Phytomedicine

Phytomedicine
Author: Rouf Ahmad Bhat,Khalid Rehman Hakeem,Moonisa Aslam Dervash
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 774
Release: 2021-03-01
ISBN 10: 0128241101
ISBN 13: 9780128241103
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Phytomedicine Book Review:

Phytomedicine: A Treasure of Pharmacologically Active Products from Plants aims to present updated knowledge of plant-based medicines in terms of their research and development, production, and utilization, from the viewpoint of sustainability and by using the latest technologies. The book explores different phytometabolites on a mass scale, coupled with the efficacy, performance and applicability on target organisms to treat curable and fatal diseases. Readers will find a coherent package of phytotherapeutic information regarding inclusive assortment of research based, scientific amplitude of metabolites from the plant world encompassing various action plans. Information is presented sequentially regarding phytochemistry, biological activity and the serviceable aspects of bioactive compounds. The book also addresses various advancements and achievements of novel drugs from plants using molecular and enzymatic activities, and various technological tools in an ecofriendly fashion. Discusses phytotherapeutic properties for a wide range of medical conditions, including anti-pyretic, anti-infective, anti-malarial, Anti-AIDS, anti-diabetic, anti-cancerous, immune-modulatory applications Includes a discussion of synergistic effects of formulations and antagonistic drug interactions Addresses advancements and achievements of novel plant-based drugs using molecular, enzymatic activities and various technological tools in an eco-friendly fashion

New Look to Phytomedicine

New Look to Phytomedicine
Author: Mohd Sajjad Ahmad Khan,Iqbal Ahmad,Debprasad Chattopadhyay
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 710
Release: 2018-10-23
ISBN 10: 0128146206
ISBN 13: 9780128146200
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

New Look to Phytomedicine Book Review:

New Look to Phytomedicine: Advancements in Herbal Products as Novel Drug Leads is a compilation of in-depth information on the phytopharmaceuticals used in modern medicine for the cure and management of difficult-to-treat and challenging diseases. Readers will find cutting-edge knowledge on the use of plant products with scientific validation, along with updates on advanced herbal medicine in pharmacokinetics and drug delivery. This authoritative book is a comprehensive collection of research based, scientific validations of bioactivities of plant products, such as anti-infective, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, immune-modulatory and metabolic disorders presented by experts from across the globe. Step-by-step information is presented on chemistry, bioactivity and the functional aspects of biologically active compounds. In addition, the pharmacognosy of plant products with mechanistic descriptions of their actions, including pathogenicity is updated with information on the use of nanotechnology and molecular tools in relation to herbal drug research. Compiles up-to-date information on the chemotherapeutics used in the treatment of infective and metabolic disorders Presents advancements in the discovery of new drugs from plants using molecular and nanotechnology tools Examines detailed information on the use of herbals agents in cancer, HIV and other ailments, including diabetes, malaria and neurological disorders

Therapeutic Use of Medicinal Plants and Their Extracts Volume 1

Therapeutic Use of Medicinal Plants and Their Extracts  Volume 1
Author: A.N.M. Alamgir
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 546
Release: 2017-09-06
ISBN 10: 3319638629
ISBN 13: 9783319638621
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Therapeutic Use of Medicinal Plants and Their Extracts Volume 1 Book Review:

This volume focuses on the importance of therapeutically active compounds of natural origin. Natural materials from plants, microbes, animals, marine organisms and minerals are important sources of modern drugs. Beginning with two chapters on the development and definition of the interdisciplinary field of pharmacognosy, the volume offers up-to-date information on natural and biosynthetic sources of drugs, classification of crude drugs, pharmacognosical botany, examples of medical application, WHO ́s guidelines and intellectual property rights for herbal products.

