Classical Philosophy

Classical Philosophy
Author: Peter Adamson
Publsiher: OUP Oxford
Total Pages: 400
Release: 2014-06-26
ISBN 10: 0191662046
ISBN 13: 9780191662041
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Classical Philosophy Book Review:

Classical Philosophy is the first of a series of books in which Peter Adamson aims ultimately to present a complete history of philosophy, more thoroughly but also more enjoyably than ever before. In short, lively chapters, based on the popular History of Philosophy podcast, he offers an accessible, humorous, and detailed look at the emergence of philosophy with the Presocratics, the probing questions of Socrates, and the first full flowering of philosophy with the dialogues of Plato and the treatises of Aristotle. The story is told 'without any gaps', discussing not only such major figures but also less commonly discussed topics like the Hippocratic Corpus, the Platonic Academy, and the role of women in ancient philosophy. Within the thought of Plato and Aristotle, the reader will find in-depth introductions to major works, such as the Republic and the Nicomachean Ethics, which are treated in detail that is unusual in an introduction to ancient philosophy. Adamson looks at fascinating but less frequently read Platonic dialogues like the Charmides and Cratylus, and Aristotle's ideas in zoology and poetics. This full coverage allows him to tackle ancient discussions in all areas of philosophy, including epistemology, metaphysics, philosophy of language, philosophy of science, ethics and politics. Attention is also given to the historical and literary context of classical philosophy, with exploration of how early Greek cosmology responded to the poets Homer and Hesiod, how Socrates was presented by the comic playwright Aristophanes and the historian Xenophon, and how events in Greek history may have influenced Plato's thought. This is a new kind of history which will bring philosophy to life for all readers, including those coming to the subject for the first time.

Philosophy in the Islamic World A Very Short Introduction

Philosophy in the Islamic World  A Very Short Introduction
Author: Peter Adamson
Publsiher: OUP Oxford
Total Pages: 144
Release: 2015-09-24
ISBN 10: 0191506583
ISBN 13: 9780191506581
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Philosophy in the Islamic World A Very Short Introduction Book Review:

In the history of philosophy, few topics are so relevant to today's cultural and political landscape as philosophy in the Islamic world. Yet, this remains one of the lesser-known philosophical traditions. In this Very Short Introduction, Peter Adamson explores the history of philosophy among Muslims, Jews, and Christians living in Islamic lands, from its historical background to thinkers in the twentieth century. Introducing the main philosophical themes of the Islamic world, Adamson integrates ideas from the Islamic and Abrahamic faiths to consider the broad philosophical questions that continue to invite debate: What is the relationship between reason and religious belief? What is the possibility of proving God's existence? What is the nature of knowledge? Drawing on the most recent research in the field, this book challenges the assumption of the cultural decline of philosophy and science in the Islamic world by demonstrating its rich heritage and overlap with other faiths and philosophies.

Philosophy in the Islamic World

Philosophy in the Islamic World
Author: Ulrich Rudolph,Peter Adamson,Rotraud Hansberger
Publsiher: Handbook of Oriental Studies
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2016-11-17
ISBN 10: 9789004323162
ISBN 13: 9004323163
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Philosophy in the Islamic World Book Review:

A comprehensive reference work covering all figures of the earliest period of philosophy in the Islamic world. Both major and minor thinkers are covered, with details of biography and doctrine as well as detailed lists and summaries of each author s works."

Philosophy and Science in the Islamic World

Philosophy and Science in the Islamic World
Author: C. A. Qadir
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 232
Release: 2013-05-08
ISBN 10: 9780415830829
ISBN 13: 0415830826
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Philosophy and Science in the Islamic World Book Review:

The basis of Muslim philosophy and science is the instruction buried in the Quran. At an early date this tradition was enlarged and strengthened by the infiltration into Muslim culture of Greek philosophy and science through the translation of Greek classics by Muslims. The Indian tradition of thought also made its contribution to this intellectual leaven. This book traces the development and interaction of these strands in Muslim thinking. The author is concerned to show both how philosophy and science are related to specifically religious thought, and how they have made distinctive contributions to method and discovery. The impact of secularisation on the Muslim world puts these traditions under considerable strain, and it is interesting to define how far this pressure is a productive and fertile one. The current century has seen a Renaissance of Muslim science and philosophy; this book sets the new achievements clearly against their historical background. First published in 1988.

