Randomly Deployed Wireless Sensor Networks

Randomly Deployed Wireless Sensor Networks
Author: Xi Chen
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 134
Release: 2020-06-18
ISBN 10: 0128227710
ISBN 13: 9780128227718
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Randomly Deployed Wireless Sensor Networks Book Review:

Wireless sensor networks have a range of applications, including military uses and in environmental monitoring. When an area of interest is inaccessible by conventional means, such a network can be deployed in ways resulting in a random distribution of the sensors. Randomly Deployed Wireless Sensor Networks offers a probabilistic method to model and analyze these networks. The book considers the network design, coverage, target detection, localization and tracking of sensors in randomly deployed wireless networks, and proposes a stochastic model. It quantifies the relationship between parameters of the network and its performance, and puts forward a communication protocol. The title provides analyses and formulas, giving engineering insight into randomly deployed wireless sensor networks. Five chapters consider the analysis of coverage performance; working modes and scheduling mechanisms; the relationship between sensor behavior and network performance properties; probabilistic forwarding routing protocols; localization methods for multiple targets and target number estimation; and experiments on target localization and tracking with a Mica sensor system. Details a probabilistic method to model and analyze randomly deployed wireless sensor networks Gives working modes and scheduling mechanisms for sensor nodes, allowing high-probability of target detection Considers the relationship between sensor behaviour and network performance and lifetime Offers probabilistic forwarding routing protocols for randomly deployed wireless sensor networks Describes a method for localizing multiple targets and estimating their number

Deploying Wireless Sensor Networks

Deploying Wireless Sensor Networks
Author: Mustapha Reda Senouci,Abdelhamid Mellouk
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 158
Release: 2016-04-07
ISBN 10: 0081011881
ISBN 13: 9780081011881
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Deploying Wireless Sensor Networks Book Review:

Wireless Sensor Networks: Theory and Practice for Deployment addresses WSNs deployment, a mandatory and critical step in the process of developing WSNs solutions for real-life applications. The authors address simple approaches to deploy static WSNs, then exploring more sophisticated approaches to deploy mobile WSNs. Featuring detailed investigations of deployment-related issues such as deployment cost, coverage, connectivity, sensors reliability, and harsh deployment environments, this book will equip you with the basics and an advanced view of both the theoretical and practical aspects, along with knowledge of the guidelines for WSNs deployment. Provides both the theoretical basis and practical applications Features an in-depth discussion of deployment-related issues Covers basic concepts and terminologies as well as highlighting open problems in the research areas to help you solve your deployment-related issues

Lifetime Analysis of Randomly Deployed Wireless Sensor Networks

Lifetime Analysis of Randomly Deployed Wireless Sensor Networks
Author: Moslem Noori
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 152
Release: 2008
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:815981073
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Lifetime Analysis of Randomly Deployed Wireless Sensor Networks Book Review:

Advances in Computational Intelligence Security and Internet of Things

Advances in Computational Intelligence  Security and Internet of Things
Author: Ashim Saha,Nirmalya Kar,Suman Deb
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 470
Release: 2020-03-04
ISBN 10: 981153666X
ISBN 13: 9789811536663
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Computational Intelligence Security and Internet of Things Book Review:

This volume constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computational Intelligence, Security and Internet of Things, ICCISIoT 2019, held in Agartala, India, in December 2019. The 31 full papers and 6 short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 153 submissions. The papers are organised according to the following topics: Computational Intelligence, Security, Internet of Things. Papers from the extended track are also presented in the volume.

