Unworthy Republic The Dispossession of Native Americans and the Road to Indian Territory

Unworthy Republic  The Dispossession of Native Americans and the Road to Indian Territory
Author: Claudio Saunt
Publsiher: W. W. Norton & Company
Total Pages: 416
Release: 2020-03-24
ISBN 10: 0393609855
ISBN 13: 9780393609851
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Unworthy Republic The Dispossession of Native Americans and the Road to Indian Territory Book Review:

A masterful and unsettling history of “Indian Removal,” the forced migration of Native Americans across the Mississippi River in the 1830s and the state-sponsored theft of their lands. In May 1830, the United States formally launched a policy to expel Native Americans from the East to territories west of the Mississippi River. Justified as a humanitarian enterprise, the undertaking was to be systematic and rational, overseen by Washington’s small but growing bureaucracy. But as the policy unfolded over the next decade, thousands of Native Americans died under the federal government’s auspices, and thousands of others lost their possessions and homelands in an orgy of fraud, intimidation, and violence. Unworthy Republic reveals how expulsion became national policy and describes the chaotic and deadly results of the operation to deport 80,000 men, women, and children. Drawing on firsthand accounts and the voluminous records produced by the federal government, Saunt’s deeply researched book argues that Indian Removal, as advocates of the policy called it, was not an inevitable chapter in U.S. expansion across the continent. Rather, it was a fiercely contested political act designed to secure new lands for the expansion of slavery and to consolidate the power of the southern states. Indigenous peoples fought relentlessly against the policy, while many U.S. citizens insisted that it was a betrayal of the nation’s values. When Congress passed the act by a razor-thin margin, it authorized one of the first state-sponsored mass deportations in the modern era, marking a turning point for native peoples and for the United States. In telling this gripping story, Saunt shows how the politics and economics of white supremacy lay at the heart of the expulsion of Native Americans; how corruption, greed, and administrative indifference and incompetence contributed to the debacle of its implementation; and how the consequences still resonate today.

Black White and Indian

Black  White  and Indian
Author: Claudio Saunt
Publsiher: Oxford University Press, USA
Total Pages: 300
Release: 2006
ISBN 10: 9780195313109
ISBN 13: 0195313100
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Black White and Indian Book Review:

This tells the story of a Native American family with a long kept secret: one branch is of African descent. Focusing on five generations from 1780 to 1920, Saunt shows how Indians disowned their black relatives to survive in the shadow of the expanding American republic.

West of the Revolution An Uncommon History of 1776

West of the Revolution  An Uncommon History of 1776
Author: Claudio Saunt
Publsiher: W. W. Norton & Company
Total Pages: 304
Release: 2014-06-16
ISBN 10: 039324430X
ISBN 13: 9780393244304
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

West of the Revolution An Uncommon History of 1776 Book Review:

This panoramic account of 1776 chronicles the other revolutions unfolding that year across North America, far beyond the British colonies. In this unique history of 1776, Claudio Saunt looks beyond the familiar story of the thirteen colonies to explore the many other revolutions roiling the turbulent American continent. In that fateful year, the Spanish landed in San Francisco, the Russians pushed into Alaska to hunt valuable sea otters, and the Sioux discovered the Black Hills. Hailed by critics for challenging our conventional view of the birth of America, West of the Revolution “[coaxes] our vision away from the Atlantic seaboard” and “exposes a continent seething with peoples and purposes beyond Minutemen and Redcoats” (Wall Street Journal).

The Unworthy Scholar from Pingjiang

The Unworthy Scholar from Pingjiang
Author: John Christopher Hamm
Publsiher: Columbia University Press
Total Pages: 299
Release: 2019-08-27
ISBN 10: 0231549008
ISBN 13: 9780231549004
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Unworthy Scholar from Pingjiang Book Review:

