The Viral Network
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In The Viral Network, Theresa MacPhail examines our collective fascination with and fear of viruses through the lens of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. In April 2009, a novel strain of H1N1 influenza virus resulting from a combination of bird, swine, and human flu viruses emerged in Veracruz, Mexico. The Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO) announced an official end to the pandemic in August 2010. Experts agree that the global death toll reached 284,500. The public health response to the pandemic was complicated by the simultaneous economic crisis and by the public scrutiny of official response in an atmosphere of widespread connectivity. MacPhail follows the H1N1 influenza virus’s trajectory through time and space in order to construct a three-dimensional picture of what happens when global public health comes down with a case of the flu. The Viral Network affords a rare look inside the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, as well as Hong Kong’s virology labs and Centre for Health Protection, during a pandemic. MacPhail looks at the day-to-day practices of virologists and epidemiologists to ask questions about the production of scientific knowledge, the construction of expertise, disease narratives, and the different "cultures" of public health in the United States, Europe, Hong Kong, and China. The chapters of the book move from the micro to the macro, from Hong Kong to Atlanta, from the lab to the WHO, from the pandemic past in 1918 to the future. The various historical, scientific, and cultural narratives about flu recounted in this book show how biological genes and cultural memes become interwoven in the stories we tell during a pandemic. Ultimately, MacPhail argues that the institution of global public health is as viral as the viruses it tracks, studies, and helps to contain or eradicate. The "global" is itself viral in nature.
The metaphor of contagion pervades critical discourse across the humanities, the medical sciences, and the social sciences. It appears in such terms as 'social contagion' in psychology, 'financial contagion' in economics, 'viral marketing' in business, and even 'cultural contagion' in anthropology. In the twenty-first century, contagion, or 'thought contagion' has become a byword for creativity and a fundamental process by which knowledge and ideas are communicated and taken up, and resonates with André Siegfried's observation that 'there is a striking parallel between the spreading of germs and the spreading of ideas'. In Contagious Metaphor, Peta Mitchell offers an innovative, interdisciplinary study of the metaphor of contagion and its relationship to the workings of language. Examining both metaphors of contagion and metaphor as contagion, Contagious Metaphor suggests a framework through which the emergence and often epidemic-like reproduction of metaphor can be better understood.
Here's something you may not know about today's Internet. Simply by designing your product the right way, you can build a flourishing business from scratch. No advertising or marketing budget, no need for a sales force, and venture capitalists will flock to throw money at you. Many of the most successful Web 2.0 companies, including MySpace, YouTube, eBay, and rising stars like Twitter and Flickr, are prime examples of what journalist Adam L. Penenberg calls a "viral loop"--to use it, you have to spread it. After all, what's the sense of being on Facebook if none of your friends are The result: Never before has there been the potential to create wealth this fast, on this scale, and starting with so little. In this game-changing must-read, Penenberg tells the fascinating story of the entrepreneurs who first harnessed the unprecedented potential of viral loops to create the successful online businesses--some worth billions of dollars--that we have all grown to rely on. The trick is that they created something people really want, so much so that their customers happily spread the word about their product for them. All kinds of businesses--from the smallest start-ups to nonprofit organizations to the biggest multinational corporations--can use the paradigm-busting power of viral loops to enable their business through technology. Viral Loop is a must-read for any entrepreneur or business interested in uncorking viral loops to benefit their bottom line.