Coverage Control in Sensor Networks

Coverage Control in Sensor Networks
Author: Bang Wang
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 210
Release: 2010-01-11
ISBN 10: 1849960593
ISBN 13: 9781849960595
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Coverage Control in Sensor Networks Book Review:

The advances in sensor design have decreased the size, weight, and cost of sensors by orders of magnitude, yet with the increase of higher spatial and temporal re- lution and accuracy. With the fast progress of sensors design and communications technique, sensor networks have also been quickly evolving in both research and practical domains in the last decade. More and more sensor networks have been - ployed in real-world to gather information for our daily life. Applications of sensor networks can be found in battle?eld surveillance, environmental monitoring, b- logical detection, smart spaces, industrial diagnostics, etc. Although the technique of sensor networks has a very promising future, many challenges are still deserving lots of research efforts for its successful applications. Thisbookisdevotedtocoveragecontrol,oneofthemostfundamentalandimportant research issues in sensor networks. The aim of the book is to provide tutorial-like and up-to-date reference resources on various coverage control problems in sensor networks, a hot topic that has been intensively researched in recent years. Due to some unique characteristics of sensor networks such as energy constraint and - hoc topology, the coverage problems in sensor networks have many new scenarios and features that entitle them an important research issue in recent years. I have done my best to include in the book the most recent advances, techniques, protocols, results, and ?ndings in this ?eld.

Sensor Technology Concepts Methodologies Tools and Applications

Sensor Technology  Concepts  Methodologies  Tools  and Applications
Author: Management Association, Information Resources
Publsiher: IGI Global
Total Pages: 1618
Release: 2020-02-07
ISBN 10: 1799824551
ISBN 13: 9781799824558
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Sensor Technology Concepts Methodologies Tools and Applications Book Review:

Collecting and processing data is a necessary aspect of living in a technologically advanced society. Whether it?s monitoring events, controlling different variables, or using decision-making applications, it is important to have a system that is both inexpensive and capable of coping with high amounts of data. As the application of these networks becomes more common, it becomes imperative to evaluate their effectiveness as well as other opportunities for possible implementation in the future. Sensor Technology: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications is a vital reference source that brings together new ways to process and monitor data and to put it to work in everything from intelligent transportation systems to healthcare to multimedia applications. It also provides inclusive coverage on the processing and applications of wireless communication, sensor networks, and mobile computing. Highlighting a range of topics such as internet of things, signal processing hardware, and wireless sensor technologies, this multi-volume book is ideally designed for research and development engineers, IT specialists, developers, graduate students, academics, and researchers.

Wireless Sensor Networks

Wireless Sensor Networks
Author: Ibrahiem M. M. El Emary,S. Ramakrishnan
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 799
Release: 2013-08-28
ISBN 10: 1466518103
ISBN 13: 9781466518100
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Wireless Sensor Networks Book Review:

Although there are many books available on WSNs, most are low-level, introductory books. The few available for advanced readers fail to convey the breadth of knowledge required for those aiming to develop next-generation solutions for WSNs. Filling this void, Wireless Sensor Networks: From Theory to Applications supplies comprehensive coverage of WSNs. In order to provide the wide-ranging guidance required, the book brings together the contributions of domain experts working in the various subfields of WSNs worldwide. This edited volume examines recent advances in WSN technologies and considers the theoretical problems in WSN, including issues with monitoring, routing, and power control. It also details methodologies that can provide solutions to these problems. The book’s 25 chapters are divided into seven parts: Data Collection Physical Layer and Interfacing Routing and Transport Protocols Energy-Saving Approaches Mobile and Multimedia WSN Data Storage and Monitoring Applications The book examines applications of WSN across a range of fields, including health, military, transportation, and mining. Addressing the main challenges in applying WSNs across all phases of our life, it explains how WSNs can assist in community development. Complete with a list of references at the end of each chapter, this book is ideal for senior undergraduate and postgraduate students, researchers, scholars, academics, industrial researchers, and practicing engineers working on WSNs. The text assumes that readers possess a foundation in computer networks, wireless communication, and basic electronics.