Xiang Kairan, who wrote under the pen name “the Unworthy Scholar from Pingjiang,” is remembered as the father of modern Chinese martial arts fiction, one of the most distinctive forms of twentieth-century Chinese culture and the inspiration for China’s globally popular martial arts cinema. In this book, John Christopher Hamm shows how Xiang Kairan’s work and career offer a new lens on the transformations of fiction and popular culture in early-twentieth-century China. The Unworthy Scholar from Pingjiang situates Xiang Kairan’s career in the larger contexts of Republican-era China’s publishing industry, literary debates, and political and social history. At a time when writers associated with the New Culture movement promoted an aggressively modernizing vision of literature, Xiang Kairan consciously cultivated his debt to homegrown narrative traditions. Through careful readings of Xiang Kairan’s work, Hamm demonstrates that his writings, far from being the formally fossilized and ideologically regressive relics their critics denounced, represent a creative engagement with contemporary social and political currents and the demands and possibilities of an emerging cultural marketplace. Hamm takes martial arts fiction beyond the confines of genre studies to situate it within a broader reexamination of Chinese literary modernity. The first monograph on Xiang Kairan’s fiction in any language, The Unworthy Scholar from Pingjiang rewrites the history of early-twentieth-century Chinese literature from the standpoints of genre fiction and commercial publishing.

Violence over the Land

Violence over the Land
Author: Ned BLACKHAWK
Publsiher: Harvard University Press
Total Pages: 384
Release: 2009-06-30
ISBN 10: 0674020995
ISBN 13: 9780674020993
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Violence over the Land Book Review:

"Blackhawk, a Western Shoshone himself, does not portray the natives as victims. Instead, he demonstrates that their perseverance and ability to adapt to changing conditions over the last two centuries allowed them to help shape the world around them ... This is one of the finest studies available on native peoples of the ggreat basin region." John Burch, Library Journal, from the bookjacket.

Mortal Republic

Mortal Republic
Author: Edward J. Watts
Publsiher: Basic Books
Total Pages: 352
Release: 2018-11-06
ISBN 10: 0465093825
ISBN 13: 9780465093823
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Mortal Republic Book Review:

Learn why the Roman Republic collapsed -- and how it could have continued to thrive -- with this insightful history from an award-winning author. In Mortal Republic, prize-winning historian Edward J. Watts offers a new history of the fall of the Roman Republic that explains why Rome exchanged freedom for autocracy. For centuries, even as Rome grew into the Mediterranean's premier military and political power, its governing institutions, parliamentary rules, and political customs successfully fostered negotiation and compromise. By the 130s BC, however, Rome's leaders increasingly used these same tools to cynically pursue individual gain and obstruct their opponents. As the center decayed and dysfunction grew, arguments between politicians gave way to political violence in the streets. The stage was set for destructive civil wars -- and ultimately the imperial reign of Augustus. The death of Rome's Republic was not inevitable. In Mortal Republic, Watts shows it died because it was allowed to, from thousands of small wounds inflicted by Romans who assumed that it would last forever.

Surviving Genocide

Surviving Genocide
Author: Jeffrey Ostler
Publsiher: Yale University Press
Total Pages: 544
Release: 2019-06-11
ISBN 10: 0300218125
ISBN 13: 9780300218121
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Surviving Genocide Book Review:

"Intense and well-researched, . . . ambitious, . . . magisterial. . . . Surviving Genocide sets a bar from which subsequent scholarship and teaching cannot retreat."--Peter Nabokov, New York Review of Books In this book, the first part of a sweeping two-volume history, Jeffrey Ostler investigates how American democracy relied on Indian dispossession and the federally sanctioned use of force to remove or slaughter Indians in the way of U.S. expansion. He charts the losses that Indians suffered from relentless violence and upheaval and the attendant effects of disease, deprivation, and exposure. This volume centers on the eastern United States from the 1750s to the start of the Civil War. An authoritative contribution to the history of the United States' violent path toward building a continental empire, this ambitious and well-researched book deepens our understanding of the seizure of Indigenous lands, including the use of treaties to create the appearance of Native consent to dispossession. Ostler also documents the resilience of Native people, showing how they survived genocide by creating alliances, defending their towns, and rebuilding their communities.