De materia medica

De materia medica
Author: Pedanius Dioscorides Of Anazarbus
Publsiher: Georg Olms Verlag
Total Pages: 636
Release: 2017-04-03
ISBN 10: 3487155710
ISBN 13: 9783487155715
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

De materia medica Book Review:

Dies ist die erste moderne englische Übersetzung von Dioscorides' monumentalem Werk De materia medica, das er im 1. Jahrhundert unserer Zeitrechnung schrieb. Sie stützt sich auf den altgriechischen Text, den Max Wellmann 1906-1914 redigierte. Die medizinischen Stoffe, deren Herkunft, Zubereitung und Gebrauch beschrieben sind, schließen mehr als 600 Pflanzen ein, 136 Tiere und tierische Produkte und über 130 Minerale. Die Identifizierung der Pflanzen beruht auf den neuesten Erkenntnissen der Forschung zur griechisch-römischen Botanik. Bereits in der 2. Auflage hat die Autorin drei neue Register hinzugefügt: Pflanzen: Griechisch-Englisch, Tiere: Griechisch-Englisch und Minerale: Griechisch-Englisch, die gemeinsam mit den ursprünglichen Registern von beiden Sprachen aus einen leichteren Zugang zum Text bieten. Das Buch wendet sich an Klassische Philologen, an Historiker der Medizin und der Naturwissenschaften, an Ethnobotaniker und andere Anthropologen und an Forschungs-Pharmakologen, die in alten und volkstümlichen medizinischen Praktiken nach neuen Chemotherapien suchen. This is the first modern English translation of Dioscorides’ monumental De materia medica, written in the first century of our era. It is based on the Greek text established by Max Wellmann in 1906-1914. The medicinal materials of which the sources, preparations, and uses are described include more than 600 plants, 136 animals and animal products, and over 130 minerals. The identification of plants is based on the most recent scholarship on ancient Graeco-Roman botany. In this third edition, as in the second, the author has added three indexes: Plants and Plant Products: Greek-English, Animals and Animal Products: Greek-English, Minerals and Mineral Products: Greek-English that together with the original indexes now offer easy access to the text from either language. The book will be of interest to classical philologists, to historians of medicine and of science, to ethnobotanists and other anthropologists, and to research pharmacologists who explore ancient and folk medical practices in the search of new chemotherapies.

Terpenes and Terpenoids

Terpenes and Terpenoids
Author: Shagufta Perveen,Areej Al-Taweel
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 152
Release: 2018-12-19
ISBN 10: 1789847761
ISBN 13: 9781789847765
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Terpenes and Terpenoids Book Review:

Terpenes belong to the diverse class of chemical constituents isolated from materials found in nature (plants, fungi, insects, marine organisms, plant pathogens, animals and endophytes). These metabolites have simple to complex structures derived from Isopentyl diphosphate (IPP), dimethyl allyl diphosphate (DMAPP), mevalonate and deoxyxylulose biosynthetic pathways. Terpenes play a very important role in human health and have significant biological activities (anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiallergic, skin permeation enhancer, anti-diabetic, immunomodulatory, anti-insecticidal). This book gives an overview and highlights recent research in the phytochemical and biological understanding of terpenes and terpenoid and explains the most essential functions of these kinds of secondary metabolites isolated from natural sources.

Herbal Drugs Ethnomedicine to Modern Medicine

Herbal Drugs  Ethnomedicine to Modern Medicine
Author: Kishan Gopal Ramawat
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 402
Release: 2008-11-25
ISBN 10: 3540791167
ISBN 13: 9783540791164
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Herbal Drugs Ethnomedicine to Modern Medicine Book Review:

Considerable progress has been made in our healthcare system, in particular with respect to sensitive diagnostic tools, reagents and very effective and precise drugs. On the other hand, high-throughput screening technology can screen vast numbers of compounds against an array of targets in a very short time, and leads thus - tained can be further explored. In developing countries, the exploding population exerts pressure not only on natural resources but also on the human population - self, whose members strive to become successful and advance in society. This leads to increased blood pressure, anxiety, obesity-associated lipid disorders, cardiov- cular diseases and diabetes. Most of these diseases result in disturbed family life, including sexual behaviour. Despite technological developments, herbal drugs still occupy a preferential place in a majority of the population in the Third World and terminal patients in the West. Herbal drugs, in addition to being cost effective and easily accessible, have been used since time immemorial and have passed the test of time without having any side effects. The multitarget effects of herbs (holistic approaches) are the fun- mental basis of their utilization. This approach is already used in traditional systems of medicine like Ayurveda, which has become more popular in the West in recent years. However, the integration of modern science with traditional uses of herbal drugs is of the utmost importance if ones wishes to use ancient knowledge for the betterment of humanity.