Wireless Sensor Networks

Wireless Sensor Networks
Author: Fadi Al-Turjman
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 222
Release: 2018-01-03
ISBN 10: 1351207024
ISBN 13: 9781351207027
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Wireless Sensor Networks Book Review:

Wireless Sensor Networks overcome the difficulties of other monitoring systems. However, they require further efficiencies for Outdoor Environment Monitoring (OEM) applications due to their harsh operational conditions, huge targeted areas, limited energy budget, and required 3D setups. A fundamental issue in defeating these practical challenges is deployment planning. The deployment plan is a key factor of many intrinsic properties of OEM networks, summarized in connectivity, lifetime, fault-tolerance, and cost-effectiveness. This book investigates the problem of WSNs deployments that address these properties in order to overcome the unique challenges and circumstances in OEM applications.

Computational Science ICCS 2020

Computational Science     ICCS 2020
Author: Valeria V. Krzhizhanovskaya,Gábor Závodszky,Michael H. Lees,Jack J. Dongarra,Peter M. A. Sloot,Sérgio Brissos,João Teixeira
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 648
Release: 2020-06-19
ISBN 10: 3030504204
ISBN 13: 9783030504205
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Computational Science ICCS 2020 Book Review:

The seven-volume set LNCS 12137, 12138, 12139, 12140, 12141, 12142, and 12143 constitutes the proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Computational Science, ICCS 2020, held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in June 2020.* The total of 101 papers and 248 workshop papers presented in this book set were carefully reviewed and selected from 719 submissions (230 submissions to the main track and 489 submissions to the workshops). The papers were organized in topical sections named: Part I: ICCS Main Track Part II: ICCS Main Track Part III: Advances in High-Performance Computational Earth Sciences: Applications and Frameworks; Agent-Based Simulations, Adaptive Algorithms and Solvers; Applications of Computational Methods in Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning; Biomedical and Bioinformatics Challenges for Computer Science Part IV: Classifier Learning from Difficult Data; Complex Social Systems through the Lens of Computational Science; Computational Health; Computational Methods for Emerging Problems in (Dis-)Information Analysis Part V: Computational Optimization, Modelling and Simulation; Computational Science in IoT and Smart Systems; Computer Graphics, Image Processing and Artificial Intelligence Part VI: Data Driven Computational Sciences; Machine Learning and Data Assimilation for Dynamical Systems; Meshfree Methods in Computational Sciences; Multiscale Modelling and Simulation; Quantum Computing Workshop Part VII: Simulations of Flow and Transport: Modeling, Algorithms and Computation; Smart Systems: Bringing Together Computer Vision, Sensor Networks and Machine Learning; Software Engineering for Computational Science; Solving Problems with Uncertainties; Teaching Computational Science; UNcErtainty QUantIficatiOn for ComputationAl modeLs *The conference was canceled due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Performance of Randomly Deployed Wireless Sensor Networks in Different Propagation Environments

Performance of Randomly Deployed Wireless Sensor Networks in Different Propagation Environments
Author: Abiola Fanimokun
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 176
Release: 2003
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:54381905
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Performance of Randomly Deployed Wireless Sensor Networks in Different Propagation Environments Book Review:

The Art of Wireless Sensor Networks

The Art of Wireless Sensor Networks
Author: Habib M. Ammari
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 830
Release: 2013-12-13
ISBN 10: 3642400094
ISBN 13: 9783642400094
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Art of Wireless Sensor Networks Book Review:

During the last one and a half decades, wireless sensor networks have witnessed significant growth and tremendous development in both academia and industry. “The Art of Wireless Sensor Networks: Volume 1: Fundamentals” focuses on the fundamentals concepts in the design, analysis, and implementation of wireless sensor networks. It covers the various layers of the lifecycle of this type of network from the physical layer up to the application layer. Its rationale is that the first volume covers contemporary design issues, tools, and protocols for radio-based two-dimensional terrestrial sensor networks. All the book chapters in this volume include up-to-date research work spanning various classic facets of the physical properties and functional behavior of wireless sensor networks, including physical layer, medium access control, data routing, topology management, mobility management, localization, task management, data management, data gathering, security, middleware, sensor technology, standards, and operating systems. This book will be an excellent source of information for both senior undergraduate and graduate students majoring in computer science, computer engineering, electrical engineering, or any related discipline. In addition, computer scientists, researchers, and practitioners in both academia and industry will find this book useful and interesting.