How the Indians Lost Their Land

How the Indians Lost Their Land
Author: Stuart BANNER
Publsiher: Harvard University Press
Total Pages: 352
Release: 2009-06-30
ISBN 10: 0674020537
ISBN 13: 9780674020535
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

How the Indians Lost Their Land Book Review:

Between the early seventeenth century and the early twentieth, nearly all the land in the United States was transferred from American Indians to whites. How did Indians actually lose their land? Stuart Banner argues that neither simple coercion nor simple consent reflects the complicated legal history of land transfers. Instead, time, place, and the balance of power between Indians and settlers decided the outcome of land struggles.

The Republic in Print

The Republic in Print
Author: Trish Loughran
Publsiher: Columbia University Press
Total Pages: 568
Release: 2007-09-18
ISBN 10: 023151123X
ISBN 13: 9780231511230
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Republic in Print Book Review:

"In the beginning, all the world was America." John Locke In the beginning, everything was America, but where did America begin? In many narratives of American nationalism (both popular and academic), the United States begins in print-with the production, dissemination, and consumption of major printed texts like Common Sense , the Declaration of Independence, newspaper debates over ratification, and the Constitution itself. In these narratives, print plays a central role in the emergence of American nationalism, as Americans become Americans through acts of reading that connect them to other like-minded nationals. In The Republic in Print, however, Trish Loughran overturns this master narrative of American origins and offers a radically new history of the early republic and its antebellum aftermath. Combining a materialist history of American nation building with an intellectual history of American federalism, Loughran challenges the idea that print culture created a sense of national connection among different parts of the early American union and instead reveals the early republic as a series of local and regional reading publics with distinct political and geographical identities. Focusing on the years between 1770 and 1870, Loughran develops two richly detailed and provocative arguments. First, she suggests that it was the relative lack of a national infrastructure (rather than the existence of a tightly connected print network) that actually enabled the nation to be imagined in 1776 and ratification to be secured in 1787-88. She then describes how the increasingly connected book market of the 1830s, 1840s, and 1850s unexpectedly exposed cracks in the evolving nation, especially in regards to slavery, exacerbating regional differences in ways that ultimately contributed to secession and civil war. Drawing on a range of literary, historical, and archival materials-from essays, pamphlets, novels, and plays, to engravings, paintings, statues, laws, and maps The Republic in Print provides a refreshingly original cultural history of the American nation-state over the course of its first century.

Lakota America

Lakota America
Author: Pekka Hamalainen
Publsiher: Yale University Press
Total Pages: 544
Release: 2019-10-22
ISBN 10: 0300215959
ISBN 13: 9780300215953
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Lakota America Book Review:

The first comprehensive history of the Lakota Indians and their profound role in shaping America's history Named One of the New York Times Critics' Top Books of 2019 - Named One of the 10 Best History Books of 2019 by Smithsonian Magazine - Winner of the MPIBA Reading the West Book Award for narrative nonfiction "Turned many of the stories I thought I knew about our nation inside out."--Cornelia Channing, Paris Review, Favorite Books of 2019 "My favorite non-fiction book of this year."--Tyler Cowen, Bloomberg Opinion "A briliant, bold, gripping history."--Simon Sebag Montefiore, London Evening Standard, Best Books of 2019 "All nations deserve to have their stories told with this degree of attentiveness"--Parul Sehgal, New York Times This first complete account of the Lakota Indians traces their rich and often surprising history from the early sixteenth to the early twenty-first century. Pekka Hämäläinen explores the Lakotas' roots as marginal hunter-gatherers and reveals how they reinvented themselves twice: first as a river people who dominated the Missouri Valley, America's great commercial artery, and then--in what was America's first sweeping westward expansion--as a horse people who ruled supreme on the vast high plains. The Lakotas are imprinted in American historical memory. Red Cloud, Crazy Horse, and Sitting Bull are iconic figures in the American imagination, but in this groundbreaking book they emerge as something different: the architects of Lakota America, an expansive and enduring Indigenous regime that commanded human fates in the North American interior for generations. Hämäläinen's deeply researched and engagingly written history places the Lakotas at the center of American history, and the results are revelatory.

