High Voltage Direct Current Transmission

High Voltage Direct Current Transmission
Author: Dragan Jovcic
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 560
Release: 2019-07-01
ISBN 10: 1119566614
ISBN 13: 9781119566618
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

High Voltage Direct Current Transmission Book Review:

Presents the latest developments in switchgear and DC/DC converters for DC grids, and includes substantially expanded material on MMC HVDC This newly updated edition covers all HVDC transmission technologies including Line Commutated Converter (LCC) HVDC; Voltage Source Converter (VSC) HVDC, and the latest VSC HVDC based on Modular Multilevel Converters (MMC), as well as the principles of building DC transmission grids. Featuring new material throughout, High Voltage Direct Current Transmission: Converters, Systems and DC Grids, 2nd Edition offers several new chapters/sections including one on the newest MMC converters. It also provides extended coverage of switchgear, DC grid protection and DC/DC converters following the latest developments on the market and in research projects. All three HVDC technologies are studied in a wide range of topics, including: the basic converter operating principles; calculation of losses; system modelling, including dynamic modelling; system control; HVDC protection, including AC and DC fault studies; and integration with AC systems and fundamental frequency analysis. The text includes: A chapter dedicated to hybrid and mechanical DC circuit breakers Half bridge and full bridge MMC: modelling, control, start-up and fault management A chapter dedicated to unbalanced operation and control of MMC HVDC The advancement of protection methods for DC grids Wideband and high-order modeling of DC cables Novel treatment of topics not found in similar books, including SimPowerSystems models and examples for all HVDC topologies hosted by the 1st edition companion site. High Voltage Direct Current Transmission: Converters, Systems and DC Grids, 2nd Edition serves as an ideal textbook for a graduate-level course or a professional development course.

Troubleshooting Switching Power Converters

Troubleshooting Switching Power Converters
Author: Sanjaya Maniktala
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 320
Release: 2011-04-08
ISBN 10: 9780080551258
ISBN 13: 0080551254
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Troubleshooting Switching Power Converters Book Review:

Power Supply design is all about detail. And a large part of that detail lies in the practical domain, largely because of the typically small number of microseconds of switching periods involved, and the even smaller tens of nanoseconds of switch transition times --- all these, in effect accentuating various "second-order" effects, that eventually end up playing prime havoc with "normal" expectations of how the circuit should behave. So not unsurprisingly, even after reading several books, most readers still find themselves no closer to the ultimate goal of designing an actual power supply. Sooner or later, all engineers start realizing the hard fact that designing a switching power supply isn't the trivial task it once seemed to be. But even after years of successfully mastering the underlying theory, the ultimate goal of creating a cost-effective, reliable and commercially viable power supply may still remain a distant dream, since success ultimately hinges on experience. That is, in fact, what clearly differentiates a senior and seasoned power supply engineer from the others --- the ability to navigate and surmount a veritable minefield of tricky issues that can only be learned the hard way, by actual hands-on experience on the job. This book presents practical knowledge the author acquired rather painfully, while working "in the trenches" for several years in major engineering companies scattered across several continents. This is intended to be the mythical senior engineer's "bag of tricks," finally made available in the form of an easy-to-read book on your shelf. This book will make life for the ambitious power supply engineer much simpler --- besides reducing significantly, the rigorous requirement of having to be a senior engineer's protégé for years on end, just to gain a small measure of real success in this field. * A practical presentation that answers the important question: why is my switching converter behaving so differently than what I was expecting on the basis of my paper design? And how do I bridge that huge gap? * For the first time, a systematic and thorough discussion of troubleshooting switching power supplies. * Coverage of AC/DC and DC/DC power supplies. * Bench Evaluation of semiconductor ICs used in power conversion --- describing standard and unusual techniques mastered by the author, while testing similar chips at National Semiconductor. * Detailed coverage of vital topics that haven't been covered by available sources --- grounding systems, the subtleties of component datasheets, and using instruments and probes effectively. * Systematic investigation (type of failure mechanism, topology, etc.) and solutions for 5 years of reported power supply issues on a prominent, public web forum. This approach will ensure that engineers will not repeat the same mistakes. * A unique, readable style: personal and direct; no mystification--- just the plain truth, easily and logically explained, with plenty of pictures, graphs and plots.

