up measuring systems, data analysis, and PEM Fuel Cells’ static and dynamic characteristics. Covered in detail are design and operation principles such as polarization phenomenon, thermodynamic analysis, and overall voltage; failure modes and mechanisms such as permanent faults, membrane degradation, and water management; and modelling and numerical simulation including semi-empirical, one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional models. It is appropriate for graduate students, researchers, and engineers who work with the design and reliability of hydrogen fuel cells, in particular proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

New Design Tools and Characterization Methods to Study Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Degradation

New Design Tools and Characterization Methods to Study Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Degradation
Author: Maximilian Schwager
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 329
Release: 2016
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: OCLC:1033226233
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

New Design Tools and Characterization Methods to Study Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Degradation Book Review:

Eco and Renewable Energy Materials

Eco  and Renewable Energy Materials
Author: Yong Zhou
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 309
Release: 2015-08-15
ISBN 10: 3642334970
ISBN 13: 9783642334979
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Eco and Renewable Energy Materials Book Review:

"Eco- and Renewable Energy Materials” provides a survey of the current topics and the major developmental trends in the rapidly growing research area of clean energy materials. This book covers, but is not limited to, photochemical materials (fuels from light), fuel cells (electricity from fuels), batteries (electricity storage), and hydrogen production and storage. This book is intended as a vehicle for the dissemination of research results on energy-based material science in the form of commissioned reviews and commentaries. This book is for scientists and engineers interested in energy-related materials, compounds and electronic devices. Prof. Yong Zhou is currently serving as a full professor at the Eco-Materials and Renewable Energy Research Center (ERERC), Nanjing University, China.