A Republic of Men

A Republic of Men
Author: Mark E. Kann
Publsiher: NYU Press
Total Pages: 248
Release: 1998-04-01
ISBN 10: 0814748473
ISBN 13: 9780814748473
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

A Republic of Men Book Review:

What role did manhood play in early American Politics? In A Republic of Men, Mark E. Kann argues that the American founders aspired to create a "republic of men" but feared that "disorderly men" threatened its birth, health, and longevity. Kann demonstrates how hegemonic norms of manhood–exemplified by "the Family Man," for instance--were deployed as a means of stigmatizing unworthy men, rewarding responsible men with citizenship, and empowering exceptional men with positions of leadership and authority, while excluding women from public life. Kann suggests that the founders committed themselves in theory to the democratic proposition that all men were created free and equal and could not be governed without their own consent, but that they in no way believed that "all men" could be trusted with equal liberty, equal citizenship, or equal authority. The founders developed a "grammar of manhood" to address some difficult questions about public order. Were America's disorderly men qualified for citizenship? Were they likely to recognize manly leaders, consent to their authority, and defer to their wisdom? A Republic of Men compellingly analyzes the ways in which the founders used a rhetoric of manhood to stabilize American politics.

The Cold Millions

The Cold Millions
Author: Jess Walter
Publsiher: HarperCollins
Total Pages: 352
Release: 2020-10-27
ISBN 10: 0062868101
ISBN 13: 9780062868107
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Cold Millions Book Review:

“One of the most captivating novels of the year.” – Washington Post NATIONAL BESTSELLER A Best Book of the Year: Bloomberg | Boston Globe | Chicago Public Library | Chicago Tribune | Esquire | Kirkus | New York Public Library | New York Times Book Review (Historical Fiction) | NPR's Fresh Air | O Magazine | Washington Post | Publishers Weekly | Seattle Times | USA Today A Library Reads Pick | An Indie Next Pick From the #1 New York Times bestselling author of Beautiful Ruins comes another “literary miracle” (NPR)—a propulsive, richly entertaining novel about two brothers swept up in the turbulent class warfare of the early twentieth century. An intimate story of brotherhood, love, sacrifice, and betrayal set against the panoramic backdrop of an early twentieth-century America that eerily echoes our own time, The Cold Millions offers a kaleidoscopic portrait of a nation grappling with the chasm between rich and poor, between harsh realities and simple dreams. The Dolans live by their wits, jumping freight trains and lining up for day work at crooked job agencies. While sixteen-year-old Rye yearns for a steady job and a home, his older brother, Gig, dreams of a better world, fighting alongside other union men for fair pay and decent treatment. Enter Ursula the Great, a vaudeville singer who performs with a live cougar and introduces the brothers to a far more dangerous creature: a mining magnate determined to keep his wealth and his hold on Ursula. Dubious of Gig’s idealism, Rye finds himself drawn to a fearless nineteen-year-old activist and feminist named Elizabeth Gurley Flynn. But a storm is coming, threatening to overwhelm them all, and Rye will be forced to decide where he stands. Is it enough to win the occasional battle, even if you cannot win the war? Featuring an unforgettable cast of cops and tramps, suffragists and socialists, madams and murderers, The Cold Millions is a tour de force from a “writer who has planted himself firmly in the first rank of American authors” (Boston Globe).

To Steal a Book is an Elegant Offense

To Steal a Book is an Elegant Offense
Author: William P. Alford
Publsiher: Stanford University Press
Total Pages: 222
Release: 1995
ISBN 10: 0804729603
ISBN 13: 9780804729604
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

To Steal a Book is an Elegant Offense Book Review:

This sweeping study examines the law of intellectual property in Chinese civilization from imperial days to the present. It uses materials drawn from law, the arts and other fields as well as extensive interviews with Chinese and foreign officials, business people, lawyers, and perpetrators and victims of "piracy."