Impedance Source Inverters

Impedance Source Inverters
Author: Hongpeng Liu,Zichao Zhou,Yuhao Li,Wentao Wu,Jiabao Jiang,Enda Shi
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 290
Release: 2020-01-13
ISBN 10: 9811527636
ISBN 13: 9789811527630
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Impedance Source Inverters Book Review:

This book focuses on impedance source inverters, discussing their classification, advantages, topologies, analysis methods, working mechanisms, improvements, reliability, and applications. It summarizes methods for suppressing DC-link voltage spikes and duty loss, which can pose a problem for researchers; and presents novel, efficient, steady state and transient analysis methods that are of significant practical value, along with specific calculation examples. Further, the book addresses the reliability of impedance source inverters, adopting a methodology from reliability engineering to do so. Given its scope, it offers a valuable resource for researchers, engineers, and graduate students in fields involving impedance source inverters and new energy sources.

Electronic Components and Technology

Electronic Components and Technology
Author: Stephen Sangwine
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 232
Release: 2018-10-03
ISBN 10: 1420007688
ISBN 13: 9781420007688
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Electronic Components and Technology Book Review:

Most introductory textbooks in electronics focus on the theory while leaving the practical aspects to be covered in laboratory courses. However, the sooner such matters are introduced, the better able students will be to include such important concerns as parasitic effects and reliability at the very earliest stages of design. This philosophy has kept Electronic Components and Technology thriving for two decades, and this completely updated third edition continues the approach with a more international outlook. Not only does this textbook introduce the properties, behavior, fabrication, and use of electronic components, it also helps students grasp and apply sound engineering practice by incorporating in-depth discussions on topics such as safety and reliability. The author employs a holistic treatment that clearly demonstrates how electronic components and subsystems work together, reinforcing the concepts with numerous examples, case studies, problems, illustrations, and objectives. This edition was updated to reflect advances and changes to industrial practice, including packaging technologies, digital oscilloscopes, lead-free solders, and new battery technologies. Additionally, the text's scope now extends to include terminology and standards used worldwide. Including coverage of topics often ignored in other textbooks on the subject, Electronic Components and Technology, Third Edition encourages students to be better, more thoughtful designers and prepares them with current industrial practices.

Battery Management Systems for Large Lithium Ion Battery Packs

Battery Management Systems for Large Lithium Ion Battery Packs
Author: Davide Andrea
Publsiher: Artech House
Total Pages: 302
Release: 2010
ISBN 10: 1608071057
ISBN 13: 9781608071050
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Battery Management Systems for Large Lithium Ion Battery Packs Book Review:

This timely book provides you with a solid understanding of battery management systems (BMS) in large Li-Ion battery packs, describing the important technical challenges in this field and exploring the most effective solutions. You find in-depth discussions on BMS topologies, functions, and complexities, helping you determine which permutation is right for your application. Packed with numerous graphics, tables, and images, the book explains the OC whysOCO and OC howsOCO of Li-Ion BMS design, installation, configuration and troubleshooting. This hands-on resource includes an unbiased description and comparison of all the off-the-shelf Li-Ion BMSs available today. Moreover, it explains how using the correct one for a given application can help to get a Li-Ion pack up and running in little time at low cost."

Analog Circuit Design

Analog Circuit Design
Author: Michiel Steyaert,Arthur H.M. van Roermund,Herman Casier
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 358
Release: 2008-09-19
ISBN 10: 1402089449
ISBN 13: 9781402089442
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Analog Circuit Design Book Review:

Analog Circuit Design contains the contribution of 18 tutorials of the 17th workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design. Each part discusses a specific to-date topic on new and valuable design ideas in the area of analog circuit design. Each part is presented by six experts in that field and state of the art information is shared and overviewed. This book is number 17 in this successful series of Analog Circuit Design.

