Practical NMR Spectroscopy Laboratory Guide Using Bruker Spectrometers

Practical NMR Spectroscopy Laboratory Guide  Using Bruker Spectrometers
Author: John S. Harwood,Huaping Mo
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 136
Release: 2015-10-28
ISBN 10: 0128007192
ISBN 13: 9780128007198
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Practical NMR Spectroscopy Laboratory Guide Using Bruker Spectrometers Book Review:

Practical NMR Spectroscopy Laboratory Guide is designed to provide non-expert NMR users, typically graduate students in chemistry, an introduction to various facets of practical solution-state NMR spectroscopy. Each chapter offers a series of hands-on exercises, introducing various NMR concepts and experiments and guiding the reader in running these experiments using an NMR spectrometer. The book is written for use with a Bruker NMR spectrometer running TopSpin software versions 1 or 2. This practical resource functions both as a text for instructors of a practical NMR course and also as a reference for spectrometer administrators or NMR facility directors when doing user training. This guide serves as serve as excellent, practical resource on its own or as a companion book to Timothy Claridge’s High-Resolution NMR Techniques in Organic Chemistry, 2nd Edition (Elsevier, 2009). Written by experts in solution-state NMR spectroscopy Provides step-by-step instructions for more than 50 activities using a Bruker NMR spectrometer Includes detailed appendices and sample questions for lab reports

NMR From Spectra to Structures

NMR     From Spectra to Structures
Author: Terence N. Mitchell,Burkhard Costisella
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 137
Release: 2013-04-17
ISBN 10: 3662054345
ISBN 13: 9783662054345
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

NMR From Spectra to Structures Book Review:

NMR spectroscopy is one of the most important analytical methods available today. This practice-oriented textbook shows how NMR spectra is used in the education of organic structures. The emphasis is on practical rather than on theoretical aspects, which are treated only briefly. NMR- From Spectra to Strucures is a textbook providing an ideal practical guide to today ́s standard NMR experiments for students and laboratory personnel. The set of 35 graded problems includes not only the 1D NMR spectra (proton, carbon, DEPT/APT) but, for the first time in a textbook, also the most important 2D spectra (H,H and C,H correlation).

Essential Practical NMR for Organic Chemistry

Essential Practical NMR for Organic Chemistry
Author: S. A. Richards,J. C. Hollerton
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 216
Release: 2010-12-07
ISBN 10: 0470977221
ISBN 13: 9780470977224
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Essential Practical NMR for Organic Chemistry Book Review:

This book describes the use of NMR spectroscopy for dealing with problems of small organic molecule structural elucidation. It features a significant amount of vital chemical shift and coupling information but more importantly, it presents sound principles for the selection of the techniques relevant to the solving of particular types of problem, whilst stressing the importance of extracting the maximum available information from the simple 1-D proton experiment and of using this to plan subsequent experiments. Proton NMR is covered in detail, with a description of the fundamentals of the technique, the instrumentation and the data that it provides before going on to discuss optimal solvent selection and sample preparation. This is followed by a detailed study of each of the important classes of protons, breaking the spectrum up into regions (exchangeables, aromatics, heterocyclics, alkenes etc.). This is followed by consideration of the phenomena that we know can leave chemists struggling; chiral centres, restricted rotation, anisotropy, accidental equivalence, non-first-order spectra etc. Having explained the potential pitfalls that await the unwary, the book then goes on to devote chapters to the chemical techniques and the most useful instrumental ones that can be employed to combat them. A discussion is then presented on carbon-13 NMR, detailing its pros and cons and showing how it can be used in conjunction with proton NMR via the pivotal 2-D techniques (HSQC and HMBC) to yield vital structural information. Some of the more specialist techniques available are then discussed, i.e. flow NMR, solvent suppression, Magic Angle Spinning, etc. Other important nuclei are then discussed and useful data supplied. This is followed by a discussion of the neglected use of NMR as a tool for quantification and new techniques for this explained. The book then considers the safety aspects of NMR spectroscopy, reviewing NMR software for spectral prediction and data handling and concludes with a set of worked Q&As.

