Twin and Family Studies of Epigenetics

Twin and Family Studies of Epigenetics
Author: Shuai Li,John Hopper,Trygve Tollefsbol
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 374
Release: 2021-08-30
ISBN 10: 0128209518
ISBN 13: 9780128209516
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Twin and Family Studies of Epigenetics Book Review:

Twin and Family Studies of Epigenetics, Volume 29, the latest release in the Translational Epigenetics series, gathers expert opinions on epigenetic twin and family study research methods, recent findings across various disease areas, and future directions. The book provides in-depth coverage of epigenetics fundamentals, twin and family epigenetic study design, and the broader role of epigenetics in answering questions on the developmental origins of health and disease. Throughout the volume, twin and family studies are employed to examine causes of epigenetic variation, the relationship between epigenetic modifications and mental illness, cancers, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, high blood pressure, and more. Emerging research methods applied in twin and family studies discussed include imaging epigenetics, exposure-specific DNA methylation changes, and unravelling time trends in epigenetic effects. Offers a practical, interdisciplinary approach across epigenetics, epidemiology and various disease specialties Applies epigenetic twin and family studies to determine the relationship between epigenetics and mental illness, cancers, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity and high blood pressure, among other diseases and disorders Features chapter contributions from a wide range of international researchers in the field

Twin and Family Studies of Epigenetics

Twin and Family Studies of Epigenetics
Author: Shuai Li,John Hopper
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 374
Release: 2021-08-31
ISBN 10: 0128209526
ISBN 13: 9780128209523
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Twin and Family Studies of Epigenetics Book Review:

Twin and Family Studies of Epigenetics, Volume 29, the latest release in the Translational Epigenetics series, gathers expert opinions on epigenetic twin and family study research methods, recent findings across various disease areas, and future directions. The book provides in-depth coverage of epigenetics fundamentals, twin and family epigenetic study design, and the broader role of epigenetics in answering questions on the developmental origins of health and disease. Throughout the volume, twin and family studies are employed to examine causes of epigenetic variation, the relationship between epigenetic modifications and mental illness, cancers, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, high blood pressure, and more. Emerging research methods applied in twin and family studies discussed include imaging epigenetics, exposure-specific DNA methylation changes, and unravelling time trends in epigenetic effects. Offers a practical, interdisciplinary approach across epigenetics, epidemiology and various disease specialties Applies epigenetic twin and family studies to determine the relationship between epigenetics and mental illness, cancers, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity and high blood pressure, among other diseases and disorders Features chapter contributions from a wide range of international researchers in the field

The Neurobiological Basis of Suicide

The Neurobiological Basis of Suicide
Author: Yogesh Dwivedi
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 482
Release: 2012-06-25
ISBN 10: 143983881X
ISBN 13: 9781439838815
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Neurobiological Basis of Suicide Book Review:

With recent studies using genetic, epigenetic, and other molecular and neurochemical approaches, a new era has begun in understanding pathophysiology of suicide. Emerging evidence suggests that neurobiological factors are not only critical in providing potential risk factors but also provide a promising approach to develop more effective treatment and prevention strategies. The Neurobiological Basis of Suicide discusses the most recent findings in suicide neurobiology. Psychological, psychosocial, and cultural factors are important in determining the risk factors for suicide; however, they offer weak prediction and can be of little clinical use. Interestingly, cognitive characteristics are different among depressed suicidal and depressed nonsuicidal subjects, and could be involved in the development of suicidal behavior. The characterization of the neurobiological basis of suicide is in delineating the risk factors associated with suicide. The Neurobiological Basis of Suicide focuses on how and why these neurobiological factors are crucial in the pathogenic mechanisms of suicidal behavior and how these findings can be transformed into potential therapeutic applications.