Algorithms and Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

Algorithms and Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks
Author: Azzedine Boukerche
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 562
Release: 2008-11-03
ISBN 10: 0470396350
ISBN 13: 9780470396353
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Algorithms and Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks Book Review:

A one-stop resource for the use of algorithms and protocols in wireless sensor networks From an established international researcher in the field, this edited volume provides readers with comprehensive coverage of the fundamental algorithms and protocols for wireless sensor networks. It identifies the research that needs to be conducted on a number of levels to design and assess the deployment of wireless sensor networks, and provides an in-depth analysis of the development of the next generation of heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. Divided into nineteen succinct chapters, the book covers: mobility management and resource allocation algorithms; communication models; energy and power consumption algorithms; performance modeling and simulation; authentication and reputation mechanisms; algorithms for wireless sensor and mesh networks; and algorithm methods for pervasive and ubiquitous computing; among other topics. Complete with a set of challenging exercises, this book is a valuable resource for electrical engineers, computer engineers, network engineers, and computer science specialists. Useful for instructors and students alike, Algorithms and Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks is an ideal textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in computer science, electrical engineering,and network engineering.

Wireless Communication and Sensor Network

Wireless Communication and Sensor Network
Author: Salah Bourennane
Publsiher: World Scientific
Total Pages: 1048
Release: 2016-06-29
ISBN 10: 981314002X
ISBN 13: 9789813140028
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Wireless Communication and Sensor Network Book Review:

This proceedings volume collects the most up-to-date, comprehensive and state-of-the-art knowledge on wireless communication, sensor network, network technologies, services and application. Written by world renowned researchers, each chapter is original in content, featuring high-impact presentations and late-breaking contributions. Researchers and practitioners will find this edition a useful resource material and an inspirational read. Contents:Wireless CommunicationsNetwork TechnologiesServices and Application Readership: Researchers, academics, professionals and graduate students in neural networks/networking, electrical & electronic engineering, and condensed matter physics.

Topology Control in Wireless Sensor Networks

Topology Control in Wireless Sensor Networks
Author: Miguel A. Labrador,Pedro M. Wightman
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 209
Release: 2009-02-27
ISBN 10: 1402095856
ISBN 13: 9781402095856
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Topology Control in Wireless Sensor Networks Book Review:

The eld of wireless sensor networks continues to evolve and grow in both practical and research domains. More and more wireless sensor networks are being used to gather information in real life applications. It is common to see how this technology is being applied in irrigation systems, intelligent buildings, bridges, security mec- nisms,militaryoperations,transportation-relatedapplications,etc.Atthesametime, new developments in hardware, software, and communication technologies are - panding these possibilities. As in any other technology, research brings new dev- opments and re nements and continuous improvements of current approaches that push the technology even further. Looking toward the future, the technology seems even more promising in two directions. First, a few years from now more powerful wireless sensor devices will be available, and wireless sensor networks will have applicability in an endless number of scenarios, as they will be able to handle traf c loads not possible today, make more computations, store more data, and live longer because of better energy sources. Second,a few years from now, the opposite scenario might also be possible. The availability of very constrained, nanotechnology-made wireless sensor devices will bring a whole new world of applications, as they will be able to operate in - vironments and places unimaginable today. These two scenarios, at the same time, will both bring new research challenges that are always welcome to researchers.