Biotechnology and Production of Anti Cancer Compounds

Biotechnology and Production of Anti Cancer Compounds
Author: Sonia Malik
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 328
Release: 2017-04-21
ISBN 10: 3319538802
ISBN 13: 9783319538808
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biotechnology and Production of Anti Cancer Compounds Book Review:

This book discusses cancers and the resurgence of public interest in plant-based and herbal drugs. It also describes ways of obtaining anti-cancer drugs from plants and improving their production using biotechnological techniques. It presents methods such as cell culture, shoot and root culture, hairy root culture, purification of plant raw materials, genetic engineering, optimization of culture conditions as well as metabolic engineering with examples of successes like taxol, shikonin, ingenol mebutate and podophylotoxin. In addition, it describes the applications and limitations of large-scale production of anti-cancer compounds using biotechnological means. Lastly, it discusses future economical and eco-friendly strategies for obtaining anti-cancer compounds using biotechnology.

Providing Herbal Education at the Grass Root Level

Providing Herbal Education at the Grass Root Level
Author: Clement O. Adewunmi,J. M. Agbedahunsi
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 130
Release: 2002
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: STANFORD:36105123531118
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Providing Herbal Education at the Grass Root Level Book Review:

Medicinal Plants of South Africa

Medicinal Plants of South Africa
Author: Ben-Erik Van Wyk,Bosch Van Oudtshoorn,Nigel Gericke
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 336
Release: 2009
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: STANFORD:36105131232964
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Medicinal Plants of South Africa Book Review:

A guide of the most commonly used and best known SA medicinal plants including their botany, traditional uses and active ingredients

Herbal Insecticides Repellents and Biomedicines Effectiveness and Commercialization

Herbal Insecticides  Repellents and Biomedicines  Effectiveness and Commercialization
Author: Vijay Veer,Reji Gopalakrishnan
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 258
Release: 2016-02-15
ISBN 10: 8132227042
ISBN 13: 9788132227045
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Herbal Insecticides Repellents and Biomedicines Effectiveness and Commercialization Book Review:

This book looks closely at herbal product development and commercialisation. In spite of an ever-growing demand, there is a dearth of safe and effective herbal products that meet consumers’ expectations. Therefore, this book takes it upon itself to elaborate on the development process of herbal insecticides, repellents and biomedicines from a commercialisation point of view. The introductory chapters deal with the various strategies for disease vector control and provide an overview of herbal biomedicines. The subsequent chapter describes plants with mosquito larvicidal activity, including a comprehensive list of lethal concentrations against different mosquito species. The chapter on Himalayan plants discusses potential botanical insecticide sources and their chemical constituents before delving into the topic of natural insecticides of microbial origin and their efficacy against mosquitoes. Plant-derived insecticides belonging to different chemical classes and the extraction, purification and characterisation of bioactive compounds are illustrated, as well. The recent technological advances in the formulation of microbial, biochemical and botanical insecticides are also reviewed. Three chapters focus on important medicinal plants useful for treating human ailments, with special reference to the traditional healing practices of northeastern India. This is followed by a chapter on the production, use and safety of biopharmaceuticals and edible, plant-based vaccines. The intellectual property issues related to herbal products in India including patents, trademarks, geographical indications, trade secrets and traditional knowledge resources are plainly examined. The book ends with a chapter on the herbal product registration process in India, wherein the data requirements for registration, clinical efficacy trials, toxicity studies, quality control, packaging and labelling are clearly explained. In conclusion, this book is a step-by-step guide for the development of safe, effective and commercially viable herbal insecticides, repellents and biomedicines.