Philosophy and Jurisprudence in the Islamic World

Philosophy and Jurisprudence in the Islamic World
Author: Peter Adamson
Publsiher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Total Pages: 328
Release: 2019-09-02
ISBN 10: 3110552388
ISBN 13: 9783110552386
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Philosophy and Jurisprudence in the Islamic World Book Review:

This book brings together the study of two great disciplines of the Islamic world: law and philosophy. In both sunni and shiite Islam, it became the norm for scholars to acquire a high level of expertise in the legal tradition. Thus some of the greatest names in the history of Aristotelianism were trained jurists, like Averroes, or commented on the status and nature of law, like al-Fārābī. While such authors sought to put law in its place relative to the philosophical disciplines, others criticized philosophy from a legal viewpoint, like al-Ghazālī and Ibn Taymiyya. But this collection of papers does not only explore the relative standing of law and philosophy. It also looks at how philosophers, theologians, and jurists answered philosophical questions that arise from jurisprudence itself. What is the logical structure of a well-formed legal argument? What standard of certainty needs to be attained in passing down judgments, and how is that standard reached? What are the sources of valid legal judgment and what makes these sources authoritative? May a believer be excused on grounds of ignorance? Together the contributions provide an unprecedented demonstration of the close connections between philosophy and law in Islamic society, while also highlighting the philosophical interest of texts normally studied only by legal historians.

The Islamic World

The Islamic World
Author: Andrew Rippin
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 704
Release: 2013-10-23
ISBN 10: 1136803505
ISBN 13: 9781136803505
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Islamic World Book Review:

The Islamic World is an outstanding guide to Islamic faith and culture in all its geographical and historical diversity. Written by a distinguished international team of scholars, it elucidates the history, philosophy and practice of one of the world's great religious traditions. Its grounding in contemporary scholarship makes it an ideal reference source for students and scholars alike. Edited by Andrew Rippin, a leading scholar of Islam, the volume covers the political, geographical, religious, intellectual, cultural and social worlds of Islam, and offers insight into all aspects of Muslim life including the Qur’an and law, philosophy, science and technology, art, literature, and film and much else. It explores the concept of an ‘Islamic’ world: what makes it distinctive and how uniform is that distinctiveness across Muslim geographical regions and through history?

Concepts of Philosophy in Asia and the Islamic world

Concepts of Philosophy in Asia and the Islamic world
Author: Raji C. Steineck,Ralph Weber,Robert Gassmann,Elena Lange
Publsiher: BRILL
Total Pages: 760
Release: 2018-05-17
ISBN 10: 9004360115
ISBN 13: 9789004360112
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Concepts of Philosophy in Asia and the Islamic world Book Review:

Concepts of Philosophy challenges received conceptions of philosophy by way of critical engagement with Chinese and Japanese sources. Built on philologically sound readings of specific texts, the book lifts the discussion on the concept of philosophy to a global plane.