|Author||: Katherine Sorrels,Kylie Smith,Sarah Runcie,A. R. Ruis,Nathaniel D. Porter,Christopher J. Phillips,Lukas Engelmann,Michelle DiMeo,Katherine Cottle,Nicole Archambeau|
|Publsiher||: VT Publishing|
|Total Pages||: 266|
|ISBN 10||: 9781949373196|
|ISBN 13||: 1949373193|
|Language||: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL|
This book represents the culmination of a unique scholarly initiative located at the dynamic intersection of medical history and the digital humanities. It also represents an important outcome of the longstanding partnership between the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) and the National Library of Medicine (NLM) with Virginia Tech (VT) as a key collaborator.The specific initiative which led to this book-Viral Networks: An Advanced Workshop in Digital Humanities and Medical History-was a landmark moment in the NEH/NLM partnership dating from 2012when these agencies signed an agreement to "bring together scholars, scientists, librarians, archivists, curators, technical information specialists, healthcare professionals, cultural heritage professionals, and others in the humanities and biomedical communities in order to share expertise and develop new research agendas representing the commitment of the NLM to supporting scholarship in medical history and digital humanities."Viral Networks represents true collaboration and commitment among a group of dedicated scholars, two federal agencies and their strategic partners, and one of America's most important public, land-grant, research universities. And this book represents such collaboration and commitment even more because it is available from VT Publishing in an open-access format, for all to appreciate as the studies therein engage undiscovered or underappreciated primary sources, push methodological boundaries to define and articulate new arguments, and chart new research trajectories. Indeed, this book defines the scholarly times in which its organizers conceived and published it as much as these times define the book itself.
“At your fingertips are the counsel, wisdom, and advice of three of the most humble, credentialed, and experienced professionals in the field of career navigation. These three men have encouraged, coached, mentored, and networked with countless, well-qualified professionals who suddenly found themselves out of a job. Through Survive and Thrive, these men share their advice for those whose world has just been rocked – hard. This level of counsel in one book is an absolute treasure.” —Ron Brumbarger, Founder and President of Apprentice University “Hinshaw, Faulconer, and Johnson have scored a big success with this book! It’s a real and ready resource of what is important and useful in navigating the turbulent waters of the job search. They’ve managed to provide plenty of resources for personal assessment and practical progress while driving home the need to conduct your job search in a context of community. Their book will prove to be a great asset and effective tool in gaining your next employment adventure!” —Lou Stoops, Professional Consultant, Speaker, Trainer, and Life and Business Coach “The way you conduct a career search has changed radically. It is easy to find a job. It is much more competitive to find a career. With STAR stories and skills training, TNG offers an approach that helps you to stand out from the others. TNG has helped hundreds find their next career.” —Bruce Flanagan, Career Coach and author of It’s Not About You, It’s About Them
A groundbreaking guide for multiplying the impact of church plants Based on a study that was commissioned by the Leadership Network, this book reveals the best practices in church planting and uncovers the common threads among them. A much-needed resource, this book will inform, guide, and even catalyze today's many church planting leaders. The authors clearly show leaders how to plant churches that create a multiplication movement and offer inspiration for them to do so. The book addresses their questions about what to do next in their church planting strategies, in light of research on what's actually working best. Author Ed Stetzer heads up LifeWay Research Provides reliable, credible information about what church planting strategies work best A volume in the Leadership Network Series Offers a definitive guide for church planting and the burgeoning movement it is part of.
The gospel is nothing without relationship. And no one gets it like the Google Generation. God came to earth to invite us, personally, into a relationship. And while Christians at times downplay relationships, the social-media generation is completely sold on the idea. In Viral, Leonard Sweet says Christians need to learn about connecting with others from the experts—those who can’t seem to stop texting, IM-ing, tweeting, and updating their Facebook statuses. What would happen, he asks, if Christians devoted less attention to strategies and statistics and paid more attention to pursuing relationships? The current generation is driven by a God-given desire to know others and to be known by others. Most of them, in seeking to connect in meaningful ways, have found a place of belonging that is outside the organized church. Why not bring the two together? Those who are sold out to relationships can teach Christians how to be better friends to people who need God. At the same time, members of the social-media generation can learn how to follow their desire for belonging, straight into the arms of God. It’s time for relationship to be restored to the heart of the gospel. And when that happens, can revival be far behind? End-of-Chapter Interactives Included
The world's governments are overwhelmed with climate change, war and unrest, the global financial crisis and poverty but there is a promising invention in Global Action Networks (GANs). GANs mobilize resources, bridge divides and promote the long-term deep change and innovation work that is needed to address the global challenges.
