Phenotypic Switching

Phenotypic Switching
Author: Herbert Levine,Mohit Kumar Jolly,Prakash Kulkarni,Vidyanand Nanjundiah
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 762
Release: 2020-06-10
ISBN 10: 012817997X
ISBN 13: 9780128179970
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Phenotypic Switching Book Review:

Phenotypic Switching: Implications in Biology and Medicine provides a comprehensive examination of phenotypic switching across biological systems, including underlying mechanisms, evolutionary significance, and its role in biomedical science. Contributions from international leaders discuss conceptual and theoretical aspects of phenotypic plasticity, its influence over biological development, differentiation, biodiversity, and potential applications in cancer therapy, regenerative medicine and stem cell therapy, among other treatments. Chapters discuss fundamental mechanisms of phenotypic switching, including transition states, cell fate decisions, epigenetic factors, stochasticity, protein-based inheritance, specific areas of human development and disease relevance, phenotypic plasticity in melanoma, prostate cancer, breast cancer, non-genetic heterogeneity in cancer, hepatitis C, and more. This book is essential for active researchers, basic and translational scientists, clinicians, postgraduates and students in genetics, human genomics, pathology, bioinformatics, developmental biology, evolutionary biology and adaptive opportunities in yeast. Thoroughly addresses the conceptual, experimental and translational aspects that underlie phenotypic plasticity Emphasizes quantitative approaches, nonlinear dynamics, mechanistic insights and key methodologies to advance phenotypic plasticity studies Features a diverse range of chapter contributions from international leaders in the field

A Mechanistic and Functional Study of White opaque Phenotypic Switching in Candida Albicans

A Mechanistic and Functional Study of White opaque Phenotypic Switching in Candida Albicans
Author: Mathew Gregory Miller
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 340
Release: 2005
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: UCAL:X85608
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

A Mechanistic and Functional Study of White opaque Phenotypic Switching in Candida Albicans Book Review:

Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen of humans. It is a harmless commensal in healthy individuals, but it can cause serious infections in immune-compromised hosts. C. albicans undergoes a meta-stable and reversible switch between two distinct cell types known as white and opaque. The role of white-opaque switching in the biology of C. albicans was originally not well understood. We discovered an unexpected relationship between white-opaque switching and the sexual cycle of C. albicans . The mating type locus of C. albicans (MTL) encodes transcriptional regulatory proteins that regulate mating. We demonstrated that two MTL -encoded homeodomain proteins, a 1 and alpha2, work together to repress white-opaque switching in C. albicans . The observations that the MTL locus controlled both mating and white-opaque switching led us to hypothesize that opaque cells played a role in mating. Indeed, we found that opaque cells mate one million times more efficiently than do white cells. Additionally, opaque cells, but not white cells, developed specialized mating projections when exposed to mating pheromone. Thus, opaque cells are a specialized mating form of C. albicans . As white cells are generally more robust in a mammalian host than opaque cells, this strategy allows the organism to survive the rigors of life within a mammalian host, while generating a small population of mating-competent cells. The mechanism that controls white-opaque switching is not well understood. To better understand the mechanism, we investigated the regulation of white-opaque switching by a 1-alpha2. We demonstrated that a 1-alpha2 regulates white-opaque switching by destabilizing opaque cells, and we monitored gene expression during the transition from opaque to white using DNA microarrays. We used a candidate approach to identify additional regulators of white-opaque switching among genes enriched for their expression in the opaque phase. We identified two potent positive regulators of white-opaque switching: the opaque-specific transcriptional regulatory proteins Czf1 and Naf1. We also further investigated the role of Efg1, a previously identified regulator of white-opaque switching, and found that efg1/efg1 mutants were unable to bypass a 1-alpha2 repression of switching. Finally, we determined the epistatic and regulatory relationships between Efg1, Czf1 and Naf1.

Candida Albicans Phenotypic Switching and Functional Plasticity in the Mammalian Host

Candida Albicans Phenotypic Switching and Functional Plasticity in the Mammalian Host
Author: Brittany Gianetti
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 126
Release: 2017
ISBN 10: 9780355386455
ISBN 13: 0355386453
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Candida Albicans Phenotypic Switching and Functional Plasticity in the Mammalian Host Book Review:

In order to determine the host signals and fungal signaling pathways that control the white-GUT switch and drive commensalism, we developed an in vitro system to induce switching behavior and screened a library of C. albicans signaling mutants. We identified three fungal signaling pathways (Hog1, Rim101, and PKA), previously associated with other morphological transitions, which promote GUT cell formation. Together these studies help to understand how C. albicans' phenotypic plasticity influences its interactions with the mammalian host.