Classical Indian Philosophy

Classical Indian Philosophy
Author: Peter Adamson,Jonardon Ganeri
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 480
Release: 2020-03-26
ISBN 10: 0192592661
ISBN 13: 9780192592668
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Classical Indian Philosophy Book Review:

Peter Adamson and Jonardon Ganeri present a lively introduction to one of the world's richest intellectual traditions: the philosophy of classical India. They begin with the earliest extant literature, the Vedas, and the explanatory works that these inspired, known as Upaniṣads. They also discuss other famous texts of classical Vedic culture, especially the Mahābhārata and its most notable section, the Bhagavad-Gīta, alongside the rise of Buddhism and Jainism. In this opening section, Adamson and Ganeri emphasize the way that philosophy was practiced as a form of life in search of liberation from suffering. Next, the pair move on to the explosion of philosophical speculation devoted to foundational texts called 'sutras,' discussing such traditions as the logical and epistemological Nyāya school, the monism of Advaita Vedānta, and the spiritual discipline of Yoga. In the final section of the book, they chart further developments within Buddhism, highlighting Nagārjuna's radical critique of 'non-dependent' concepts and the no-self philosophy of mind found in authors like Dignāga, and within Jainism, focusing especially on its 'standpoint' epistemology. Unlike other introductions that cover the main schools and positions in classical Indian philosophy, Adamson and Ganeri's lively guide also pays attention to philosophical themes such as non-violence, political authority, and the status of women, while considering textual traditions typically left out of overviews of Indian thought, like the Cārvaka school, Tantra, and aesthetic theory as well. Adamson and Ganeri conclude by focusing on the much-debated question of whether Indian philosophy may have influenced ancient Greek philosophy and, from there, evaluate the impact that this area of philosophy had on later Western thought.

Philosophy and Language in the Islamic World

Philosophy and Language in the Islamic World
Author: Nadja Germann,Mostafa Najafi
Publsiher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Total Pages: 357
Release: 2020-11-23
ISBN 10: 311055223X
ISBN 13: 9783110552232
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Philosophy and Language in the Islamic World Book Review:

What is language? How did it originate and how does it work? What is its relation to thought and, beyond thought, to reality? Questions like these have been at the center of lively debate ever since the rise of scholarly activities in the Islamic world during the 8th/9th century. However, in contrast to contemporary philosophy, they were not tackled by scholars adhering to only one specific discipline. Rather, they were addressed across multiple fields and domains, no less by linguists, legal theorists, and theologians than by Aristotelian philosophers. In response to the different challenges faced by these disciplines, highly sophisticated and more specialized areas emerged, comparable to what nowadays would be referred to as semantics, pragmatics, and hermeneutics, to name but a few – fields of research that are pursued to this day and still flourish in some of the traditional schools. Philosophy of language, thus, has been a major theme throughout Islamic intellectual culture in general; a theme which, probably due to its trans-disciplinary nature, has largely been neglected by modern research. This book brings together for the first time experts from the various fields involved, in order to explore the riches of this tradition and make them accessible to a broader public interested both in philosophy and the history of ideas more generally.

World of Image in Islamic Philosophy

World of Image in Islamic Philosophy
Author: L. W. C. van Lit
Publsiher: Edinburgh University Press
Total Pages: 288
Release: 2017-04-30
ISBN 10: 1474415865
ISBN 13: 9781474415866
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

World of Image in Islamic Philosophy Book Review:

One of the most controversial issues that divided Islamic philosophers and theologians during the Middle Ages was whether human beings would have a spiritual or bodily existence after death. The idea of a world of image was conceived as a solution, suggesting that there exists a world of non-physical (imagined) bodies, beyond our earthly existence. This world may be reached in sleep, in meditation or after death.From the embryonic conception by Ibn Sina, to the radical rethinking by Suhrawardi and Shahrazuri into a sophisticated system, L. W. C. van Lit unravels the history of this idea. Using a distant reading approach for measuring the transmission, he further shows how the idea remained relevant for Muslim thinkers through the centuries, up until today.

An Introduction to Classical Islamic Philosophy

An Introduction to Classical Islamic Philosophy
Author: Oliver Leaman,Lecturer in Philosophy Oliver Leaman
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 253
Release: 2002
ISBN 10: 9780521797573
ISBN 13: 0521797578
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

An Introduction to Classical Islamic Philosophy Book Review:

A revised and expanded 2001 edition of Oliver Leaman's classic introductory work.

