Physiological and Biotechnological Aspects of Extremophiles

Physiological and Biotechnological Aspects of Extremophiles
Author: Richa Salwan,Vivek Sharma
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 386
Release: 2020-06-04
ISBN 10: 0128183233
ISBN 13: 9780128183236
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Physiological and Biotechnological Aspects of Extremophiles Book Review:

Physiological and Biotechnological Aspects of Extremophiles highlights the current and topical areas of research in this rapidly growing field. Expert authors from around the world provide the latest insights into the mechanisms of these fascinating organisms use to survive. The vast majority of extremophiles are microbes which include archaea, bacteria and some eukaryotes. These microbes live under chemical and physical extremes that are usually lethal to cellular molecules, yet they manage to survive and even thrive. Extremophiles have important practical uses. They are a valuable source of industrially important enzymes and recent research has revealed novel mechanisms and biomolecular structures with a broad range of potential applications in biotechnology, biomining, and bioremediation. Aimed at research scientists, students, microbiologists, and biotechnologists, this book is an essential reading for scientists working with extremophiles and a recommended reference text for anyone interested in the microbiology, bioprospecting, biomining, biofuels, and extremozymes of these organisms. Shows the implications of the physiological adaptations of microbes from extreme habitats that are largely contributed by their biomolecules from basic to applied research Provides in-depth knowledge of genomic plasticity and proteome of different extremophiles Gives detailed and comprehensive insight about use of genetic engineering as well as genome editing for industrial applications

Physiology Genomics and Biotechnological Applications of Extremophiles

Physiology  Genomics  and Biotechnological Applications of Extremophiles
Author: Gunjal, Aparna B.,Thombre, Rebecca,Parray, Javid A.
Publsiher: IGI Global
Total Pages: 473
Release: 2021-12-10
ISBN 10: 1799891461
ISBN 13: 9781799891468
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Physiology Genomics and Biotechnological Applications of Extremophiles Book Review:

Extremophiles are organisms that are able to live in extreme conditions due to their unique physiological and genetic adaptations. Extremophiles are harnessed for their extremozymes that have wide applications in biotechnology, pharmaceutics, and industry. Recent developments in genomics and proteomics have helped unravel the mechanism of survival, physiological adaptation, and genomics structure of extremophiles. Physiology, Genomics, and Biotechnological Applications of Extremophiles covers innovative developments in understanding the physiology and biochemistry of extremophiles using the -omics perspective, focuses on the advancement in mechanisms of the extremophiles that makes them able to survive under extreme conditions, and discusses the applications of extremophiles in astrobiology. Covering topics such as genomics and the history and identification of extremophiles, it is ideal for students, professors, researchers, academicians, microbiologists, agricultural scientists, and biotechnologists.

Extremophiles

Extremophiles
Author: Ravi V. Durvasula,D. V. Subba Rao
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 399
Release: 2018-01-09
ISBN 10: 1351650734
ISBN 13: 9781351650731
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Extremophiles Book Review:

Highly recommended by CHOICE, Oct 2018 Key features: Couples studies of marine extremophile biology/genomics and extremophile culture for biotechnological applications with the latest advances in bio-prospecting and bio-product development Includes practical experiments that a laboratory can use to replicate extreme habitats for research purposes Presents latest advances in extremophile genomics to give the reader a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of extremophiles Offers insights into the production of commercially important extremozymes, carotenoids, bioactive compounds and secondary metabolites of medicinal value Extremophiles are nature’s ultimate survivors, thriving in environments ranging from the frozen Antarctic to abyssal hot hydrothermal vents. Their lifeforms span bacteria to fishes, and are categorized as halophiles from hypersaline environments, acidophiles from acidic waters, psychrophiles from cold habitats, and thermophiles from warm waters. Extremophiles: From Biology to Biotechnology comprehensively covers the basic biology, physiology, habitats, secondary metabolites for bioprospecting, and biotechnology of these extreme survivors. The chapters focus on the novel genetic and biochemical traits that lend these organisms to biotechnological applications. This unique guide serves as a resource for biotechnologists who wish to explore extremophiles for their commercial potential, as well as a valuable reference for teaching undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate students.