200 and More NMR Experiments

200 and More NMR Experiments
Author: Stefan Berger,Siegmar Braun
Publsiher: Wiley-VCH
Total Pages: 838
Release: 2004-07-02
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: UOM:39076002569429
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

200 and More NMR Experiments Book Review:

This work-book will guide you safely, in step-by-step descriptions, through every detail of the NMR experiments within, beginning with 1D routine experiments and ending with a series of advanced 3D experiments on a protein: · Which experiment can best yield the desired information? · How must the chosen experiment be performed? · How does one read the required information from the spectrum? · How does this particular pulse sequence work? · Which other experiments give similar information? This third edition of the book, following its two highly successful predecessors, has been revised and expanded to 206 experiments. They are organized in 15 chapters, covering test procedures and routine spectra, variable temperature measurements, the use of auxiliary reagents, 1D multipulse experiments, spectra of heteronuclides, and the application of selective pulses. The second and third dimensions are introduced using pulsed field gradients, and experiments on solid state materials are described. A key part describes 3D experiments on the protein ubiquitin with 76 amino acids. What is new in this third edition? 1. 24 new experiments have been inserted into the 14 chapters that were in the 2nd edition, e.g., alpha/beta-SELINCOR-TOCSY, WET, DOSY, ct-COSY, HMSC, HSQC with adiabatic pulses, HETLOC. J-resolved HMBC, (1,1)- and (1,n)-ADEQUATE, STD, REDOR, and HR-MAS. 2. 20 new protein NMR experiments have been specially devised and are collected in the newly added Chapter 15, ProteinNMR, for which one needs a special model sample: fully 13C- and 15N-labeled human ubiquitin. Techniques used include the constant time principle, the PEP method, filters, gradient selection, and the echo/anti-echo procedure. The guide has been written by experts in this field, following the principle of learning by doing: all the experiments have been specially performed for this book, exactly as described and shown in the spectra that are reproduced. Being a reference source and work-book for the NMR laboratory as well as a textbook, it is a must for every scientist working with NMR, as well as for students preparing for their laboratory courses

Purification of Laboratory Chemicals

Purification of Laboratory Chemicals
Author: W.L.F. Armarego,Christina Chai
Publsiher: Butterworth-Heinemann
Total Pages: 760
Release: 2009-07-23
ISBN 10: 9780080878249
ISBN 13: 0080878245
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Purification of Laboratory Chemicals Book Review:

A best seller since 1966, Purification of Laboratory Chemicals keeps engineers, scientists, chemists, biochemists and students up to date with the purification of the chemical reagents with which they work, the processes for their purification, and guides readerd on critical safety and hazards for the safe handling of chemicals and processes. The Sixth Edition is updated and provides expanded coverage of the latest chemical products and processing techniques, safety and hazards. The book has been reorganised and is now fully indexed by CAS Registry Numbers. Compounds are now grouped to make navigation easier and literature references for all substances and techniques have been added, and ambiguous alternate names and cross references have been removed. The only comprehensive chemical purification reference, a market leader since 1966, Amarego delivers essential information for research and industrial chemists, pharmacists and engineers: '... (it) will be the most commonly used reference book in any chemical or biochemical laboratory' (MDPI Journal) An essential lab practice and proceedures manual. Improves efficiency, results and safety by providing critical information for day-to-day lab and processing work. Improved, clear organization and new indexing delivers accurate, reliable information on processes and techniques of purification along with detailed physical properties. The Sixth Edition has been reorganised and is fully indexed by CAS Registry Numbers; compounds are now grouped to make navigation easier; literature references for all substances and techniques have been added; ambiguous alternate names and cross references removed; new chemical products and processing techniques are covered; hazards and safety remain central to the book.