Discover Malcolm Gladwell's breakthrough debut and explore the science behind viral trends in business, marketing, and human behavior. The tipping point is that magic moment when an idea, trend, or social behavior crosses a threshold, tips, and spreads like wildfire. Just as a single sick person can start an epidemic of the flu, so too can a small but precisely targeted push cause a fashion trend, the popularity of a new product, or a drop in the crime rate. This widely acclaimed bestseller, in which Malcolm Gladwell explores and brilliantly illuminates the tipping point phenomenon, is already changing the way people throughout the world think about selling products and disseminating ideas.
This books examines the question why ideas, news, "memes"", videos etc can spread very quicly. Both technological, social practices and cultural circumstances are taken into account. "A compelling argument that viral processes are here to stay, and they are an essential feature of the online fabric" (Albert-László Barabás - Northeastern University).
The experience of networks as the immediate sensing of relations between humans and nonhuman technical elements in assemblages such as viral media and databases. Today almost every aspect of life for which data exists can be rendered as a network. Financial data, social networks, biological ecologies: all are visualized in links and nodes, lines connecting dots. A network visualization of a corporate infrastructure could look remarkably similar to that of a terrorist organization. In An Aesthesia of Networks, Anna Munster argues that this uniformity has flattened our experience of networks as active and relational processes and assemblages. She counters the “network anaesthesia” that results from this pervasive mimesis by reinserting the question of experience, or aesthesia, into networked culture and aesthetics. Rather than asking how humans experience computers and networks, Munster asks how networks experience—what operations they perform and undergo to change and produce new forms of experience. Drawing on William James's radical empiricism, she asserts that networked experience is assembled first and foremost through relations, which make up its most immediately sensed and perceived aspect. Munster critically considers a range of contemporary artistic and cultural practices that engage with network technologies and techniques, including databases and data mining, the domination of search in online activity, and the proliferation of viral media through YouTube. These practices—from artists who “undermine” data to musicians and VJs who use intranetworked audio and video software environments—are concerned with the relationality at the core of today's network experience.
'It is hard to imagine a more timely book ... much of the modern world will make more sense having read it.' The Times 'Brilliant and authoritative' - Alex Bellos, author of Alex's Adventures in Numberland A deadly virus suddenly explodes into the population. A political movement gathers pace, and then quickly vanishes. An idea takes off like wildfire, changing our world forever. We live in a world that's more interconnected than ever before. Our lives are shaped by outbreaks - of disease, of misinformation, even of violence - that appear, spread and fade away with bewildering speed. To understand them, we need to learn the hidden laws that govern them. From 'superspreaders' who might spark a pandemic or bring down a financial system to the social dynamics that make loneliness catch on, The Rules of Contagion offers compelling insights into human behaviour and explains how we can get better at predicting what happens next. Along the way, Adam Kucharski explores how innovations spread through friendship networks, what links computer viruses with folk stories - and why the most useful predictions aren't necessarily the ones that come true.
In this thought-provoking work, Tony D. Sampson presents a contagion theory fit for the age of networks. Unlike memes and microbial contagions,Virality does not restrict itself to biological analogies and medical metaphors. It instead points toward a theory of contagious assemblages, events, and affects. For Sampson, contagion is not necessarily a positive or negative force of encounter; it is how society comes together and relates. Sampson argues that a biological knowledge of contagion has been universally distributed by way of the rhetoric of fear used in the antivirus industry and other popular discourses surrounding network culture. This awareness is also detectable in concerns over too much connectivity, such as problems of global financial crisis and terrorism. Sampson's “virality” is as established as that of the biological meme and microbe but is not understood through representational thinking expressed in metaphors and analogies. Rather, Sampson interprets contagion theory through the social relationalities first established in Gabriel Tarde's microsociology and subsequently recognized in Gilles Deleuze's ontological worldview. According to Sampson, the reliance on representational thinking to explain the social behavior of networking—including that engaged in by nonhumans such as computers—allows language to overcategorize and limit analysis by imposing identities, oppositions, and resemblances on contagious phenomena. It is the power of these categories that impinges on social and cultural domains. Assemblage theory, on the other hand, is all about relationality and encounter, helping us to understand the viral as a positively sociological event, building from the molecular outward, long before it becomes biological.