Microbial Extremozymes

Microbial Extremozymes
Author: Mohammed Kuddus
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 338
Release: 2021-08-20
ISBN 10: 0128231025
ISBN 13: 9780128231029
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Microbial Extremozymes Book Review:

Microbial Extremozymes: Novel Sources and Industrial Applications is a unique resource of practical research information on the latest novel sources and technologies regarding extremozymes in bioremediation, waste management, valorization of industrial by-products, biotransformation of natural polymers, nutrition, food safety and diagnosis of disease. The book's broad knowledge and varying applications are useful to the food industry, dairy industry, fruit and vegetable processing, and baking and beverages industries, as well as the pharmaceutical and biomedical industries. This is a concise, all-encompassing resource for a range of scientists needing knowledge of extremozymes to enhance and research. Furthermore, it provides an updated knowledge of microbial enzymes isolated from extreme environments (temperatures, etc.) and their biotechnological applications. It will be useful to researchers, scientists and students in enzyme research. In addition, users from the dairy and baking industries will benefit from the presented content. Explores recent scientific research on extremophiles and extremozymes technologies that help innovate novel ideas Provides innovative technologies for enzyme production from extremophilic microbes Includes cutting-edge research for applications in various industries where extreme temperature conditions exist Presents novel microorganisms and their enzymes from extreme environments (Thermophilic, Psychrophilic, Acidophilic, Alkaliphilic, Anaerobic, Halophilic, Barophilic, Metallotolerant, Radioresistant, etc.)

Extremophilic Fungi

Extremophilic Fungi
Author: Sanjay Sahay
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2022
ISBN 10: 9811649073
ISBN 13: 9789811649073
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Extremophilic Fungi Book Review:

Physiology and Biochemistry of Extremophiles

Physiology and Biochemistry of Extremophiles
Author: Charles Gerday,Nicolas Glansdorff
Publsiher: Amer Society for Microbiology
Total Pages: 429
Release: 2007
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: UCSD:31822034587089
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Physiology and Biochemistry of Extremophiles Book Review:

A detailed overview of the current state of knowledge about this special group of organisms. - Serves as an essential volume for a variety of scientists, including microbiologists, biochemists, physiologists, biotechnology specialists, ecologists, and physical scientists such as chemists and astronomers.

Extremophiles

Extremophiles
Author: Om V. Singh
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 456
Release: 2012-10-16
ISBN 10: 1118394119
ISBN 13: 9781118394113
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Extremophiles Book Review:

Explores the utility and potential of extremophiles in sustainability and biotechnology Many extremophilic bio-products are already used as life-saving drugs. Until recently, however, the difficulty of working with these microbes has discouraged efforts to develop extremophilic microbes as potential drug reservoirs of the future. Recent technological advances have opened the door to exploring these organisms anew as sources of products that might prove useful in clinical and environmental biotechnology and drug development. Extremophiles features outstanding articles by expert scientists who shed light on broad-ranging areas of progress in the development of smart therapeutics for multiple disease types and products for industrial use. It bridges technological gaps, focusing on critical aspects of extremolytes and the mechanisms regulating their biosynthesis that are relevant to human health and bioenergy, including value-added products of commercial significance as well as other potentially viable products. This groundbreaking guide: Introduces the variety of extremophiles and their extremolytes including extremozymes Provides an overview of the methodologies used to acquire extremophiles Reviews the literature on the diversity of extremophiles Offers tools and criteria for data interpretation of various extremolytes/extremozymes Discusses experimental design problems associated with extremophiles and their therapeutic implications Explores the challenges and possibilities of developing extremolytes for commercial purposes Explains the FDA's regulations on certain microbial bio-products that will be of interest to potential industrialists Extremophiles is an immensely useful resource for graduate students and researchers in biotechnology, clinical biotechnology, microbiology, and applied microbiology.