Robust Electronic Design Reference Book no special title

Robust Electronic Design Reference Book  no special title
Author: John R. Barnes
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 1500
Release: 2004
ISBN 10: 9781402077371
ISBN 13: 1402077378
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Robust Electronic Design Reference Book no special title Book Review:

If you design electronics for a living, you need Robust Electronic Design Reference Book. Written by a working engineer, who has put over 115 electronic products into production at Sycor, IBM, and Lexmark, Robust Electronic Design Reference covers all the various aspects of designing and developing electronic devices and systems that: -Work. -Are safe and reliable. -Can be manufactured, tested, repaired, and serviced. -May be sold and used worldwide. -Can be adapted or enhanced to meet new and changing requirements.

Issues in Energy Conversion Transmission and Systems 2011 Edition

Issues in Energy Conversion  Transmission  and Systems  2011 Edition
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: ScholarlyEditions
Total Pages: 861
Release: 2012-01-09
ISBN 10: 1464965323
ISBN 13: 9781464965326
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Issues in Energy Conversion Transmission and Systems 2011 Edition Book Review:

Issues in Energy Conversion, Transmission, and Systems: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Energy Conversion, Transmission, and Systems. The editors have built Issues in Energy Conversion, Transmission, and Systems: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Energy Conversion, Transmission, and Systems in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Energy Conversion, Transmission, and Systems: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Switching Power Supplies A to Z

Switching Power Supplies A to Z
Author: Sanjaya Maniktala
Publsiher: Newnes
Total Pages: 503
Release: 2006
ISBN 10: 0750679700
ISBN 13: 9780750679701
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Switching Power Supplies A to Z Book Review:

CD-ROM contains files and spreadsheets to support text.

Op Amps for Everyone

Op Amps for Everyone
Author: Ron Mancini
Publsiher: Newnes
Total Pages: 377
Release: 2003
ISBN 10: 9780750677011
ISBN 13: 0750677015
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Op Amps for Everyone Book Review:

The operational amplifier ("op amp") is the most versatile and widely used type of analog IC, used in audio and voltage amplifiers, signal conditioners, signal converters, oscillators, and analog computing systems. Almost every electronic device uses at least one op amp. This book is Texas Instruments' complete professional-level tutorial and reference to operational amplifier theory and applications. Among the topics covered are basic op amp physics (including reviews of current and voltage division, Thevenin's theorem, and transistor models), idealized op amp operation and configuration, feedback theory and methods, single and dual supply operation, understanding op amp parameters, minimizing noise in op amp circuits, and practical applications such as instrumentation amplifiers, signal conditioning, oscillators, active filters, load and level conversions, and analog computing. There is also extensive coverage of circuit construction techniques, including circuit board design, grounding, input and output isolation, using decoupling capacitors, and frequency characteristics of passive components. The material in this book is applicable to all op amp ICs from all manufacturers, not just TI. Unlike textbook treatments of op amp theory that tend to focus on idealized op amp models and configuration, this title uses idealized models only when necessary to explain op amp theory. The bulk of this book is on real-world op amps and their applications; considerations such as thermal effects, circuit noise, circuit buffering, selection of appropriate op amps for a given application, and unexpected effects in passive components are all discussed in detail. *Published in conjunction with Texas Instruments *A single volume, professional-level guide to op amp theory and applications *Covers circuit board layout techniques for manufacturing op amp circuits.