Within and Beyond Citizenship

Within and Beyond Citizenship
Author: Roberto G. Gonzales,Nando Sigona
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 176
Release: 2017-07-06
ISBN 10: 1351977466
ISBN 13: 9781351977463
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Within and Beyond Citizenship Book Review:

Within and Beyond Citizenship brings together cutting-edge research in sociology and social anthropology on the relationship between immigration status, rights and belonging in contemporary societies of immigration. It offers new insights into the ways in which political membership is experienced, spatially and bureaucratically constructed, and actively negotiated and contested in the everyday lives of citizens and non-citizens. Themes, concepts and ideas covered include: The shifting position of the non-citizen in contemporary immigration societies; The intersection of human mobility, immigration control and articulations of citizenship; Activism and everyday practices of membership and belonging; Tension in policy and practice between coexisting traditions and regimes of rights; Mixed status families, belonging and citizenship; The ways in which immigration status (or its absence) intersects with social cleavages such as age, class, gender and ‘race’ to shape social relations. This book will appeal to academics and practitioners working in the disciplines of Social and Political Anthropology, Sociology, Social Policy, Human Geography, Political Sciences, Citizenship Studies and Migration Studies.

The Book of Common Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments Together with the Psalter

The Book of Common Prayer  and Administration of the Sacraments      Together with the Psalter
Author: Church of England
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 560
Release: 1737
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: OXFORD:N11732284
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Book of Common Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments Together with the Psalter Book Review:

Ten Great Economists

Ten Great Economists
Author: Joseph A. Schumpeter
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 360
Release: 2003-05-20
ISBN 10: 1134835493
ISBN 13: 9781134835492
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Ten Great Economists Book Review:

Originally published in 1952, this seminal work is reproduced here with a new introduction by Professor Mark Perlman, a well-known Schumpeterian scholar. The essays, written between 1910-50 were primarily commemorative pieces marking the achievement of a celebrated economist. Those covered include: * Marx * Walras * Menger * Marshall * Pareto * Bohm-Bawerk * Taussig * Fisher * Mitchell * Keynes The appendix includes articles on lesser-known economists Knapp, Von Wieser; Von Bortkiewicz. With the exception of Marx, Schumpeter himself selected the ten main essays for inclusion in this volume and was personally acquainted with all but two of his subjects. Initially considering them unworthy for publication he relented in the face of public demand since the journals in which they originally appeared were difficult to obtain. The new introduction places this work in its contemporary context and highlights its importance for students unfamiliar with the original.

Mein Kampf

Mein Kampf
Author: Adolf Hitler
Publsiher: Diamond Pocket Books Pvt Ltd
Total Pages: 560
Release: 2021-03-19
ISBN 10: 9390504872
ISBN 13: 9789390504879
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Mein Kampf Book Review:

‘MEIN KAMPF’ is the autobiography of Adolf Hitler gives detailed insight into the mission and vision of Adolf Hitler that shook the world. This book is the merger of two volumes. The first volume of MEIN KAMPF’ was written while the author was imprisioned in a Bavarian fortress. The book deals with events which brought the author into this blight. It was the hour of Germany’s deepest humiliation, when Napolean has dismembered the old German Empire and French soldiers occupied almost the whole of Germony. The books narrates how Hitler was arrested with several of his comrades and imprisoned in the fortress of Landsberg on the river Lech. During this period only the author wrote the first volume of MEIN KAMPF. The Second volume of MEIN KAMPF was written after release of Hitler from prison and it was published after the French had left the Ruhr, the tramp of the invading armies still echoed in German ears and the terrible ravages had plunged the country into a state of social and economic Chaos. The beauty of the book is, MEIN KAMPF is an historical document which bears the emprint of its own time. Moreover, Hitler has declared that his acts and ‘public statements’ constitute a partial revision of his book and are to be taken as such. Also, the author has translated Hitler’s ideal, the Volkischer Staat, as the People’s State. The author has tried his best making German Vocabulary easy to understand. You will never be satisfied until go through the whole book. A must read book, which is one of the most widely circulated and read books worldwide.