Cyanobacterial Lifestyle and its Applications in Biotechnology

Cyanobacterial Lifestyle and its Applications in Biotechnology
Author: Prashant Kumar Singh,Maria F. Fillat,Ajay Kumar
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 382
Release: 2021-09-30
ISBN 10: 0323910491
ISBN 13: 9780323910491
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cyanobacterial Lifestyle and its Applications in Biotechnology Book Review:

Environmental change is affecting the world's agricultural productivity. This is coupled with an increase in population: according to the United Nations Department for Economic and Social Affairs, the global population is estimated to reach 9.7 billion by 2050. Therefore, the current situation requires that we develop climate-smart technologies to improve crop productivity to sustain the ever-rising global population. Current-day farmers are introducing a considerable amount of agrochemicals to enhance crop productivity. Indiscriminate agrochemical application has altered not only the soil's physic-chemical and biological properties but also affected human health through food chain contamination. Cyanobacteria, under these changing environmental conditions, may help to resolve the problem significantly without changing the natural soil properties. In spite of their well-known stress tolerance potential, most of the cyanobacterial stress management and signaling pathways are yet to be fully characterized. Therefore, there is an urgent need to explore cyanobacterial metabolism under stress as well as their regulatory pathways to exploit them for sustainable agriculture. In recent decades, the application of cyanobacteria has attracted scientists because of uniqueness, better adaptability, and synthetic products. Diverse cyanobacterial communities with the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen, together with their photosynthetic properties, have demonstrated their application under field conditions. Several cyanobacterial species have thus been exploited to enhance soil fertility, mitigate biotic and abiotic stress, and contamination management. Cyanobacterial Lifestyle and its Applications in Biotechnology has been designed to discuss different aspects of cyanobacterial physiology with the aim of helping to provide a better understanding of advanced cyanobacterial molecular biology and their metabolism to uncover the potential of cyanobacteria in the tailoring of stress smart crops for sustainable agriculture. Chapters include valuable information about the role of cyanobacteria in the evolution of life, cyanobacterial photosynthesis, stress-tolerant cyanobacterium, biological nitrogen fixation, circadian rhythms, genetics and molecular biology of abiotic stress responses. Summarizes various aspects of cyanobacterial research. Includes comprehensive coverage of molecular approaches for the identification of cyanobacteria and their evolution. Identifies an expanding horizon of cyanobacterial lifestyle: stress management in cyanobacteria. Examines cyanobacteria synthetic biology, genetic engineering, photosynthesis and metabolic engineering.

Psychrophiles From Biodiversity to Biotechnology

Psychrophiles  From Biodiversity to Biotechnology
Author: Rosa Margesin
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 685
Release: 2017-06-22
ISBN 10: 3319570579
ISBN 13: 9783319570570
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Psychrophiles From Biodiversity to Biotechnology Book Review:

Cold adaptation includes a complex range of structural and functional adaptations at the level of all cellular constituents, and these adaptations render cold-adapted organisms particularly useful for biotechnological applications. This book presents the most recent knowledge of (i) boundary conditions for microbial life in the cold, (ii) microbial diversity in various cold ecosystems, (iii) molecular cold adaptation mechanisms and (iv) the resulting biotechnological perspectives.

Microbial Diversity and Ecology in Hotspots

Microbial Diversity and Ecology in Hotspots
Author: Aparna Gunjal,Sonali Shinde
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 392
Release: 2021-11-26
ISBN 10: 0323901492
ISBN 13: 9780323901499
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Microbial Diversity and Ecology in Hotspots Book Review:

Microbial Diversity in Hotspots provides an introduction to microbial diversity and microbes in different hotspots and threatened areas. The book gives insights on extremophiles, phyllosphere and rhizosphere, covers fungal diversity, conservation and microbial association, focuses on biodiversity acts and policies, and includes cases studies. Microbes explored are from the coldest to the hottest areas of the world. Although hotspots are zones with extremely high microbiology activities, the knowledge of microbial diversity from these areas is very limited, hence this is a welcome addition to existing resources. Provides an introduction to microbial biotechnology Addresses novel approaches to the study of microbial diversity in hotspots Provides the basics, along with advanced information on microbial diversity Discusses the techniques used to examine microbial diversity with their applications and respective pros and cons for sustainability Explores the importance of microbial genomes studies in commercial applications

Advances in Applied Microbiology

Advances in Applied Microbiology
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 208
Release: 2021-08-03
ISBN 10: 0323850804
ISBN 13: 9780323850803
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Applied Microbiology Book Review:

Advances in Applied Microbiology, Volume 116 continues the comprehensive reach of this widely read and authoritative review source in microbiology. Users will find invaluable references and information on a variety of areas relating to the topic of microbiology, with this release focusing on the lipid production by oleaginous yeasts. Contains contributions from leading authorities in the field Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field of microbiology Includes discussions on the role of specific molecules in pathogen life stages, interactions, and much more

Algal Biorefineries and the Circular Bioeconomy

Algal Biorefineries and the Circular Bioeconomy
Author: OBULISAMY PARTHIBA KARTHIKEYAN,Sanjeet Mehariya,Shashi Kant Bhatia
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 440
Release: 2022-04-13
ISBN 10: 100056276X
ISBN 13: 9781000562767
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Algal Biorefineries and the Circular Bioeconomy Book Review:

"Algae are mysterious and fascinating organisms that hold great potential for discovery and biotechnology." —Dr. Thierry Tonon, Department of Biology, University of York "Science is a beautiful gift to humanity; we should not distort it." —A.P.J. Abdul Kalam In this book, we emphasise the importance of algal biotechnology as a sustainable platform to replace the conventional fossil-based economy. With this focus, Volume 2 summarizes up-to-date literature knowledge and discusses the advances in algal cultivation, genetic improvement, wastewater treatment, resource recovery, commercial operation, and technoeconomic analysis of algal biotechnology. FEATURES Discusses in detail recent developments in algae cultivation and biomass harvesting Provides an overview of genetic engineering and algal-bacteria consortia to improve productivity Presents applications of algae in the area of wastewater treatment and resource recovery Provides case studies and technoeconomic analysis to understand the algal biorefinery Shashi Kant Bhatia, PhD, is an Associate Professor in the Department of Biological Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea. Sanjeet Mehariya, PhD, is a Postdoctoral Researcher in the Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. Obulisamy Parthiba Karthikeyan, PhD, is a Research Scientist and Lecturer (Adjunct) in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, South Dakota, USA.

Metagenomics and Microbial Ecology

Metagenomics and Microbial Ecology
Author: Surajit De Mandal,Amrita Kumari Panda,N. Senthil Kumar,Satpal Singh Bisht,Fengliang Jin
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 214
Release: 2021-11-30
ISBN 10: 1000482235
ISBN 13: 9781000482232
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Metagenomics and Microbial Ecology Book Review:

Microorganisms comprise the greatest genetic diversity in the natural ecosystem, and characterization of these microbes is an essential step towards discovering novel products or understanding complex biological mechanisms. The advancement of metagenomics coupled with the introduction of high-throughput, cost-effective NGS technology has expanded the possibilities of microbial research in various biological systems. In addition to traditional culture and biochemical characteristics, omics approaches (metagenomics, metaproteomics, and metatranscriptomics) are useful for analyzing complete microbial communities and their functional attributes in various environments. Metagenomics and Microbial Ecology: Techniques and Applications explores the most recent advances in metagenomics research in the landscape of next-generation sequencing technologies. This book also describes how advances in sequencing technologies are used to study invisible microbes as well as the relationships between microorganisms in their respective environments. Features: Covers a wide range of concepts, investigations, and technological advancement in metagenomics at the global level. Highlights the novel and recent approaches to analyze microbial diversity and its functional attributes. Features a range of chapters that present an introduction to the field and functional insight into various ecosystems.