Herbalism Phytochemistry and Ethnopharmacology

Herbalism  Phytochemistry and Ethnopharmacology
Author: Amritpal Singh
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 280
Release: 2011-04-11
ISBN 10: 9781578086979
ISBN 13: 1578086973
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Herbalism Phytochemistry and Ethnopharmacology Book Review:

Bridging the gap between the ancient art of herbalism and the emerging sciences of ethnopharmocology and phytopharmacotherapy, this book highlights the major breakthroughs in the history of the field and focuses on future directions in the discovery and application of herb-derived medicines. Implementing the concept of reverse pharmacology, it integrates documented clinical and experiential "hits" into pharmacological leads by transdisciplinary exploratory studies. It further develops these into drug candidates by experimental and clinical research.

Ethnopharmacology

Ethnopharmacology
Author: Michael Heinrich,Anna K. Jäger
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 464
Release: 2015-07-29
ISBN 10: 1118930738
ISBN 13: 9781118930731
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Ethnopharmacology Book Review:

Ethnopharmacology is one of the world’s fastest-growing scientific disciplines encompassing a diverse range of subjects. It links natural sciences research on medicinal, aromatic and toxic plants with socio-cultural studies and has often been associated with the development of new drugs. The Editors of Ethnopharmacology have assembled an international team of renowned contributors to provide a critical synthesis of the substantial body of new knowledge and evidence on the subject that has emerged over the past decade. Divided into three parts, the book begins with an overview of the subject including a brief history, ethnopharmacological methods, the role of intellectual property protection, key analytical approaches, the role of ethnopharmacology in primary/secondary education and links to biodiversity and ecological research. Part two looks at ethnopharmacological contributions to modern therapeutics across a range of conditions including CNS disorders, cancer, bone and joint health and parasitic diseases. The final part is devoted to regional perspectives covering all continents, providing a state-of-the –art assessment of the status of ethnopharmacological research globally. A comprehensive, critical synthesis of the latest developments in ethnopharmacology. Includes a section devoted to ethnopharmacological contributions to modern therapeutics across a range of conditions. Contributions are from leading international experts in the field. This timely book will prove invaluable for researchers and students across a range of subjects including ethnopharmacology, ethnobotany, medicinal plant research and natural products research. Ethnopharmacology- A Reader is part of the ULLA Series in Pharmaceutical Sciences www.ullapharmsci.org

Naturally Occurring Bioactive Compounds

Naturally Occurring Bioactive Compounds
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 514
Release: 2006-09-25
ISBN 10: 9780080464923
ISBN 13: 0080464920
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Naturally Occurring Bioactive Compounds Book Review:

This timely book provides an overview of natural products/botanicals used for the management of insect-pest and diseases. It will help readers to update and widen their knowledge about natural products and their bio-activities against plant pathogens. The volume explores activity, chemistry, toxicity and geographic distribution of plants. Discussions concerning the methodology used for the detection of active principles, their mode of action and commercial prospects are of utmost importance and worthy of note. Focuses on recent achievements in natural bio-actives Global coverage of natural products / plants Targets the most important issues of natural botanicals/ biocides Includes innovative ideas with lucid explanations Contains specialized chapters, such as, natural control of multi-drug resistant organisms, anti-salmonella agents, natural house-dust-mite control agents, and naturally occurring anti-insect proteins, etc. Covers research on bioactives: From Lab to Field and Field to Market Includes eco-friendly and economically viable herbal technology

Medicinal Plants

Medicinal Plants
Author: Nirmal Joshee,Sadanand A. Dhekney,Prahlad Parajuli
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 439
Release: 2019-11-11
ISBN 10: 3030312690
ISBN 13: 9783030312695
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Medicinal Plants Book Review:

This book offers a fresh look on a variety of issues concerning herbal medicine - the methods of growing and harvesting various medicinal plants; their phytochemical content; medicinal usage; regulatory issues; and mechanism of action against myriad of human and animal ailments. ‘Medicinal Plants: From Farm to Pharmacy’ comprises chapters authored by renowned experts from academics and industry from all over the world. It provides timely, in-depth study/analysis of medicinal plants that are already available in the market as supplements or drug components, while also introducing several traditional herbs with potential medicinal applications from various regions of the world. The book caters to the needs of a diverse group of readers: plant growers, who are looking for ways to enhance the value of their crops by increasing phytochemical content of plant products; biomedical scientists who are studying newer applications for crude herbal extracts or isolated phytochemicals; clinicians and pharmacologists who are studying interactions of herbal compounds with conventional treatment modalities; entrepreneurs who are navigating ways to bring novel herbal supplements to the market; and finally, natural medicine enthusiasts and end-users who want to learn how herbal compounds are produced in nature, how do they work and how are they used in traditional or modern medicine for various disease indications.

Novel Plant Bioresources

Novel Plant Bioresources
Author: Ameenah Gurib-Fakim
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 552
Release: 2014-04-03
ISBN 10: 1118460588
ISBN 13: 9781118460580
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Novel Plant Bioresources Book Review:

Novel Plant Bioresources: Applications in Food, Medicine andCosmetics serves as the definitive source of information onunder-utilized plant species, and fills a key niche in ourunderstanding of the relationship of human beings withunder-utilized plants. By covering applications in food, medicineand cosmetics, the book has a broad appeal. In a climate of growing awareness about the perils ofbiodiversity loss, the world is witnessing an unprecedentedinterest in novel plants, which are increasingly prized for theirpotential use in aromas, dyes, foods, medicines and cosmetics. Thisbook highlights these plants and their uses. After an introductorysection which sets the scene with an overview of the historical andlegislative importance of under-utilized plants, the main fourparts of the book are dedicated to the diverse potentialapplication of novel plant bioresources in Food, Medicine,Ethnoveterinary Medicine and Cosmetics. Examples and contributors are drawn from Africa, Europe, the USAand Asia. The economic, social, and cultural aspects ofunder-utilized plant species are addressed, and the book provides amuch needed boost to the on-going effort to focus attention onunder-utilized plant species and conservation initiatives. Byfocusing on novel plants and the agenda for sustainableutilization, Novel Plant Bioresources highlights key issuesrelevant to under-utilized plant genetic resources, and bringstogether international scholars on this important topic.

Phytomedicine

Phytomedicine
Author: Parimelazhagan Thangaraj
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 262
Release: 2020-04-22
ISBN 10: 1000058131
ISBN 13: 9781000058130
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Phytomedicine Book Review:

Phytomedicine has become more important and gained constant improvement today for the betterment of health. Herbal medicine plays a significant role in the development of new drugs, contrary to the modern medicinal systems. For more than a decade, there has been a drastic improvement in phytomedicine across the world. This growth has reached a higher level in development by pharmaceutical industries everywhere. People have drifted toward herbal medication and practices for their food and health care. Therefore, in order to create abundant interest in the research of phytosciences, this book is one of the better reference tools. The bioactive compounds in plants need to be explored to know the scientific value and therapeutic properties of the medicinal plants against many diseases. This book contains chapters that are relevant to the advanced research in herbal medicines and will enlighten readers to the importance of medicinal plants as daily sources of nutrition and cures for diseases. This book highlights the unique features of the plants that have not been studied so far for their therapeutic potential. To prove the efficacy of medicinal plants, they have to be studied, examined, and scientifically verified. Hence, this book will better serve the researchers working under different aspects of phytomedicine. Features • The information provided through scientific validation is useful to study the pharmacological activity of herbals and their administration in the modern era. • The readers can find clear understanding in the research and development of phytopharmaceutical drugs. • The ideas incorporated in each chapter reveal the knowledge gained in studying the biological activities of the compounds present in the plant, which are indeed most worthy for the development of drugs. • The harvesting of new ideology toward modern scientific technologies that are employed in the field of pharmacological research.