Power Electronics for Modern Wind Turbines

Power Electronics for Modern Wind Turbines
Author: Frede Blaabjerg,Zhe Chen
Publsiher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Total Pages: 60
Release: 2006
ISBN 10: 1598290320
ISBN 13: 9781598290325
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Power Electronics for Modern Wind Turbines Book Review:

Wind energy is now the world's fastest growing energy source. In the past 10 years, the global wind energy capacity has increased rapidly. The installed global wind power capacity has grown to 47.317GW from about 3.5GW in 1994. The global wind power industry installed 7976 MW in 2004, an increase in total installed generating capacity of 20%. The phenomenal growth in the wind energy industry can be attributed to the concerns to the environmental issues, and research and development of innovative cost-reducing technologies.

Fundamentals of Solid State Lighting

Fundamentals of Solid State Lighting
Author: Vinod Kumar Khanna
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 604
Release: 2014-06-03
ISBN 10: 1466561122
ISBN 13: 9781466561120
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fundamentals of Solid State Lighting Book Review:

Compared to traditional electrical filaments, arc lamps, and fluorescent lamps, solid-state lighting offers higher efficiency, reliability, and environmentally friendly technology. LED / solid-state lighting is poised to take over conventional lighting due to cost savings—there is pretty much no debate about this. In response to the recent activity in this field, Fundamentals of Solid-State Lighting: LEDs, OLEDs, and Their Applications in Illumination and Displays covers a range of solid-state devices, technologies, and materials used for lighting and displays. It also examines auxiliary but critical requirements of efficient applications, such as modeling, thermal management, reliability, and smart lighting. The book discusses performance metrics of LEDs such as efficiency, efficacy, current–voltage characteristics, optical parameters like spectral distribution, color temperature, and beam angle before moving on to luminescence theory, injection luminescence, radiative and non-radiative recombination mechanisms, recombination rates, carrier lifetimes, and related topics. This lays down the groundwork for understanding LED operation. The book then discusses energy gaps, light emission, semiconductor material, special equipment, and laboratory facilities. It also covers production and applications of high-brightness LEDs (HBLEDs) and organic LEDs (OLEDs). LEDs represent the landmark development in lighting since the invention of electric lighting, allowing us to create unique, low-energy lighting solutions, not to talk about their minor maintenance expenses. The rapid strides of LED lighting technology over the last few years have changed the dynamics of the global lighting market, and LEDs are expected to be the mainstream light source in the near future. In a nutshell, the book traces the advances in LEDs, OLEDs, and their applications, and presents an up-to-date and analytical perspective of the scenario for audiences of different backgrounds and interests.

High frequency Switching Power Supplies

High frequency Switching Power Supplies
Author: George Chryssis
Publsiher: McGraw-Hill Companies
Total Pages: 287
Release: 1989
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: STANFORD:36105030486018
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

High frequency Switching Power Supplies Book Review:

Power Quality Issues

Power Quality Issues
Author: Suresh Mikkili,Anup Kumar Panda
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 160
Release: 2018-10-08
ISBN 10: 1498729630
ISBN 13: 9781498729635
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Power Quality Issues Book Review:

Power Quality Issues: Current Harmonics provides solutions for the mitigation of power quality problems related to harmonics. Focusing on active power filters (APFs) due to their excellent harmonic and reactive power compensation in two-wire (single phase), three-wire (three-phase without neutral), and four-wire (three-phase with neutral) AC power networks with nonlinear loads, the text: Introduces the APF technology, describing various APF configurations and offering guidelines for the selection of APFs for specific application considerations Compares shunt active filter (SHAF) control strategies for extracting three-phase reference currents, evaluating their performance under a number of source voltage conditions using a proportional-integral (PI) controller Presents PI controller-based SHAF instantaneous active and reactive power (p-q) and instantaneous active and reactive current (Id-Iq) control strategies, supplying detailed MATLAB®/Simulink simulation results Proposes SHAF control strategies using type 1 and type 2 fuzzy logic controllers (FLCs) with different fuzzy membership functions (MFs), analyzing their harmonic mitigation and DC link voltage regulation Verifies the proposed type 2 FLC-based SHAF control strategies with trapezoidal, triangular, and Gaussian fuzzy MFs using RT-LAB, a real-time digital simulation software from OPAL-RT Technologies Power Quality Issues: Current Harmonics is a useful resource for those tackling electrical power quality challenges. The compensation techniques described in this book alleviate harmonic issues that can distort voltage waveforms, fry a building’s wiring, trigger nuisance tripping, overheat transformer units, and cause random end-user equipment failure.