Multimedia Sensor Networks

Multimedia Sensor Networks
Author: Huadong Ma,Liang Liu,Hong Luo
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 249
Release: 2021-07-02
ISBN 10: 9811601070
ISBN 13: 9789811601071
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Multimedia Sensor Networks Book Review:

Sensor networks are an essential component of the Internet of Things (IoT), and Multimedia Sensor Networks (MSNs) are the most important emerging area in sensor networks. However, multimedia sensing is characterized by diversified modes, large volumes of data, considerable heterogeneity, and complex computing, as a result of which the theory and methods for traditional sensor networks can’t be applied to MSNs. Based on the authors’ years of systematic research on related theory and methods, this book provides a comprehensive review of MSNs. The coverage ranges from networked sensing and fusion-based transmission, to route discovery and in-network computing. The book presents the most important scientific discoveries and fundamental theories on MSNs, while also exploring practical approaches and typical applications. Given its scope, it is especially suitable for students, researchers and practitioners interested in understanding scientific problems involved in characterizing multimedia sensing features, revealing the transmission mechanisms of MSNs, and constructing efficient in-network multimedia computing paradigms. In this book, readers will learn essential methods for achieving the optimal deployment of, efficient and reliable transmission, and timely information processing in MSNs.

Optimal Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks

Optimal Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks
Author: Weili Wu,Zhao Zhang,Wonjun Lee,Ding-Zhu Du
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 297
Release: 2020-09-30
ISBN 10: 3030528243
ISBN 13: 9783030528249
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Optimal Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks Book Review:

This book will serve as a reference, presenting state-of-the-art research on theoretical aspects of optimal sensor coverage problems. Readers will find it a useful tool for furthering developments on theory and applications of optimal coverage; much of the content can serve as material for advanced topics courses at the graduate level. The book is well versed with the hottest research topics such as Lifetime of Coverage, Weighted Sensor Cover, k-Coverage, Heterogeneous Sensors, Barrier, Sweep and Partial Coverage, Mobile Sensors, Camera Sensors and Energy-Harvesting Sensors, and more. Topics are introduced in a natural order from simple covers to connected covers, to the lifetime problem. Later, the book begins revisiting earlier problems ranging from the introduction of weights to coverage by k sensors and partial coverage, and from sensor heterogeneity to novel problems such as the barrier coverage problem. The book ends with coverage of mobile sensors, camera sensors, energy-harvesting sensors, underwater sensors, and crowdsensing.

Wireless Sensor Multimedia Networks

Wireless Sensor Multimedia Networks
Author: Mohamed Mostafa A. Azim,Xiaohong Jiang
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 279
Release: 2015-10-28
ISBN 10: 1482253135
ISBN 13: 9781482253139
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Wireless Sensor Multimedia Networks Book Review:

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are a special class of ad hoc network in which network nodes composed of tiny sensors pass data such as temperature, pressure, and humidity through the network to a central location. Wireless sensor multimedia networks (WSMNs) are a special category of WSNs in which the sensor nodes are small cameras and microphones that can send voice, image, or video data through the network. This book presents the latest advances and research in WSMN architecture, algorithms, and protocols. WSMNs are attracting great attention from academia and industry due to the variety of applications in which they can be deployed. Wireless Sensor Multimedia Networks: Architectures, Protocols, and Applications explores the many benefits of WSMNs and the variety of applications in which they can be used—surveillance, traffic monitoring, advanced healthcare (blood pressure and heart rate monitoring), habitat monitoring, and localization services (finding missing children or wanted criminals). The contributed chapters in this book explore current research into key areas such as New quality-of-service-aware routing protocols that support a high data rate in WSMNs Cognitive radio capability that increases efficiency of spectrum utilization and decreases the probability of collision and contention Multimedia streaming optimization techniques New security schemes for real-time video streaming Various ways of optimizing power consumption in WSMNs Wireless Sensor Multimedia Networks: Architectures, Protocols, and Applications discusses open research issues and future trends in WSMNs. With this book, academic researchers, engineers, and graduate students will be well-equipped to advance the research in this emerging field.