Medical Epigenetics

Medical Epigenetics
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 970
Release: 2021-08-27
ISBN 10: 0128243260
ISBN 13: 9780128243268
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Medical Epigenetics Book Review:

Medical Epigenetics, Second Edition provides a comprehensive analysis of epigenetics in health management, across a broad spectrum of disease categories and specialties, and with a focus on human systems, epigenetic diseases that affect these systems, and evolving modes of epigenetic-based treatment. Here, more than 40 leading researchers examine how each human system is affected by epigenetic maladies, offering an all-in-one resource on medical epigenetics not only for those directly involved with health care, but investigators in life sciences, biotech companies, graduate students, and others who are interested in applied aspects of epigenetics. Incorporating both diagnostic and prognostic epigenetic approaches, this volume also fully supports the application of epigenetics in precision medicine. This second edition of Medical Epigenetics, a volume in the Translational Epigenetics series, has been fully revised to address recent advances in disease epigenetics and role of epigenetics in precision medicine, with all-new chapters on skin cancer epigenetics, network analysis in medical epigenetics, machine learning in epigenetic diseases, and clinical trials of epigenetics drugs. Features chapters from leading researchers and clinicians dedicated to the burgeoning role of epigenetics in medical practice Covers emerging topics, including twin epigenetics, as well as epigenetics of gastrointestinal disease, muscle disorders, endocrine disorders, ocular medicine, pediatric diseases, sports medicine, noncoding RNA therapeutics, pain management and regenerative medicine Organized from system disorders to multi-system disorders that involve epigenetic aberrations Examines the role of epigenetics in precision medicine

Psychotic Disorders

Psychotic Disorders
Author: Federico Durbano
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 172
Release: 2018-06-27
ISBN 10: 1789233240
ISBN 13: 9781789233247
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Psychotic Disorders Book Review:

In this book, with the involvement not only of clinical psychiatrists but also of neurobiologists, specific issues of psychotic disorders (mainly schizophrenia and mood disorders) are reviewed. The focus of attention ranges from therapeutics to the new frontiers of epigenetics. A special focus is on the individual reactions to psychosis (ranging from psychological ones to treatments and neurobiological basis). Because of the rapid development of neurosciences, which are showing common underling factors to different phenotypical expressions of mental illness, we are facing an enormous growth of biological data, which is not always easy to interpret. The risk is to forget that we are relating to other individuals, with their stories, and, most of all, with their environmental resources and interactions. The contributions to this book will range from individual experience (a personal history of illness) through some aspects of individual management of illness (insight), from correct use of available psychosocial resources to the environment-gene relationships (epigenetics).

Identically Different

Identically Different
Author: Tim Spector
Publsiher: ABRAMS
Total Pages: 352
Release: 2014-07-30
ISBN 10: 1468310402
ISBN 13: 9781468310405
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Identically Different Book Review:

In this book, a geneticist who studies identical twins “treats the view that genes are destiny with skepticism” (The New York Times). How much are the things you choose to do every day determined by your genes and how much is your own free will? Drawing on his own cutting-edge research of identical twins, leading geneticist Tim Spector shows us how the same upbringing, the same environment, and even the same exact genes can lead to very different outcomes. Thought-provoking, entertaining, and enlightening, Identically Different helps us understand the science behind what makes each of us unique and so quintessentially human.

Epigenetics in Human Disease

Epigenetics in Human Disease
Author: Trygve O. Tollefsbol
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 577
Release: 2012
ISBN 10: 0123884152
ISBN 13: 9780123884152
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Epigenetics in Human Disease Book Review:

Epigenetics is one of the fastest growing fields of sciences, illuminating studies of human diseases by looking beyond genetic make-up and acknowledging that outside factors play a role in gene expression. The goal of this volume is to highlight those diseases or conditions for which we have advanced knowledge of epigenetic factors such as cancer, autoimmune disorders and aging as well as those that are yielding exciting breakthroughs in epigenetics such as diabetes, neurobiological disorders and cardiovascular disease. Where applicable, attempts are made to not only detail the role of epigenetics in the etiology, progression, diagnosis and prognosis of these diseases, but also novel epigenetic approaches to the treatment of these diseases. Chapters are also presented on human imprinting disorders, respiratory diseases, infectious diseases and gynecological and reproductive diseases. Since epigenetics plays a major role in the aging process, advances in the epigenetics of aging are highly relevant to many age-related human diseases. Therefore, this volume closes with chapters on aging epigenetics and breakthroughs that have been made to delay the aging process through epigenetic approaches. With its translational focus, this book will serve as valuable reference for both basic scientists and clinicians alike. Comprehensive coverage of fundamental and emergent science and clinical usage Side-by-side coverage of the basis of epigenetic diseases and their treatments Evaluation of recent epigenetic clinical breakthroughs