High resolution NMR Techniques in Organic Chemistry

High resolution NMR Techniques in Organic Chemistry
Author: T. Claridge
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 382
Release: 1999
ISBN 10: 9780080427980
ISBN 13: 0080427987
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

High resolution NMR Techniques in Organic Chemistry Book Review:

From the initial observation of proton magnetic resonance in water and in paraffin, the discipline of nuclear magnetic resonance has seen unparalleled growth as an analytical method. Modern NMR spectroscopy is a highly developed, yet still evolving, subject which finds application in chemistry, biology, medicine, materials science and geology. In this book, emphasis is on the more recently developed methods of solution-state NMR applicable to chemical research, which are chosen for their wide applicability and robustness. These have, in many cases, already become established techniques in NMR laboratories, in both academic and industrial establishments. A considerable amount of information and guidance is given on the implementation and execution of the techniques described in this book.

Characterization of Biological Membranes

Characterization of Biological Membranes
Author: Mu-Ping Nieh,Frederick A. Heberle,John Katsaras
Publsiher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Total Pages: 647
Release: 2019-07-22
ISBN 10: 3110544652
ISBN 13: 9783110544657
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Characterization of Biological Membranes Book Review:

The study of membranes has become of high importance in the fields of biology, pharmaceutical chemistry and medicine, since much of what happens in a cell or in a virus involves biological membranes. The current book is an excellent introduction to the area, which explains how modern analytical methods can be applied to study biological membranes and membrane proteins and the bioprocesses they are involved to.

Organic Analytical Chemistry

Organic Analytical Chemistry
Author: Jag Mohan
Publsiher: Alpha Science Int'l Ltd.
Total Pages: 660
Release: 2003
ISBN 10: 9781842651193
ISBN 13: 1842651196
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Organic Analytical Chemistry Book Review:

Rapid developments in analytical techniques and the use of modern reagents in organic synthesis during the last two decades have revolutionized the approach to organic structure determination. As advanced topics in organic analysis such as spectroscopic methods are being introduced, postgraduate students (majoring in organic chemistry) have been feeling handicapped by the non-availability of a book that could uncover various aspects of qualitative and quantitative organic analysis. This book is written primarily to stimulate the interest of students of organic chemistry and pharmaceutical sciences in organic analytical chemistry. Key features: Identification and characterization of organic compounds by classical methods Mechanism of various reactions involved in the detection of functional groups and their derivatization Functional groups interfering with a given test procedure Identification of organic compounds by spectral methods (IR, UV, NMR and Mass Spectrometry) Chemical analysis by other instrumental techniques-Atomic emission spectroscopy, Electron spin resonance spectroscopy, Atomic absorption spectroscopy, flnorimetry & Phosphorimetry, Flame photometry and X-ray methods General techniques for separation and purification including Gas Chromatography and HPLC Preparation of organic compounds based on important name reactions and pharmaceutical properties Mechanism of the reactions involved in the synthesis Simple analytical techniques and specific methods of quantitative elemental, functional groups and biochemical estimations Composite spectral problems Incorporating ample modern techniques of organic analysis, this book will be of great value to graduate & postgraduate students, teachers and researchers in the field of organic chemistry and pharmaceutical sciences.

100 and More Basic NMR Experiments

100 and More Basic NMR Experiments
Author: Siegmar Braun,Hans-Otto Kalinowski,Stefan Berger
Publsiher: Wiley-VCH
Total Pages: 418
Release: 1996-01-25
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: STANFORD:36105112136309
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

100 and More Basic NMR Experiments Book Review:

How do the pulse sequences of modern NMR work? Which experiment conveys the desired information? How can the maximal amount of information be retrieved from measured spectra? Have you ever been confronted with questions like these? Get the answers and explore the full productivity of your NMR equipment! This book is a reliable guide through the maze of modern NMR tools. Written by leading experts, it describes more than a hundred NMR experiments including selective pulses, field gradients and the second and third dimension. Being textbook as well as reference book for the laboratory, this book is a must for every scientist working with NMR as well as for students preparing for their lab courses.