MATLAB

MATLAB
Author: Vasilios Katsikis
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 502
Release: 2012-09-26
ISBN 10: 9535107526
ISBN 13: 9789535107521
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

MATLAB Book Review:

This excellent book represents the final part of three-volumes regarding MATLAB-based applications in almost every branch of science. The book consists of 19 excellent, insightful articles and the readers will find the results very useful to their work. In particular, the book consists of three parts, the first one is devoted to mathematical methods in the applied sciences by using MATLAB, the second is devoted to MATLAB applications of general interest and the third one discusses MATLAB for educational purposes. This collection of high quality articles, refers to a large range of professional fields and can be used for science as well as for various educational purposes.

The Essential Guide to Power Supplies

The Essential Guide to Power Supplies
Author: Gary Bocock
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 160
Release: 2014-10-02
ISBN 10: 9781634433433
ISBN 13: 1634433432
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Essential Guide to Power Supplies Book Review:

Having trouble keeping up with the latest standards for external power supplies such as the California Energy Commission's (CEC) requirements for efficiency and no-load power consumption; or the implications of the 3rd Edition 60601 on Medical Safety? Ever wondered why seemingly similar power supplies have significantly different performance and reliability characteristics?The answers to these and many more questions can be found in this Essential Guide to Power Supplies.Whether you're new to designing-in a power supply or DC-DC converter or an 'old hand', this book offers an invaluable resource and all the information you'll need in one easy reference guide.

Introduction to Electrical Power and Power Electronics

Introduction to Electrical Power and Power Electronics
Author: Mukund R. Patel
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 528
Release: 2012-12-10
ISBN 10: 1466556609
ISBN 13: 9781466556607
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Introduction to Electrical Power and Power Electronics Book Review:

Most traditional power systems textbooks focus on high-voltage transmission. However, the majority of power engineers work in urban factories, buildings, or industries where power comes from utility companies or is self-generated. Introduction to Electrical Power and Power Electronics is the first book of its kind to cover the entire scope of electrical power and power electronics systems in one volume—with a focus on topics that are directly relevant in power engineers’ daily work. Learn How Electrical Power Is Generated, Distributed, and Utilized Composed of 17 chapters, the book is organized into two parts. The first part introduces aspects of electrical power that most power engineers are involved in during their careers, including the distribution of power to load equipment such as motors via step-down transformers, cables, circuit breakers, relays, and fuses. For engineers working with standalone power plants, it also tackles generators. The book discusses how to design and operate systems for economic use of power and covers the use of batteries in greater depth than typically found in traditional power system texts. Understand How Power Electronics Work in Modern Systems The second part delves into power electronics switches, as well as the DC–DC converters, AC–DC–AC converters, and frequency converters used in variable-frequency motor drives. It also discusses quality-of-power issues in modern power systems with many large power electronics loads. A chapter on power converter cooling presents important interdisciplinary design topics. Draw on the Author’s Extensive Industry and Teaching Experience This timely book draws on the author’s 30 years of work experience at General Electric, Lockheed Martin, and Westinghouse Electric and 15 years of teaching electrical power at the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy. Designed for a one-semester or two-quarter course in electrical power and power electronics, it is also ideal for a refresher course or as a one-stop reference for industry professionals.

Design and Implementation of Fully Integrated Inductive DC DC Converters in Standard CMOS

Design and Implementation of Fully Integrated Inductive DC DC Converters in Standard CMOS
Author: Mike Wens,Michiel Steyaert
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 282
Release: 2011-05-10
ISBN 10: 9789400714366
ISBN 13: 940071436X
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Design and Implementation of Fully Integrated Inductive DC DC Converters in Standard CMOS Book Review:

CMOS DC-DC Converters aims to provide a comprehensive dissertation on the matter of monolithic inductive Direct-Current to Direct-Current (DC-DC) converters. For this purpose seven chapters are defined which will allow the designer to gain specific knowledge on the design and implementation of monolithic inductive DC-DC converters, starting from the very basics.