Herbal Medicine Past and Present Trying to give ease

Herbal Medicine Past and Present  Trying to give ease
Author: J. K. Crellin,Jane Philpott,A. L. Tommie Bass
Publsiher: Durham, N.C. : Duke University Press
Total Pages: 335
Release: 1990
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: UOM:39015017018519
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Herbal Medicine Past and Present Trying to give ease Book Review:

Quality of Life and Pharmacoeconomics

Quality of Life and Pharmacoeconomics
Author: Joyce A. Cramer,Bert Spilker
Publsiher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Total Pages: 274
Release: 1998
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: IND:30000056341781
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Quality of Life and Pharmacoeconomics Book Review:

Based on Dr. Spilker's classic Quality of Life and Pharmacoeconomics in Clinical Trials, 2nd Edition, this streamlined sourcebook offers an easy-to-understand introduction to an increasingly critical aspect of health care. Seven succinct sections review key aspects of health-related quality of life and the essentials of pharmacoeconomics, providing expert answers to your most pressing questions: What generic HRQOL and disease-specific assessments are available? How are these scales chosen, used, and interpreted? What instruments do I need...and where can I find them? What is the relationship between pharmacoeconomics and quality of life? Between outcomes research and quality of life? Well-organized and easy to use, Quality of Life and Pharmacoeconomics: An Introduction will become a standard textbook for professionals and students in all areas of medical research and practice.

Traditional Medicine in Asia

Traditional Medicine in Asia
Author: Ranjit Roy Chaudhury,Uton Muchtar Rafei
Publsiher: SEARO Regional Publications
Total Pages: 309
Release: 2002
ISBN 10: 9789290222248
ISBN 13: 9290222247
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Traditional Medicine in Asia Book Review:

This unique book provides a comprehensive picture of the vivid kaleidoscope of traditional medicine in Asia presented by 34 eminent authors from 15 countries belonging to the different systems like Ayurveda and Chinese Traditional Medicine. Important emerging areas such as harmonization of the traditional systems with modern medicine and the growing role of these systems in the health care structure of countries are also dealt with. Legislation and regulation of these systems and practitioners, an area of growing concern, the need for good preclinical toxicology studies and scientific clinical evaluation of the products and medicinal plants used for therapy are exhaustingly dealt with. The vital issue of protection of traditional systems of medicine and patenting of medicinal plants is discussed in detail. The book is replete with suggestions, and ideas aimed at making traditional systems more effectively, and more widely used for health care. The book also covers the prevailing situation regarding the use and other aspects of traditional medicine in the 10 Member countries of the South-East Asia Region of the World Health Organization.

Handbook of African Medicinal Plants Second Edition

Handbook of African Medicinal Plants  Second Edition
Author: Maurice M. Iwu
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 506
Release: 2014-02-04
ISBN 10: 1466571985
ISBN 13: 9781466571983
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of African Medicinal Plants Second Edition Book Review:

With over 50,000 distinct species in sub-Saharan Africa alone, the African continent is endowed with an enormous wealth of plant resources. While more than 25 percent of known species have been used for several centuries in traditional African medicine for the prevention and treatment of diseases, Africa remains a minor player in the global natural products market largely due to lack of practical information. This updated and expanded second edition of the Handbook of African Medicinal Plants provides a comprehensive review of more than 2,000 species of plants employed in indigenous African medicine, with full-color photographs and references from over 1,100 publications. The first part of the book contains a catalog of the plants used as ingredients for the preparation of traditional remedies, including their medicinal uses and the parts of the plant used. This is followed by a pharmacognostical profile of 170 of the major herbs, with a brief description of the diagnostic features of the leaves, flowers, and fruits and monographs with botanical names, common names, synonyms, African names, habitat and distribution, ethnomedicinal uses, chemical constituents, and reported pharmacological activity. The second part of the book provides an introduction to African traditional medicine, outlining African cosmology and beliefs as they relate to healing and the use of herbs, health foods, and medicinal plants. This book presents scientific documentation of the correlation between the observed folk use and demonstrable biological activity, as well as the characterized constituents of the plants.