Born Together Reared Apart

Born Together   Reared Apart
Author: Nancy L. Segal
Publsiher: Harvard University Press
Total Pages: 416
Release: 2012-06-18
ISBN 10: 0674065158
ISBN 13: 9780674065154
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Born Together Reared Apart Book Review:

The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart startled scientists by demonstrating that twins reared apart are as alike, across a number of personality traits and other measures, as those raised together, suggesting that genetic influence is pervasive. Segal offers an overview of the study’s scientific contributions and effect on public consciousness.

Epigenetics of Stress and Stress Disorders

Epigenetics of Stress and Stress Disorders
Author: Nagy Youssef
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 420
Release: 2022-02-25
ISBN 10: 0128230622
ISBN 13: 9780128230626
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Epigenetics of Stress and Stress Disorders Book Review:

Epigenetics of Stress and Stress Disorders, Volume 31 in the Translational Epigenetics series, examines the epigenetic mechanisms involved in modifying DNA or gene expression following prolonged stress and/or trauma. Sections introduce both genetic and psychiatric foundations, including modes of epigenetic modification and gene expression that result from stress, as well as the medical knowledge required to understand stress related disorders and resilience. From here, chapters discuss epigenetic research techniques applied in recent studies, including epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of PTSD and resilience, the possible effects of prolonged stress on telomere shortening, and the long-term physical effects of PSTD. The book concludes by examining the possible effects of transgenerational stress-induced epigenetic alterations on the resilience of future offspring, the potential for epigenetic therapeutics, and public health implications. Examines the epigenetics of stress, trauma and related stress disorders Includes methods (e.g. EWAS), protocols and directions for further studies Connects new research to clinical practice and highlights implications for patient care, drug discovery and public health

Epigenetics and Metabolomics

Epigenetics and Metabolomics
Author: Paban K. Agrawala,Poonam Rana
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 476
Release: 2021-08-25
ISBN 10: 0323856535
ISBN 13: 9780323856539
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Epigenetics and Metabolomics Book Review:

Epigenetics and Metabolomics, a new volume in the Translational Epigenetics series, offers a synthesized discussion of epigenetic control of metabolic activity, and systems-based approaches for better understanding these mechanisms. Over a dozen chapter authors provide an overview of epigenetics in translational medicine and metabolomics techniques, followed by analyses of epigenetic and metabolomic linkage mechanisms likely to result in effective identification of disease biomarkers, as well as new therapies targeting the removal of the inappropriate epigenetic alterations. Epigenetic interventions in cancer, brain damage, and neuroendocrine disease, among other disorders, are discussed in-depth, with an emphasis on exploring next steps for clinical translation and personalized healthcare. Offers a synthesized discussion of epigenetic regulation of metabolic activity and systems-based approaches to power new research Discusses epigenetic control of metabolic pathways and possible therapeutic targets for cancer, neurodegenerative, and neuroendocrine diseases, among others Provides guidance in epigenomics and metabolomic research methodology

Epigenetics of Aging

Epigenetics of Aging
Author: Trygve O. Tollefsbol
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 469
Release: 2009-11-11
ISBN 10: 1441906398
ISBN 13: 9781441906397
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Epigenetics of Aging Book Review:

Recent studies have indicated that epigenetic processes may play a major role in both cellular and organismal aging. These epigenetic processes include not only DNA methylation and histone modifications, but also extend to many other epigenetic mediators such as the polycomb group proteins, chromosomal position effects, and noncoding RNA. The topics of this book range from fundamental changes in DNA methylation in aging to the most recent research on intervention into epigenetic modifications to modulate the aging process. The major topics of epigenetics and aging covered in this book are: 1) DNA methylation and histone modifications in aging; 2) Other epigenetic processes and aging; 3) Impact of epigenetics on aging; 4) Epigenetics of age-related diseases; 5) Epigenetic interventions and aging: and 6) Future directions in epigenetic aging research. The most studied of epigenetic processes, DNA methylation, has been associated with cellular aging and aging of organisms for many years. It is now apparent that both global and gene-specific alterations occur not only in DNA methylation during aging, but also in several histone alterations. Many epigenetic alterations can have an impact on aging processes such as stem cell aging, control of telomerase, modifications of telomeres, and epigenetic drift can impact the aging process as evident in the recent studies of aging monozygotic twins. Numerous age-related diseases are affected by epigenetic mechanisms. For example, recent studies have shown that DNA methylation is altered in Alzheimer’s disease and autoimmunity. Other prevalent diseases that have been associated with age-related epigenetic changes include cancer and diabetes. Paternal age and epigenetic changes appear to have an effect on schizophrenia and epigenetic silencing has been associated with several of the progeroid syndromes of premature aging. Moreover, the impact of dietary or drug intervention into epigenetic processes as they affect normal aging or age-related diseases is becoming increasingly feasible.

Anthropological Perspectives on Tooth Morphology

Anthropological Perspectives on Tooth Morphology
Author: G. Richard Scott,Joel D. Irish
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 559
Release: 2013-02-21
ISBN 10: 1107011450
ISBN 13: 9781107011458
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Anthropological Perspectives on Tooth Morphology Book Review:

This follow-up to The Anthropology of Modern Human Teeth puts methods to use in interpreting human origins and affinities.

Epigenetic Epidemiology

Epigenetic Epidemiology
Author: Karin B. Michels
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 448
Release: 2012-01-02
ISBN 10: 9400724950
ISBN 13: 9789400724952
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Epigenetic Epidemiology Book Review:

The exploding field of epigenetics is challenging the dogma of traditional Mendelian inheritance. Epigenetics plays an important role in shaping who we are and contributes to our prospects of health and disease. While early epigenetic research focused on plant and animal models and in vitro experiments, population-based epidemiologic studies increasingly incorporate epigenetic components. The relevance of epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, genomic imprinting, and histone modification for disease causation has yet to be fully explored. This book covers the basic concepts of epigenetic epidemiology, discusses challenges in study design, analysis, and interpretation, epigenetic laboratory techniques, the influence of of age and environmental factors on shaping the epigenome, the role of epigenetics in the developmental origins hypothesis, and provides the state of the art on the epigenetic epidemiology of various health conditions including childhood syndromes, cancer, infectious diseases, inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders, psychiatric disorders, diabetes, obesity and metabolic disorders, and atherosclerosis. With contributions from: Peter Jones, Jean-Pierre Issa, Gavin Kelsey, Robert Waterland, and many other experts in epigenetics!

Twin Studies

Twin Studies
Author: Grant C Townsend,Sandra K Pinkerton,James R Rogers,Michelle R Bockmann,Toby E Hughes
Publsiher: University of Adelaide Press
Total Pages: 216
Release: 2015-10-08
ISBN 10: 1925261158
ISBN 13: 9781925261158
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Twin Studies Book Review:

This volume is about an ongoing long-term research initiative led by researchers from the School of Dentistry at the University of Adelaide. The aim of this book is to provide an overview of the studies of the teeth and faces of Australian twins and their families that have extended over more than thirty years.