Interactions Between Phenotypic Switching Gene Network Dynamics and Evolutionary Dynamics in Growing Cell Populations

Interactions Between Phenotypic Switching  Gene Network Dynamics and Evolutionary Dynamics in Growing Cell Populations
Author: Merzu Kebede Belete
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 329
Release: 2016
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: OCLC:1081039288
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Interactions Between Phenotypic Switching Gene Network Dynamics and Evolutionary Dynamics in Growing Cell Populations Book Review:

Gene expression is a stochastic biological processes that controls the different phenotypes of an organism depending on the environment. High-resolution single cell measurements show that genetically identical cells can be different from each other even in a homogeneous environment, leading a spectrum of phenotypes with different cellular fitnesses that can reversibly switch between phenotypes. How population-level properties emerge from single cell behavior and how mutants emerge and spread in such populations is unclear. In this thesis, we developed mathematical models to study (i) the effect of time-delay needed for a mutation in a regulator gene influence an effector protein and the long term population fitness, (ii) how optimum population fitness behaves as a function of the growth rates of the various phenotypes for different durations in fluctuating environments. Our work shows a paradoxical outcome of evolution where mutations in a regulator gene interact with gene network dynamics and evolutionary dynamics, giving rise to permanent decrease in population fitness. In the other scenario of fluctuating environments, a previously predicted optimum exists for wider parameter regime if the environmental durations are long and narrow regime for short environmental durations. We also find that a mutant, which randomly evolved to match its phenotypic switching rates with environmental switching rates, can sweep the population if the predicted optimum matches with the assumed one, but not otherwise.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Author: National Academy of Sciences (U.S.)
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 329
Release: 2007
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: WISC:89100587443
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Book Review:

Molecular Biology of Fungal Development

Molecular Biology of Fungal Development
Author: Heinz D. Osiewacz
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 608
Release: 2002-05-07
ISBN 10: 0824744527
ISBN 13: 9780824744526
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Molecular Biology of Fungal Development Book Review:

This text gives an overview of the fundamental aspects of molecular fungal development in one comprehensive volume, highlighting different elements in the maturational and reproductive cycles of selected fungal taxa.

Microbiology

Microbiology
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 329
Release: 1997
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: NWU:35558003818982
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Microbiology Book Review:

Archives of Medical Research

Archives of Medical Research
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 329
Release: 1993
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: UTEXAS:059172133969186
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Archives of Medical Research Book Review:

Cellular and Phenotypic Plasticity in Cancer

Cellular and Phenotypic Plasticity in Cancer
Author: Petranel Theresa Ferrao,Andreas Behren,Robin Anderson, Erik Thompson
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 329
Release: 2015-09-17
ISBN 10: 2889196623
ISBN 13: 9782889196623
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cellular and Phenotypic Plasticity in Cancer Book Review:

The process of Epithelial-Mesenchymal-Transition (EMT) is known to result in a phenotype change in cells from a proliferative state to a more invasive state. EMT has been reported to drive the metastatic spread of various cancers and has also been associated with drug resistance to cytotoxics and targeted therapeutics. Recently phenotype switching akin to EMT has been reported in non-epithelial cancers such as metastatic melanoma. This process involves changes in EMT-Transcription Factors (EMT-TFs), suggesting that phenotype-switching may be common to several tumour types. It remains unclear as to whether the presence of both Epilthelial-like and Mesenchymal-like cells are a pre-requisite for phenotype switching within a tumour, how this heterogeneity is regulated, and if alteration of cell phenotype is sufficient to mediate migratory changes, or whether drivers of cell migration result in an associated phenotype switch in cancer cells. Similarly it has yet to be clarified if cells in an altered phenotype can be refractory to drug therapy or whether mediators of drug resistance induce a concurrent phenotypic change. Little is known today about the underlying genetic, epigenetic and transient changes that accompany this phenotypic switch and about the role for the tumor micro-environment in influencing it. Hence this is currently an area of speculation and keen interest in the Oncology field with wide-ranging translational implications. In this Frontiers Research Topic, we discuss our current understanding of these concepts in various cancer types including breast cancer, colorectal cancer and metastatic melanoma. This topic covers how these processes of cellular and phenotypic plasticity are regulated and how they relate to cancer initiation, progression, dormancy, metastases and response to cytotoxics or targeted therapies.