This volume contains the papers presented at WINE 2009:the 5th International Workshop on Internet and Network Economics held December 14–18, 2009, in Rome,attheDepartmentofComputerandSystemSciences,SapienzaUniversity of Rome. Over the past decade there has been growing interaction between researchers in theoretical computer science, networking and security, economics, mathem- ics, sociology, and management sciences devoted to the analysis of problems arising in the Internet and the worldwide web. The Workshop on Internet and Network Economics (WINE) is an interdisciplinary forum for the exchange of ideas and results arising in these varied ?elds. There were 142 submissions to the workshop including regular and short - pers.Allsubmissionswererigorouslypeer reviewedandevaluatedonthebasisof the quality of their contribution, originality,soundness, and signi?cance. Almost all submissions were reviewed by at least three Program Committee members. The committee decided to accept 34 regular papers and 29 short papers. The Best Student Paper award sponsored by Google Inc. was given to Saeed Alaei and AzarakhshMalekianfor the paper “An Analysisof Troubled Assets Reverse Auction.” The program also included three invited talks by S. Muthukrishnan (Google Inc.and RutgersUniversity),H. PeytonYoung (OxfordandJohns Hopkins U- versity)andEvaTardos(CornellUnversity).Threetutorialswerealsoo?eredon the days before the workshop, from Andrei Broder (Yahoo! Research) on C- putational Advertising, Nikhil Devanur and Kamal Jain (Microsoft Research) on Computational Issues in Market Equilibria, and Tim Roughgarden(Stanford University) on Bayesian and Worst-Case Revenue Maximization.
This volume is a complete guide to increasing your online conversion rate by gaining access to millions of potential customers through Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn. Learn the easy steps to creating conversations within these social networks, building strong relationships with your customers, and ultimately, increasing sales. Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn likely represent a collection of your best customers, making viral social networking an important promotional tool for your business. This book will provide you with a list of topics to get you started and show you how to persuade this rapidly growing and influential audience by creating and sharing the right content. You will also learn how to measure your results using Google Analytics and manage your social networking efforts in just ten minutes a day. Each chapter concludes with a step-by-step checklist that will make following the process straightforward and non-technical. This book also includes several real-world success stories and a frequently asked questions section, so you can learn from the experiences of other business owners and managers.
Cytokines are soluble mediators of intercellular communication. They contribute to a chemical signalling language that regulates development, tissue repair, haemopoiesis, inflammation and the immune response. Potent cytokine polypepides have pleiotropic activities and functional redundancy. They act in a complex network where one cytokine can influence the production of, and response to, many other cytokines. In the past five years, this bewildering array of more than 100 effector molecules and associated cell surface receptors has been simplified by study of cytokine and cytokine receptor structure; elucidation of convergent intracellular signalling pathways; and molecular genetics, and targeted gene disruption to 'knock-out' production of individual cytokines in mice. It is also now clear that the pathophysiology of infectious, autoimmune and malignant disease can be partially explained by the induction of cytokines and the subsequent cellular response. Viral homologues exist for many cytokines and receptors and genetic variations in cytokine production may influence response to pathogenic stimuli. Cytokine and cytokine antagonists have shown therapeutic potential in a number of chronic and acute diseases. The Cytokine Network: Frontiers in Molecular Biology is not a survey of individual cytokines, but guides the reader through the latest research on the cytokine network as a whole covering genomics, signalling pathways, control of the immune response, and therapeutics.