The Color of the Land

The Color of the Land
Author: David A. Chang
Publsiher: Univ of North Carolina Press
Total Pages: 312
Release: 2010-02-01
ISBN 10: 9780807895764
ISBN 13: 0807895768
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Color of the Land Book Review:

The Color of the Land brings the histories of Creek Indians, African Americans, and whites in Oklahoma together into one story that explores the way races and nations were made and remade in conflicts over who would own land, who would farm it, and who would rule it. This story disrupts expected narratives of the American past, revealing how identities--race, nation, and class--took new forms in struggles over the creation of different systems of property. Conflicts were unleashed by a series of sweeping changes: the forced "removal" of the Creeks from their homeland to Oklahoma in the 1830s, the transformation of the Creeks' enslaved black population into landed black Creek citizens after the Civil War, the imposition of statehood and private landownership at the turn of the twentieth century, and the entrenchment of a sharecropping economy and white supremacy in the following decades. In struggles over land, wealth, and power, Oklahomans actively defined and redefined what it meant to be Native American, African American, or white. By telling this story, David Chang contributes to the history of racial construction and nationalism as well as to southern, western, and Native American history.

Land Too Good for Indians

Land Too Good for Indians
Author: John P. Bowes
Publsiher: University of Oklahoma Press
Total Pages: 324
Release: 2016-05-10
ISBN 10: 0806154284
ISBN 13: 9780806154282
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Land Too Good for Indians Book Review:

The history of Indian removal has often followed a single narrative arc, one that begins with President Andrew Jackson’s Indian Removal Act of 1830 and follows the Cherokee Trail of Tears. In that conventional account, the Black Hawk War of 1832 encapsulates the experience of tribes in the territories north of the Ohio River. But Indian removal in the Old Northwest was much more complicated—involving many Indian peoples and more than just one policy, event, or politician. In Land Too Good for Indians, historian John P. Bowes takes a long-needed closer, more expansive look at northern Indian removal—and in so doing amplifies the history of Indian removal and of the United States. Bowes focuses on four case studies that exemplify particular elements of removal in the Old Northwest. He traces the paths taken by Delaware Indians in response to Euro-American expansion and U.S. policies in the decades prior to the Indian Removal Act. He also considers the removal experience among the Seneca-Cayugas, Wyandots, and other Indian communities in the Sandusky River region of northwestern Ohio. Bowes uses the 1833 Treaty of Chicago as a lens through which to examine the forces that drove the divergent removals of various Potawatomi communities from northern Illinois and Indiana. And in exploring the experiences of the Odawas and Ojibwes in Michigan Territory, he analyzes the historical context and choices that enabled some Indian communities to avoid relocation west of the Mississippi River. In expanding the context of removal to include the Old Northwest, and adding a portrait of Native communities there before, during, and after removal, Bowes paints a more accurate—and complicated—picture of American Indian history in the nineteenth century. Land Too Good for Indians reveals the deeper complexities of this crucial time in American history.

The Other Slavery

The Other Slavery
Author: Andrés Reséndez
Publsiher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
Total Pages: 448
Release: 2016-04-12
ISBN 10: 0544602676
ISBN 13: 9780544602670
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Other Slavery Book Review:

“The Other Slavery is nothing short of an epic recalibration of American history, one that’s long overdue…In addition to his skills as a historian and an investigator, Résendez is a skilled storyteller with a truly remarkable subject. This is historical nonfiction at its most important and most necessary.”—Literary Hub, 20 Best Works of Nonfiction of the Decade​ “Long-awaited and important . . . No other book before has so thoroughly related the broad history of Indian slavery in the Americas.”—San Francisco Chronicle “A necessary work . . . [Reséndez’s] reportage will likely surprise you.”—NPR “One of the most profound contributions to North American history.”—Los Angeles Times Since the time of Columbus, Indian slavery was illegal in much of the American continent. Yet, as Andrés Reséndez illuminates in his myth-shattering The Other Slavery, it was practiced for centuries as an open secret. There was no abolitionist movement to protect the tens of thousands of Natives who were kidnapped and enslaved by the conquistadors. Reséndez builds the incisive case that it was mass slavery—more than epidemics—that decimated Indian populations across North America. Through riveting new evidence, including testimonies of courageous priests, rapacious merchants, and Indian captives, The Other Slavery reveals nothing less than a key missing piece of American history. For over two centuries we have fought over, abolished, and tried to come to grips with African American slavery. It is time for the West to confront an entirely separate, equally devastating enslavement we have long failed truly to see. “Beautifully written . . . A tour de force.”—Chronicle of Higher Education