Halophilic Microorganisms

Halophilic Microorganisms
Author: Antonio Ventosa
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 350
Release: 2013-11-21
ISBN 10: 366207656X
ISBN 13: 9783662076569
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Halophilic Microorganisms Book Review:

Various groups of microorganisms - bacteria, archaea, algae and even fungi - have adapted to a life in a hypersaline environment. Halophilic Microorganisms explores the many-fold aspects of life under these extreme conditions. Several contributions analyze the microbial communities in different hypersaline environments such as salterns, soda lakes, and the Dead Sea or salt sediments. Reviews of their biodiversity, phylogeny, and genetics are given as well as of the diverse adaptation strategies of salt-tolerant or salt-requiring microorganisms. Microorganisms that have adapted to moderate salt concentrations or to habitats with drastic fluctuations are also treated in addition to the extreme halophiles. Their physiological, biochemical and molecular mechanisms developed in response to salinity and high osmotic pressure as well as current and future biotechnological applications are presented.

Advanced Fermentation and Cell Technology 2 Volume Set

Advanced Fermentation and Cell Technology  2 Volume Set
Author: Byong H. Lee
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 928
Release: 2021-12-06
ISBN 10: 1119042763
ISBN 13: 9781119042761
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Fermentation and Cell Technology 2 Volume Set Book Review:

A comprehensive and up-to-date reference covering both conventional and novel industrial fermentation technologies and their applications Fermentation and cell culture technologies encompass more than the conventional microbial and enzyme systems used in the agri-food, biochemical, bioenergy and pharmaceutical industries. New technologies such as genetic engineering, systems biology, protein engineering, and mammalian cell and plant cell systems are expanding rapidly, as is the demand for sustainable production of bioingredients, drugs, bioenergy and biomaterials. As the growing biobased economy drives innovation, industrial practitioners, instructors, researchers, and students must keep pace with the development and application of novel fermentation processes and a variety of cell technologies. Advanced Fermentation and Cell Technology provides a balanced and comprehensive overview of the microbial, mammalian, and plant cell technologies used by the modern biochemical process industry to develop new and improved processes and products. This authoritative volume covers the essential features of advanced fermentation and cell technology, and highlights the interaction of food fermentation and cell culture biopharmaceutical actives. Detailed chapters, organized into five sections, cover microbial cell technology, animal and plant cell technology, safety issues of new biotechnologies, and applications of microbial fermentation to food products, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. Written by an internationally-recognized expert in food biotechnology, this comprehensive volume: Covers both conventional and novel industrial fermentation technologies and their applications in a range of industries Discusses current progress in novel fermentation, cell culture, commercial recombinant bioproducts technologies Includes overviews of the global market size of bioproducts and the fundamentals of cell technology Highlights the importance of sustainability, Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), quality assurance, and regulatory practices Explores microbial cell technology and culture tools and techniques such as genome shuffling and recombinant DNA technology, RNA interference and CRISPR technology, molecular thermodynamics, protein engineering, proteomics and bioinformatics, and synthetic biology Advanced Fermentation and Cell Technology is an ideal resource for students of food science, biotechnology, microbiology, agricultural sciences, biochemical engineering, and biochemistry, and is a valuable reference for food scientists, researchers, and technologists throughout the food industry, particularly the dairy, bakery, and fermented beverage sectors.

Extremophiles

Extremophiles
Author: Koki Horikoshi,William D. Grant,W. D. Grant
Publsiher: Wiley-Liss
Total Pages: 322
Release: 1998-01-30
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: UCSD:31822025793332
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Extremophiles Book Review:

This text is devoted to a particular class of microbe & focuses on its ecology, systematics, physiological & molecular biology. Also included is a discussion of potentially exploitable biotechnological & industrial uses for extremophiles.