The Cambridge Companion to Classical Islamic Theology

The Cambridge Companion to Classical Islamic Theology
Author: Tim Winter
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 350
Release: 2008-05-22
ISBN 10: 1107494419
ISBN 13: 9781107494411
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Cambridge Companion to Classical Islamic Theology Book Review:

This series of critical reflections on the evolution and major themes of pre-modern Muslim theology begins with the revelation of the Koran, and extends to the beginnings of modernity in the eighteenth century. The significance of Islamic theology reflects the immense importance of Islam in the history of monotheism, to which it has brought a unique approach and style, and a range of solutions which are of abiding interest. Devoting especial attention to questions of rationality, scriptural fidelity, and the construction of 'orthodoxy', this volume introduces key Muslim theories of revelation, creation, ethics, scriptural interpretation, law, mysticism, and eschatology. Throughout the treatment is firmly set in the historical, social and political context in which Islam's distinctive understanding of God evolved. Despite its importance, Islamic theology has been neglected in recent scholarship, and this book provides a unique, scholarly but accessible introduction.

Open to Reason

Open to Reason
Author: Souleymane Bachir Diagne
Publsiher: Columbia University Press
Total Pages: 120
Release: 2018-08-21
ISBN 10: 0231546173
ISBN 13: 9780231546171
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Open to Reason Book Review:

What does it mean to be a Muslim philosopher, or to philosophize in Islam? In Open to Reason, Souleymane Bachir Diagne traces Muslims’ intellectual and spiritual history of examining and questioning beliefs and arguments to show how Islamic philosophy has always engaged critically with texts and ideas both inside and outside its tradition. Through a rich reading of classical and modern Muslim philosophers, Diagne explains the long history of philosophy in the Islamic world and its relevance to crucial issues of our own time. From classical figures such as Avicenna to the twentieth-century Sufi master and teacher of tolerance Tierno Bokar Salif Tall, Diagne explores how Islamic thinkers have asked and answered such questions as Does religion need philosophy? How can religion coexist with rationalism? What does it mean to interpret a religious narrative philosophically? What does it mean to be human, and what are human beings’ responsibilities to nature? Is there such a thing as an “Islamic” state, or should Muslims reinvent political institutions that suit their own times? Diagne shows that philosophizing in Islam in its many forms throughout the centuries has meant a commitment to forward and open thinking. A remarkable history of philosophy in the Islamic world as well as a work of philosophy in its own right, this book seeks to contribute to the revival of a spirit of pluralism rooted in Muslim intellectual and spiritual traditions.

Books of Definition in Islamic Philosophy

Books of Definition in Islamic Philosophy
Author: Kiki Kennedy-Day
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 224
Release: 2003-09-02
ISBN 10: 1135787301
ISBN 13: 9781135787301
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Books of Definition in Islamic Philosophy Book Review:

Islamic Philosophy has unusual origins. Originally a hybrid of Greek philosophy and early Islamic theology, its technical language consisted of a number of words translated from the Greek. This book studies how Islamic philosophers of the ninth century AD, such as al-Kindi, al-Farabi and Ibn Sina, developed an indigenous set of terms and concepts. Their Books of Definition influenced the revision of the Arabic language to incorporate these new fields of knowledge. Books of Definition in Islamic Philosophy: The Limits of Words uses the work of these philosophers as a basis from which a comparison with their Greek precedents is enabled. The book presents a framework for incorporating an Islamic and historically contextualised philosophy into a continuum of world philosophers. At the core of this framework is Ibn Sina's Kitab al-hudud which the author has translated into English and situates it in its correct geopolitical framework. In establishing a historical and literary context for the writing and circulation of Ibn Sina's definitions, the book breaks new ground in the integration of Islamic philosophy within a general history of philosophies. This fascinating and comprehensive study will be of interest to scholars and postgraduate students of Islamic Philosophy.