Solutions Manual for Introduction to Modern Power Electronics

Solutions Manual for Introduction to Modern Power Electronics
Author: Andrzej M. Trzynadlowski
Publsiher: Wiley-Interscience
Total Pages: 36
Release: 2000-06-05
ISBN 10: 9780471382966
ISBN 13: 0471382965
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Solutions Manual for Introduction to Modern Power Electronics Book Review:

A concise, thorough introduction to modern power electronics This comprehensive overview of the modern tools and techniques of electric power conversion covers the fundamentals of power electronics. Unlike other textbooks on the subject, which often include a great deal of extraneous information. Introduction to Modern Power Electronics presents essential material that can be covered easily in a one-semester course. This streamlined text examines low-, medium-, and high-power conversion issues and the electronic converters that process power for a variety of applications. Following recent trends in power electronics technology, greater stress is placed on pulse-width modulated (PWM) converters than in any other textbook. Modern power electronic converters, such as the resonant dc-link and multilevel inverters or matrix converters, are thoroughly covered. Special features include: * Comprehensive, easy-to-understand coverage of the principles and methods of electric power conversion using a hypothetical generic power converter * Descriptions of various types of semiconductor power switches and complementary components and systems for power electronic converters * In-depth discussions of all power conversion types: ac-to-dc, ac-to-ac, dc-to-dc, and dc-to-ac * Separate chapter on switching power supplies A companion set of 48 PSpice circuit files, available on the Internet, constitutes a virtual laboratory of power electronics. This valuable teaching tool contains models of most of the power electronic converters and techniques covered in the book. It gives students the opportunity to tinker with converters and see how they actually work. Ideal for electrical engineering students at the senior undergraduate level, Introduction to Modern Power Electronics is also a handy reference tool for advanced students and practicing engineers.

Multilevel Converters for Industrial Applications

Multilevel Converters for Industrial Applications
Author: Sergio Alberto Gonzalez,Santiago Andres Verne,Maria Ines Valla
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 241
Release: 2017-07-12
ISBN 10: 1351832557
ISBN 13: 9781351832557
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Multilevel Converters for Industrial Applications Book Review:

Modern semiconductor devices have reached high current and voltage levels, and their power-handling limits can be extended if they are used in multilevel converter configurations. To create high-performance and reliable control designs, however, engineers need in-depth understanding of the characteristics and operation of these topologies. Multilevel Converters for Industrial Applications presents a thorough and comprehensive analysis of multilevel converters with a common DC voltage source. The book offers a novel perspective to help readers understand the principles of the operation of voltage-source multilevel converters as power processors, and their capabilities and limitations. The book begins with an overview of medium-voltage power converters and their applications. It then analyzes the topological characteristics of the diode-clamped multilevel converter, the flying capacitor multilevel converter, and the asymmetric cascaded multilevel converter. For each topology, the authors highlight particular control issues and design trade-offs. They also develop relevant modulation and control strategies. Numerous graphical representations aid in the analysis of the topologies and are useful for beginning the analysis of new multilevel converter topologies. The last two chapters of the book explore two case studies that analyze the behavior of the cascade asymmetric multilevel converter as a distribution static compensator and shunt active power filter, and the behavior of the diode-clamped topology configured as a back-to-back converter. These case studies demonstrate how to address the associated control problems with advanced control and modulation schemes. Examining recent advances, this book provides deep insight on the design of high-power multilevel converters and their applications. It is a valuable reference for anyone interested in medium-voltage power conversion, which is increasingly being used in industry and in renewable energy and distributed generation systems to improve efficiency and operation flexibility.