A biologically striking and clinically important feature of viruses is their rapid evolutionary dynamics in nature. The continual interactions between viruses and host organisms promote quick changes in virus populations, eventually leading to co-evolution of viruses and hosts for their survival. The structural and functional information on the interactions between viruses and hosts should provide a molecular and biological basis to understand infection, replication, cell/host-tropism, immune escape, pathogenesis, and direction of evolution of viruses. The information is also essential to develop methods to control transmission and replication of pathogenic viruses. However, the integrated information on the structure, function, and evolution of viruses and hosts has remained poorly accumulated, partly due to the limitation of analytical methods. Recent progress in genome science and computational approach may open up a new avenue of research of the interactions between viruses and hosts by integrating information on the structures, functions, and evolution. In this Research Topic, we welcome papers concerning the computer-assisted structural and functional studies based on genomic information, with theoretical or in combination with experimental approaches, for understanding molecules, infection, replication, cell/host-tropism, immune escape, pathogenesis, and evolution of viruses in nature.
The intensification of marketing activities in recent years has led the public to become much more aware of its role as consumers. Yet, the increased visibility of marketing materials and associated messages in everyday life is in contrast with the often little understood inner workings of the marketing profession itself, despite the widespread recognition of marketers as key agents in shaping the face of global capitalism. Inside Marketing offers a theoretically informed critical perspective on contemporary marketing practice and its growing cultural, economic, and political influence worldwide. This book brings together leading scholars and practitioners from the fields of business, history, economic sociology, and cultural anthropology, to analyse the inner workings and outer effects of marketing as a material social practice, an ideology, and a technique. Their work raises some important and timely questions. How has marketing transformed the pharmaceutical industry and what are the consequences for our lives? How does marketing influence the way we think of progress and modernity? How has marketing changed the way we think of childhood? And how does marketing appropriate the creativity of consumers for profit? This book offers scholars, policy-makers, and practitioners a theoretical and conceptual understanding of how marketing works as a cultural institution and as an ideology.
This issue of Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America provides a summary of several more common maternal-fetal-infant infectious diseases. Several experts in the field of maternal and perinatal infection have contributed to this issue to provide an overview of the up-to-date preventive strategies, screening and diagnostic methods, and treatment guidelines. While guidelines such as universal vaccination to prevent influenza during pregnancy are fairly well justified by supporting data, there is much uncertainty about the appropriate screening guidelines for conditions such as cytomegalovirus, where the lack of a proven effective treatment diminishes the value of screening. Moreover, increasing issues of antibiotic resistance and the lack of significant advancement in developing newer effective agents imply that both providers and health care facilities must follow guidelines of antimicrobial stewardship (ie, coordinated efforts to improve and measure the appropriate use of antimicrobials). It is our hope that this issue will aid providers in navigating these complex issues while also understanding the current state-of-the-science
Covers all aspects (historical, epidemiological, diagnostic, clinical, preventative, public health and medico-legal) of STIs in complete detail with a special emphasis on STIs in special groups—migrants, homosexuals, and sexually abused. Covers basic and laboratory sciences extensively to blend with the basics required by the clinician for proper understanding of the disease process. Clinical photographs, illustrations, photographs of specimens and cultures, histopathology, flow charts and line diagrams are given extensively throughout the text to make relevant clinical situation self-explanatory. Has very useful and practical information for even the clinician in the periphery, where the investigative component is either non-existent or very basic and many new drugs are not available or unaffordable. Management of HIV in adults and children in resource-poor countries has been covered extensively along with syndromic management of STIs. This enables a physician to choose from approaches in a particular situation depending upon the available means—laboratory or therapeutic. Covers sexual dysfunction in both men and women and the basics of human sexual behavior and sexual health. Section Editors and Contributors from all continents of the world have made this a truly global reference book. It is a useful reference text for epidemiologists, public health experts, clinicians, microbiologists, health workers, social organizations and counselors working in the field of STIs, sexual health, and HIV.