Clinical Mycology

Clinical Mycology
Author: Elias J. Anaissie
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 608
Release: 2003
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: UOM:39015055825999
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Clinical Mycology Book Review:

The first textbook of mycology ever to focus on the management of patients with fungal infections, CLINICAL MYCOLOGY represents an expert, authoritative examination of clinical problem-solving approaches to diagnosis and management. It offers specific recommendations for understanding, controlling, and preventing fungal infections based on underlying principles of epidemiology and infection control policy, pathogenesis, immunology, histopathology, and laboratory diagnosis and antifungal therapy. The book also covers etiologic agents of disease, fungal infections in special hosts such as pediatric patients and patients with cancer or HIV, infections of the organ systems, and more. Extensive illustrations, tables, and photographs throughout the book highlight its clinical context and enhance the reader's understanding of the subject. Complete and authoritative, yet practical, discussion makes this book an ideal one-stop source for diagnosis, management, and prevention of fungal infections. Editors and authors are recognized experts in their field, offering consistently high standard-of-care approaches. Excellent photographs and drawings illustrate specific concepts and conditions. Tables present summaries of key points to help the reader quickly access information on a subject. Clear, definitive recommendations for diagnosis and management of fungal infections are outlined and related to clinical practice.

Oral Manifestations of HIV Infection

Oral Manifestations of HIV Infection
Author: John S. Greenspan,Deborah Greenspan
Publsiher: Quintessence Publishing (IL)
Total Pages: 381
Release: 1995
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: UOM:39015031714341
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Oral Manifestations of HIV Infection Book Review:

Brings together the papers presented at this important 1993 workshop. Addressed is a wide array of issues of interest to the dental practitioner and researcher, from oral lesions to periodontal concerns to provision of care and infection control practices. [editor].

Postnaupliar Development of a Looking glass

Postnaupliar Development of a Looking glass
Author: Frank D. Ferrari
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 55
Release: 1985
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: UCR:31210024716340
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Postnaupliar Development of a Looking glass Book Review:

Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology

Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 329
Release: 1969
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: OSU:32435052703808
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology Book Review:

Microbial Determinants of Virulence and Host Response

Microbial Determinants of Virulence and Host Response
Author: Elia M. Ayoub,Gail H. Cassell
Publsiher: Amer Society for Microbiology
Total Pages: 394
Release: 1990
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: STANFORD:36105033191052
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Microbial Determinants of Virulence and Host Response Book Review:

Proceedings of a workshop held at the U. of Florida Health Center in Gainesville, February 1989. Surveys and evaluates the status of research in the related fields of bacteriology, mycology, immunology, and host-parasite relationships. The five sections address bacterial factors; fungal factors; bacterial factors in sexually transmitted diseases; biologic factors; and antibiotic resistance. Members price, $41. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

Excerpta medica Section 20 Gerontology and geriatrics

Excerpta medica  Section 20  Gerontology and geriatrics
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 329
Release: 1991
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: UCAL:B4416946
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Excerpta medica Section 20 Gerontology and geriatrics Book Review:

Journal of Recent Advances in Applied Sciences

Journal of Recent Advances in Applied Sciences
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 329
Release: 1997
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: CHI:51015291
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Journal of Recent Advances in Applied Sciences Book Review:

Advances in Medical Mycology

Advances in Medical Mycology
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 329
Release: 1997
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: CORNELL:31924084924384
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Medical Mycology Book Review:

ASM News

ASM News
Author: American Society for Microbiology
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 329
Release: 1996
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: UCLA:L0075670422
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

ASM News Book Review:

Genetics Abstracts

Genetics Abstracts
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 329
Release: 2001
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: UOM:39015053352194
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Genetics Abstracts Book Review:

Candida and Candidosis

Candida and Candidosis
Author: F. C. Odds
Publsiher: W B Saunders Company
Total Pages: 468
Release: 1988
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: UOM:39015026031313
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Candida and Candidosis Book Review:

A comprehensive and critical review of the medical and scientific literature on Candida infections by a leading authority in the field. Covers all aspects of the subject, including epidemiology, pathogensis and treatment, as well as the properties of the fungi that cause infections.