50 and More Essential NMR Experiments

50 and More Essential NMR Experiments
Author: Matthias Findeisen,Stefan Berger
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 316
Release: 2013-07-30
ISBN 10: 352733694X
ISBN 13: 9783527336944
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

50 and More Essential NMR Experiments Book Review:

This book is the perfect link for learning how to perform the experiments after only having studied theory. In eight chapters more than 50 essential NMR experiments are described in detail. Special focus is put on the organic set of NMR spectra (1H, 13C-APT, COSY, NOESY, HSQC and HMBC). Different chapters deal with advanced organic NMR, selective methods, heteronuclear NMR, relaxation and diffusion measurements, organic applications and maintenance. Every experiment has a section providing the reader with the purpose and scope of the specific experiment. Every experiment is concluded with the spectrum as it is obtained under the conditions described. Questions and comments enable the reader to check their understanding. The authors are very experienced and the whole book is in full color, which enhances the reading experience and makes the spectra and other figures easier to understand. This book is strongly recommended for all students and researchers who are involved in the structural elucidation of chemical compounds both in practical education and in pursuing research, in particular if they handle an NMR spectrometer.

NMR Spectroscopy Explained

NMR Spectroscopy Explained
Author: Neil E. Jacobsen
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 640
Release: 2007-09-10
ISBN 10: 0470173343
ISBN 13: 9780470173343
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

NMR Spectroscopy Explained Book Review:

NMR Spectroscopy Explained : Simplified Theory, Applications and Examples for Organic Chemistry and Structural Biology provides a fresh, practical guide to NMR for both students and practitioners, in a clearly written and non-mathematical format. It gives the reader an intermediate level theoretical basis for understanding laboratory applications, developing concepts gradually within the context of examples and useful experiments. Introduces students to modern NMR as applied to analysis of organic compounds. Presents material in a clear, conversational style that is appealing to students. Contains comprehensive coverage of how NMR experiments actually work. Combines basic ideas with practical implementation of the spectrometer. Provides an intermediate level theoretical basis for understanding laboratory experiments. Develops concepts gradually within the context of examples and useful experiments. Introduces the product operator formalism after introducing the simpler (but limited) vector model.

Natural Products

Natural Products
Author: Raphael Ikan
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 360
Release: 1991
ISBN 10: 9780123705518
ISBN 13: 0123705517
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Natural Products Book Review:

This new edition has been updated to include the following: The use of biomarkers (organic compounds in the geospherical record with carbon skeletons) reflecting the upsurge in geoporphyrin research primarily due to MS, yeast RNA nucleic acid studies: reversed-phase HPLC of amino acids; brewing industry applications (HPLC evaluation of carotenoids in orange juice and of "debittered" citrus); HPTLC of carbohydrates; synthesis of a sweetening agent from citrus peels, synthesis and degradation of alkaloids and of sterols, GC/MS uses with sterols, petroleum products, and aromatic constituents of wine and grape juice, flash chromatography of essential oils, optical purity of enantiomers affecting flavors, fragrances, and pheromones, as well as studies of lattice inclusion compounds 1H- and 13C-NMR, MS, IR and UV data are presented for most natural products.

NMR Spectroscopy of Polymers

NMR Spectroscopy of Polymers
Author: Tatsuki Kitayama,Koichi Hatada
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 228
Release: 2013-03-09
ISBN 10: 3662089823
ISBN 13: 9783662089828
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

NMR Spectroscopy of Polymers Book Review:

Based on the authors ́ extensive experimental experience, NMR Spectroscopy of Polymers explains the practical use of NMR spectroscopy in polymer chemistry.

13C NMR Spectroscopy

13C NMR Spectroscopy
Author: E. Breitmaier,Gerhard Bauer
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 356
Release: 1984
ISBN 10: 9783718600229
ISBN 13: 3718600226
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

13C NMR Spectroscopy Book Review:

Handbook of Near Infrared Analysis

Handbook of Near Infrared Analysis
Author: Emil W. Ciurczak,Benoît Igne,Jerome Workman, Jr.,Donald A. Burns
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 938
Release: 2021-05-19
ISBN 10: 1351269879
ISBN 13: 9781351269872
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Near Infrared Analysis Book Review:

Rapid, inexpensive, and easy-to-deploy, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy can be used to analyze samples of virtually any composition, origin, and condition. The Handbook of Near Infrared Analysis, Fourth Edition, explores the factors necessary to perform accurate and time- and cost-effective analyses across a growing spectrum of disciplines. This updated and expanded edition incorporates the latest advances in instrumentation, computerization, chemometrics applied to NIR spectroscopy, and method development in NIR spectroscopy, and underscores current trends in sample preparation, calibration transfer, process control, data analysis, instrument performance testing, and commercial NIR instrumentation. This work offers readers an unparalleled combination of theoretical foundations, cutting-edge applications, and practical experience. Additional features include the following: Explains how to perform accurate as well as time- and cost-effective analyses. Reviews software-enabled chemometric methods and other trends in data analysis. Highlights novel applications in pharmaceuticals, polymers, plastics, petrochemicals, textiles, foods and beverages, baked products, agricultural products, biomedicine, nutraceuticals, and counterfeit detection. Underscores current trends in sample preparation, calibration transfer, process control, data analysis, and multiple aspects of commercial NIR instrumentation. Offering the most complete single-source guide of its kind, the Handbook of Near Infrared Analysis, Fourth Edition, continues to offer practicing chemists and spectroscopists an unparalleled combination of theoretical foundations, cutting-edge applications, and detailed practical experience provided firsthand by more than 50 experts in the field.

Practical Handbook of Microbiology

Practical Handbook of Microbiology
Author: Emanuel Goldman,Lorrence H Green
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 1055
Release: 2015-06-04
ISBN 10: 1466587407
ISBN 13: 9781466587403
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Practical Handbook of Microbiology Book Review:

The Practical Handbook of Microbiology presents basic knowledge about working with microorganisms in a clear and concise form. It also provides in-depth information on important aspects of the field—from classical microbiology to genomics—in one easily accessible volume. This new edition retains the easy-to-use format of previous editions, with a logical presentation of frequently used reference data that enables readers to rapidly locate the information needed. New chapters have been included in this edition, including a noteworthy one on the business aspects of microbiology that has been added to address the needs of investors looking to understand the science behind companies that they are contemplating funding and scientists that are interested in commercializing their research. In addition, chapters have been added on new microorganism-based disease and pathogenic mechanisms. All chapters from the previous edition have been revised and updated. Major topics covered include almost all studied bacteria, and introductions to fungi, parasites, and viruses, as well as methods of culture collection, enumeration, and preservation of microorganisms, diagnostic medical microbiology, mechanisms of antimicrobial agents, and antibiotics and antifungal agents. Although this book will be of use to anyone interested in the subject matter, it will be of particular benefit to specialized microbiologists as well as those who simply use microbiology as an adjunct to their own discipline, in finding relevant information quickly and easily.

Practical Handbook of Microbiology

Practical Handbook of Microbiology
Author: Lorrence H Green,Emanuel Goldman
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 975
Release: 2021-05-04
ISBN 10: 1000245039
ISBN 13: 9781000245035
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Practical Handbook of Microbiology Book Review:

Practical Handbook of Microbiology, 4th edition provides basic, clear and concise knowledge and practical information about working with microorganisms. Useful to anyone interested in microbes, the book is intended to especially benefit four groups: trained microbiologists working within one specific area of microbiology; people with training in other disciplines, and use microorganisms as a tool or "chemical reagent"; business people evaluating investments in microbiology focused companies; and an emerging group, people in occupations and trades that might have limited training in microbiology, but who require specific practical information. Key Features Provides a comprehensive compendium of basic information on microorganisms—from classical microbiology to genomics. Includes coverage of disease-causing bacteria, bacterial viruses (phage), and the use of phage for treating diseases, and added coverage of extremophiles. Features comprehensive coverage of antimicrobial agents, including chapters on anti-fungals and anti-virals. Covers the Microbiome, gene editing with CRISPR, Parasites, Fungi, and Animal Viruses. Adds numerous chapters especially intended for professionals such as healthcare and industrial professionals, environmental scientists and ecologists, teachers, and businesspeople. Includes comprehensive survey table of Clinical, Commercial, and Research-Model bacteria.