Molecular Aspects of Plant Beneficial Microbes in Agriculture

Molecular Aspects of Plant Beneficial Microbes in Agriculture
Author: Vivek Sharma,Richa Salwan
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 454
Release: 2020-03-12
ISBN 10: 0128184698
ISBN 13: 9780128184691
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Molecular Aspects of Plant Beneficial Microbes in Agriculture Book Review:

Molecular Aspects of Plant Beneficial Microbes in Agriculture explores their diverse interactions, including the pathogenic and symbiotic relationship which leads to either a decrease or increase in crop productivity. Focusing on these environmentally-friendly approaches, the book explores their potential in changing climatic conditions. It presents the exploration and regulation of beneficial microbes in offering sustainable and alternative solutions to the use of chemicals in agriculture. The beneficial microbes presented here are capable of contributing to nutrient balance, growth regulators, suppressing pathogens, orchestrating immune response and improving crop performance. The book also offers insights into the advancements in DNA technology and bioinformatic approaches which have provided in-depth knowledge about the molecular arsenal involved in mineral uptake, nitrogen fixation, growth promotion and biocontrol attributes.

Extremophiles

Extremophiles
Author: Roberto Paul Anitori
Publsiher: Horizon Scientific Press
Total Pages: 299
Release: 2012
ISBN 10: 9781904455981
ISBN 13: 1904455980
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Extremophiles Book Review:

Aimed at research scientists, students, microbiologists and biotechnologists this book is essential reading for scientists working with extremophiles and a recommended reference text for anyone interested in the microbiology of these organisms, as well as bioprospecting, biomining, biofuels and extremozymes. -- Publisher.

Carbonic Anhydrases as Biocatalysts

Carbonic Anhydrases as Biocatalysts
Author: Claudiu T Supuran,Giuseppina De Simone
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 398
Release: 2015-01-14
ISBN 10: 0444632638
ISBN 13: 9780444632630
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Carbonic Anhydrases as Biocatalysts Book Review:

Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are ubiquitous metalloenzymes, present throughout most living organisms and encoded by five evolutionarily unrelated gene families. The Carbonic Anhydrases as Biocatalysts: From Theory to Medical and Industrial Applications presents information on the growing interest in the study of this enzyme family and their applications to both medicine and biotechnology. Offers comprehensive coverage of the carbonic anhydrases enzyme family and their properties as biocatalysts Includes current applications of carbonic anhydrases in biotechnology on the basis of their catalytic efficiency, including new technologies for CO2 capture processes Identifies new targets for drug design studies Provides a selectivity profile for the different carbonic anhydrases and their related biomedical applications

Fungi in Extreme Environments Ecological Role and Biotechnological Significance

Fungi in Extreme Environments  Ecological Role and Biotechnological Significance
Author: Sonia M. Tiquia-Arashiro,Martin Grube
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 626
Release: 2019-07-22
ISBN 10: 3030190307
ISBN 13: 9783030190309
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fungi in Extreme Environments Ecological Role and Biotechnological Significance Book Review:

Over the last decades, scientists have been intrigued by the fascinating organisms that inhabit extreme environments. These organisms, known as extremophiles, thrive in habitats which for other terrestrial life-forms are intolerably hostile or even lethal. Based on such technological advances, the study of extremophiles has provided, over the last few years, ground-breaking discoveries that challenge the paradigms of modern biology. In the new bioeconomy, fungi in general, play a very important role in addressing major global challenges, being instrumental for improved resource efficiency, making renewable substitutes for products from fossil resources, upgrading waste streams to valuable food and feed ingredients, counteracting life-style diseases and antibiotic resistance through strengthening the gut biota, making crop plants more robust to survive climate change conditions, and functioning as host organisms for production of new biological drugs. This range of new uses of fungi all stand on the shoulders of the efforts of mycologists over generations. The book is organized in five parts: (I) Biodiversity, Ecology, Genetics and Physiology of Extremophilic Fungi, (II) Biosynthesis of Novel Biomolecules and Extremozymes (III) Bioenergy and Biofuel synthesis, and (IV) Wastewater and biosolids treatment, and (V) Bioremediation.