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia
Author: Stephen J. Glatt,Stephen V. Faraone,Ming T. Tsuang
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 144
Release: 2019-01-03
ISBN 10: 0192543490
ISBN 13: 9780192543493
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Schizophrenia Book Review:

Schizophrenia is one of the most traumatic psychiatric disorders, both for the affected person and their family. It also carries an unfortunate stigma and suffers from frequent misinterpretation by the popular media. The disorder usually manifests itself through significant periods of hallucinations, bizarre delusions, and disorganized behaviour, but the individuals who suffer from this brain disorder are not generally violent, and do have periods of remission. However it is often difficult for these individuals to maintain a regular lifestyle and relationships at home and at work, and many individuals with schizophrenia end up unable to live independently or, worse, homeless. This new edition in the popular Facts series provides a concise and up-to-date account of the underlying causes and symptoms of schizophrenia, as well as current theories about the disorder. The authors look at all the current treatment options, both medical and psychological, together with likely side-effects and the problem of compliance with treatment. The role of the family and the community in caring for individuals with schizophrenia is also considered. The authors are experienced psychiatrists and psychologists with many years' experience in the treatment and study of schizophrenia. This book will provide a welcome source of information for individuals with schizophrenia, their family members, and those involved in caring for them.

The Epigenetics Revolution

The Epigenetics Revolution
Author: Nessa Carey
Publsiher: Columbia University Press
Total Pages: 352
Release: 2012-03-06
ISBN 10: 0231530714
ISBN 13: 9780231530712
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Epigenetics Revolution Book Review:

Epigenetics can potentially revolutionize our understanding of the structure and behavior of biological life on Earth. It explains why mapping an organism's genetic code is not enough to determine how it develops or acts and shows how nurture combines with nature to engineer biological diversity. Surveying the twenty-year history of the field while also highlighting its latest findings and innovations, this volume provides a readily understandable introduction to the foundations of epigenetics. Nessa Carey, a leading epigenetics researcher, connects the field's arguments to such diverse phenomena as how ants and queen bees control their colonies; why tortoiseshell cats are always female; why some plants need cold weather before they can flower; and how our bodies age and develop disease. Reaching beyond biology, epigenetics now informs work on drug addiction, the long-term effects of famine, and the physical and psychological consequences of childhood trauma. Carey concludes with a discussion of the future directions for this research and its ability to improve human health and well-being.

Environmental Epigenetics

Environmental Epigenetics
Author: L. Joseph Su,Tung-chin Chiang
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 321
Release: 2015-05-18
ISBN 10: 1447166787
ISBN 13: 9781447166788
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Environmental Epigenetics Book Review:

This book examines the toxicological and health implications of environmental epigenetics and provides knowledge through an interdisciplinary approach. Included in this volume are chapters outlining various environmental risk factors such as phthalates and dietary components, life states such as pregnancy and ageing, hormonal and metabolic considerations and specific disease risks such as cancer cardiovascular diseases and other non-communicable diseases. Environmental Epigenetics imparts integrative knowledge of the science of epigenetics and the issues raised in environmental epidemiology. This book is intended to serve both as a reference compendium on environmental epigenetics for scientists in academia, industry and laboratories and as a textbook for graduate level environmental health courses. Environmental Epigenetics imparts integrative knowledge of the science of epigenetics and the issues raised in environmental epidemiology. This book is intended to serve both as a reference compendium on environmental epigenetics for scientists in academia, industry and laboratories and as a textbook for graduate level environmental health courses.

The Gene

The Gene
Author: Siddhartha Mukherjee
Publsiher: Simon and Schuster
Total Pages: 608
Release: 2016-05-17
ISBN 10: 1476733538
ISBN 13: 9781476733531
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Gene Book Review:

The #1 NEW YORK TIMES Bestseller The basis for the PBS Ken Burns Documentary The Gene: An Intimate History From the Pulitzer Prize–winning author of The Emperor of All Maladies—a fascinating history of the gene and “a magisterial account of how human minds have laboriously, ingeniously picked apart what makes us tick” (Elle). "Sid Mukherjee has the uncanny ability to bring together science, history, and the future in a way that is understandable and riveting, guiding us through both time and the mystery of life itself." –Ken Burns “Dr. Siddhartha Mukherjee dazzled readers with his Pulitzer Prize-winning The Emperor of All Maladies in 2010. That achievement was evidently just a warm-up for his virtuoso performance in The Gene: An Intimate History, in which he braids science, history, and memoir into an epic with all the range and biblical thunder of Paradise Lost” (The New York Times). In this biography Mukherjee brings to life the quest to understand human heredity and its surprising influence on our lives, personalities, identities, fates, and choices. “Mukherjee expresses abstract intellectual ideas through emotional stories…[and] swaddles his medical rigor with rhapsodic tenderness, surprising vulnerability, and occasional flashes of pure poetry” (The Washington Post). Throughout, the story of Mukherjee’s own family—with its tragic and bewildering history of mental illness—reminds us of the questions that hang over our ability to translate the science of genetics from the laboratory to the real world. In riveting and dramatic prose, he describes the centuries of research and experimentation—from Aristotle and Pythagoras to Mendel and Darwin, from Boveri and Morgan to Crick, Watson and Franklin, all the way through the revolutionary twenty-first century innovators who mapped the human genome. “A fascinating and often sobering history of how humans came to understand the roles of genes in making us who we are—and what our manipulation of those genes might mean for our future” (Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel), The Gene is the revelatory and magisterial history of a scientific idea coming to life, the most crucial science of our time, intimately explained by a master. “The Gene is a book we all should read” (USA TODAY).

Twin Research for Everyone

Twin Research for Everyone
Author: Adam D. Tarnoki,David L. Tarnoki,Jennifer Harris,Nancy L. Segal
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 424
Release: 2022-06-15
ISBN 10: 9780128215142
ISBN 13: 0128215143
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Twin Research for Everyone Book Review:

Twin Research: Biology, Health, Epigenetics, and Psychology is a comprehensive, applied resource in twinning and twin studies that is grounded in the most impactful findings from twin research in recent years. While targeted to undergraduate and graduate students, this compendium will prove a valuable resource for scholars already familiar with twin studies, as well as those coming to the field for the first time. Here, more than forty experts across an array of disciplines examine twinning and twin research methodologies from the perspectives of biology, medicine, genetic and epigenetic influences, and neuroscience. Chapters provide clear instruction in both basic and advanced research methods, family and parenting aspects of twinning, twin studies as applied across various disease areas and medical specialties, genetic and epigenetic determinants of differentiation, and academic, neurological and cognitive development. The presentation of existing studies and methods instruction empowers students and researchers to apply twin-based research and advance new studies across a range of biomedical and behavioral fields, highlighting current research trends and future directions. Offers unique insights into twinning rates, mechanisms and factors surrounding twinship Provides clear instruction on both basic and advanced twin research methods and study design Features leading international experts in twin biology, genetics, health and psychology Examines findings from recent twin studies across a broad array of health and behavioral studies

The Psychobiology of Transsexualism and Transgenderism A New View Based on Scientific Evidence

The Psychobiology of Transsexualism and Transgenderism  A New View Based on Scientific Evidence
Author: Thomas E. Bevan Ph.D.
Publsiher: ABC-CLIO
Total Pages: 257
Release: 2014-11-17
ISBN 10: 1440831270
ISBN 13: 9781440831270
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Psychobiology of Transsexualism and Transgenderism A New View Based on Scientific Evidence Book Review:

Written by a biopsychologist, this book describes and explains transsexualism and transgenderism (TSTG) from a scientific vantage point. • Provides an unprecedented comprehensive coverage of transsexual and transgender science • Enables readers ranging from the general public to medical professionals, experimental and clinical psychologists, and policymakers with a broad understanding of transsexualism and transgenderism (TSTG) based on available scientific knowledge • Underscores how the conventional wisdom regarding the causes of transsexualism and transgenderism is wrong, and that the causal factors supported by scientific evidence are genetics and epigenetics • Supplies a balanced depiction of transsexual transition as a process that has proven to generate positive results but involves some specific health risks • Explains how the biology of TSTG people is different from non-TSTG people