A History of Islamic Philosophy

A History of Islamic Philosophy
Author: Majid Fakhry
Publsiher: Columbia University Press
Total Pages: 430
Release: 2004
ISBN 10: 9780231132206
ISBN 13: 0231132204
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

A History of Islamic Philosophy Book Review:

The first comprehensive survey of Islamic philosophy from the seventh century to the present, this classic discusses Islamic thought and its effect on the cultural aspects of Muslim life. Fakhry shows how Islamic philosophy has followed from the earliest times a distinctive line of development, which gives it the unity and continuity that are the marks of the great intellectual movements of history.

Medieval Philosophy

Medieval Philosophy
Author: Peter Adamson
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 640
Release: 2019-09-26
ISBN 10: 0192579932
ISBN 13: 9780192579935
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Medieval Philosophy Book Review:

Peter Adamson presents a lively introduction to six hundred years of European philosophy, from the beginning of the ninth century to the end of the fourteenth century. The medieval period is one of the richest in the history of philosophy, yet one of the least widely known. Adamson introduces us to some of the greatest thinkers of the Western intellectual tradition, including Peter Abelard, Anselm of Canterbury, Thomas Aquinas, John Duns Scotus, William of Ockham, and Roger Bacon. And the medieval period was notable for the emergence of great women thinkers, including Hildegard of Bingen, Marguerite Porete, and Julian of Norwich. Original ideas and arguments were developed in every branch of philosophy during this period - not just philosophy of religion and theology, but metaphysics, philosophy of logic and language, moral and political theory, psychology, and the foundations of mathematics and natural science.

Al Kindi

Al Kindi
Author: Bridget Lim,Jennifer Viegas
Publsiher: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc
Total Pages: 112
Release: 2016-07-15
ISBN 10: 1508171319
ISBN 13: 9781508171317
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Al Kindi Book Review:

Al-Kindi is believed by many scholars to be the first Islamic philosopher. At a time when Europe was plunged into the Dark Ages, the Islamic world was experiencing an important time of cultural growth and scientific advancement. While many considered Muslim students of ancient Greek philosophers to be infidels, al-Kindi was able to master the scholarship while interpreting it through his Muslim faith. His conclusions always supported the teachings of Islam, but the methods that he drew upon to reach these conclusions were rooted in science, math, and principles accepted by many other cultures and faiths.

The Formation of Post Classical Philosophy in Islam

The Formation of Post Classical Philosophy in Islam
Author: Frank Griffel
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 496
Release: 2021-06-08
ISBN 10: 019088634X
ISBN 13: 9780190886349
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Formation of Post Classical Philosophy in Islam Book Review:

Scholars have come to recognize the importance of classical Islamic philosophy both in its own right and in its preservation of and engagement with Greek philosophical ideas. At the same time, the period immediately following the so-called classical era has been considered a sort of dark age, in which Islamic thought entered a long decline. In this monumental new work, Frank Griffel seeks to overturn this conventional wisdom, arguing that what he calls the "post-classical" period has been unjustly maligned and neglected by previous generations of scholars. The Formation of Post-Classical Philosophy in Islam is a comprehensive study of the far-reaching changes that led to a re-shaping of the philosophical discourse in Islam during the twelfth century. Earlier Western scholars thought that Islam's engagement with the tradition of Greek philosophy ended during that century. More recent analyses suggest that Islamic thinkers instead integrated Greek thought into the genre of rationalist Muslim theology (kal=am). Griffel argues that even this new view misses a key point. In addition to the integration of Greek ideas into kal=am, Muslim theologians picked up the discourse of classical philosophy in Islam (falsafa) and began to produce books in the tradition of Plato, Aristotle, and Avicennaa new and oft-misunderstood genre they called ".hikma"in which they left aside theological concerns. They wrote in both genres, kal=am and .hikma, and the same writers argued for opposing teachings on the nature of God, the world's creation, and the afterlife depending on the genre in which they were writing. Griffel shows how careful attention to genre demonstrates both the coherence and ambiguity of this new philosophical approach. A work of extraordinary breadth and depth, The Formation of Post-Classical Philosophy in Islam offers a detailed, insightful history of philosophy in Iraq, Iran, and Central Asia during the twelfth century. It will be essential reading for anyone interested in the history of philosophy or the history of Islam.