Separation Purification and Identification

Separation  Purification and Identification
Author: Lesley Smart,Giles Clark
Publsiher: Royal Society of Chemistry
Total Pages: 120
Release: 2002
ISBN 10: 9780854046850
ISBN 13: 0854046852
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Separation Purification and Identification Book Review:

This book looks at the common techniques used to prepare, purify and identify chemicals and concludes with a Case Study on Forensic Science.

Experimental Organic Chemistry

Experimental Organic Chemistry
Author: Philippa B. Cranwell,Laurence M. Harwood,Christopher J. Moody
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 688
Release: 2017-06-09
ISBN 10: 1118683412
ISBN 13: 9781118683415
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Experimental Organic Chemistry Book Review:

The definitive guide to the principles and practice of experimental organic chemistry - fully updated and now featuring more than 100 experiments The latest edition of this popular guide to experimental organic chemistry takes students from their first day in the laboratory right through to complex research procedures. All sections have been updated to reflect new techniques, equipment and technologies, and the text has been revised with an even sharper focus on practical skills and procedures. The first half of the book is devoted to safe laboratory practice as well as purification and analytical techniques; particularly spectroscopic analysis. The second half contains step-by-step experimental procedures, each one illustrating a basic principle, or important reaction type. Tried and tested over almost three decades, over 100 validated experiments are graded according to their complexity and all are chosen to highlight important chemical transformations and to teach key experimental skills. New sections cover updated health and safety guidelines, additional spectroscopic techniques, electronic notebooks and record keeping, and techniques, such as semi-automated chromatography and enabling technologies such as the use of microwave and flow chemistry. New experiments include transition metal-catalysed cross-coupling, organocatalysis, asymmetric synthesis, flow chemistry, and microwave-assisted synthesis. Key aspects of this third edition include: Detailed descriptions of the correct use of common apparatus used in the organic laboratory Outlines of practical skills that all chemistry students must learn Highlights of aspects of health and safety in the laboratory, both in the first section and throughout the experimental procedures Four new sections reflecting advances in techniques and technologies, from electronic databases and information retrieval to semi-automated chromatography More than 100 validated experiments of graded complexity from introductory to research level A user-friendly experiment directory An instructor manual and PowerPoint slides of the figures in the book available on a companion website A comprehensive guide to contemporary organic chemistry laboratory principles, procedures, protocols, tools and techniques, Experimental Organic Chemistry, Third Edition is both an essential laboratory textbook for students of chemistry at all levels, and a handy bench reference for experienced chemists.

Modern Methods in Solid state NMR

Modern Methods in Solid state NMR
Author: Paul Hodgkinson
Publsiher: Royal Society of Chemistry
Total Pages: 435
Release: 2018-04-09
ISBN 10: 1782628541
ISBN 13: 9781782628545
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Modern Methods in Solid state NMR Book Review:

Solid-state NMR covers an enormous range of material types and experimental techniques. Although the basic instrumentation and techniques of solids NMR are readily accessible, there can be significant barriers, even for existing experts, to exploring the bewildering array of more sophisticated techniques. In this unique volume, a range of experts in different areas of modern solid-state NMR explain about their area of expertise, emphasising the “practical aspects” of implementing different techniques, and illustrating what questions can and cannot be addressed. Later chapters address complex materials, showing how different NMR techniques discussed in earlier chapters can be brought together to characterise important materials types. The volume as a whole focusses on topics relevant to the developing field of “NMR crystallography” – the use of solids NMR as a complement to diffraction crystallography. This book is an ideal complement to existing introductory texts and reviews on solid-state NMR. New researchers wanting to understand new areas of solid-state NMR will find each chapter to be the equivalent to spending time in the laboratory of an internationally leading expert, learning the hints and tips that make the difference between knowing about a technique and being ready to put it into action. With no equivalent on the market, it will be of interest to every solid-state NMR researcher (academic and postgraduate) working in the chemical sciences.