Challenges and Opportunities of Connected K Covered Wireless Sensor Networks

Challenges and Opportunities of Connected K Covered Wireless Sensor Networks
Author: Habib M. Ammari
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 342
Release: 2009-08-10
ISBN 10: 3642018769
ISBN 13: 9783642018763
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Challenges and Opportunities of Connected K Covered Wireless Sensor Networks Book Review:

Wireless sensor networks have received significant attention because of their important role and many conveniences in our lives. Indeed, the recent and fast advances in inexpensive sensor technology and wireless communications has made the design and development of large-scale wireless sensor networks cost-effective and appealing to a wide range of mission-critical situations, including civilian, natural, industrial, and military applications, such as health and environmental monitoring, seism monitoring, industrial process automation, and battlefields surveillance, respectively. A wireless sensor network consists of a large number of tiny, low-powered devices, called sensors, which are randomly or deterministically deployed in a field of interest while collaborating and coordinating for the successful accomplishment of their mission. These sensors suffer from very scarce resources and capabilities, such as bandwidth, storage, CPU, battery power (or energy), sensing, and communication, to name a few, with energy being the most critical one. The major challenge in the design process of this type of network is mainly due to the limited capabilities of the sensors, and particularly, their energy, which makes them unreliable. This book aims to develop a reader’s thorough understanding of the opportunities and challenges of k-covered wireless sensor networks, where each point in a deployment field is covered (or sensed) by at least k sensors. Following René Descartes’ most elegant methodology of dividing each difficulty into as many parts as might be possible and necessary to best solve it (Discours de la Method, 1637), this book presents a variety of theoretical studies based on percolation theory and computational geometry, as well as protocols that lead to the design of a unified framework, where connected k-coverage, sensor scheduling, and data routing and dissemination are jointly considered.

Wireless Sensor Networks

Wireless Sensor Networks
Author: Kazem Sohraby,Daniel Minoli,Taieb Znati
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 328
Release: 2007-04-06
ISBN 10: 0470112751
ISBN 13: 9780470112755
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Wireless Sensor Networks Book Review:

Infrastructure for Homeland Security Environments Wireless Sensor Networks helps readers discover the emerging field of low-cost standards-based sensors that promise a high order of spatial and temporal resolution and accuracy in an ever-increasing universe of applications. It shares the latest advances in science and engineering paving the way towards a large plethora of new applications in such areas as infrastructure protection and security, healthcare, energy, food safety, RFID, ZigBee, and processing. Unlike other books on wireless sensor networks that focus on limited topics in the field, this book is a broad introduction that covers all the major technology, standards, and application topics. It contains everything readers need to know to enter this burgeoning field, including current applications and promising research and development; communication and networking protocols; middleware architecture for wireless sensor networks; and security and management. The straightforward and engaging writing style of this book makes even complex concepts and processes easy to follow and understand. In addition, it offers several features that help readers grasp the material and then apply their knowledge in designing their own wireless sensor network systems: * Examples illustrate how concepts are applied to the development and application of * wireless sensor networks * Detailed case studies set forth all the steps of design and implementation needed to solve real-world problems * Chapter conclusions that serve as an excellent review by stressing the chapter's key concepts * References in each chapter guide readers to in-depth discussions of individual topics This book is ideal for networking designers and engineers who want to fully exploit this new technology and for government employees who are concerned about homeland security. With its examples, it is appropriate for use as a coursebook for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students.

Advances in Wireless Sensor Networks

Advances in Wireless Sensor Networks
Author: Ruchuan Wang,Fu Xiao
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 755
Release: 2013-02-11
ISBN 10: 3642362524
ISBN 13: 9783642362521
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Wireless Sensor Networks Book Review:

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 6th China Conference on Advances in Wireless Sensor Networks, held in Huangshan, China, in October 2012. The 70 revised full papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 458 submissions. The papers cover a wide range of topics including in the wireless sensor network fields nodes systems, infrastructures, communication protocols, and data management.