Islamic Philosophy and Theology

Islamic Philosophy and Theology
Author: W. Montgomery Watt
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 219
Release: 2017-08-01
ISBN 10: 1351511416
ISBN 13: 9781351511414
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Islamic Philosophy and Theology Book Review:

Events are making clear to ever-widening circles of readers the need for something more than a superficial knowledge of non-European cultures. In particular, the blossoming into independence of numerous African states, many of which are largely Muslim or have a Muslim head of state, has made clear the growing political importance of the Islamic world, and, as a result, the desirability of extending and deepening the understanding and appreciation of this great segment of mankind. Islamic philosophy and theology are looked at together in a chronological framework in this volume. From a modern standpoint, this juxtaposition of the two disciplines is important for the understanding of both; but it should be realized at the outset that it is a reversal of the traditional Islamic procedure. Not merely were the disciplines different, but in the earlier centuries the exponents were two different sets of persons, trained in two different educational traditions, each with its own separate institutions. There was little personal contact between philosophers and theologians, and the influence of the two disciplines on one another was largely by way of polemics. Eventually while philosophy died out as a separate discipline in the Islamic world, many parts of it were incorporated in theology. This work is designed to give the educated reader something more than can be found in the usual popular books. The work undertakes to survey a special part of the field, and to show the present stage of scholarship. Where there is a clear picture this will be given; but where there are gaps, obscurities and differences of opinion, these will also be indicated. This work is brilliant in its design, style, and intimate understanding. It is a must read for specialists and policy makers alike.

Philosophy in the Hellenistic and Roman Worlds

Philosophy in the Hellenistic and Roman Worlds
Author: Peter Adamson
Publsiher: OUP Oxford
Total Pages: 360
Release: 2015-08-28
ISBN 10: 0191043893
ISBN 13: 9780191043895
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Philosophy in the Hellenistic and Roman Worlds Book Review:

Peter Adamson offers an accessible, humorous tour through a period of eight hundred years when some of the most influential of all schools of thought were formed: from the third century BC to the sixth century AD. He introduces us to Cynics and Skeptics, Epicureans and Stoics, emperors and slaves, and traces the development of Christian and Jewish philosophy and of ancient science. Chapters are devoted to such major figures as Epicurus, Lucretius, Cicero, Seneca, Plotinus, and Augustine. But in keeping with the motto of the series, the story is told 'without any gaps,' providing an in-depth look at less familiar topics that remains suitable for the general reader. For instance, there are chapters on the fascinating but relatively obscure Cyrenaic philosophical school, on pagan philosophical figures like Porphyry and Iamblichus, and extensive coverage of the Greek and Latin Christian Fathers who are at best peripheral in most surveys of ancient philosophy. A major theme of the book is in fact the competition between pagan and Christian philosophy in this period, and the Jewish tradition also appears in the shape of Philo of Alexandria. Ancient science is also considered, with chapters on ancient medicine and the interaction between philosophy and astronomy. Considerable attention is paid also to the wider historical context, for instance by looking at the ascetic movement in Christianity and how it drew on ideas from Hellenic philosophy. From the counter-cultural witticisms of Diogenes the Cynic to the subtle skepticism of Sextus Empiricus, from the irreverent atheism of the Epicureans to the ambitious metaphysical speculation of Neoplatonism, from the ethical teachings of Marcus Aurelius to the political philosophy of Augustine, the book gathers together all aspects of later ancient thought in an accessible and entertaining way.