Osteoporosis in Men

Osteoporosis in Men
Author: Eric S. Orwoll,John P. Bilezikian,Dirk Vanderschueren
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 741
Release: 2009-11-30
ISBN 10: 9780080923468
ISBN 13: 0080923461
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Osteoporosis in Men Book Review:

Since the publication of the first edition, the U.S. Surgeon General released the first-ever report on bone health and osteoporosis in October 2004. This report focuses even more attention on the devastating impact osteoporosis has on millions of lives. According to the National Osteoporosis Foundation, 2 million American men have osteoporosis, and another 12 million are at risk for this disease. Yet despite the large number of men affected, the lack of awareness by doctors and their patients puts men at a higher risk that the condition may go undiagnosed and untreated. It is estimated that one-fifth to one-third of all hip fractures occur in men. This second edition brings on board John Bilezikian and Dirk Vanderschueren as editors with Eric Orwoll. The table of contents is more than doubling with 58 planned chapters. The format is larger – 8.5 x 11. This edition of Osteoporosis in Men brings together even more eminent investigators and clinicians to interpret developments in this growing field, and describe state-of-the-art research as well as practical approaches to diagnosis, prevention and therapy. Brings together more eminent investigators and clinicians to interpret developments in this growing field. Describes state-of-the-art research as well as practical approaches to diagnosis, prevention and therapy. There is no book on the market that covers osteoporosis in men as comprehensively as this book.

Male Osteoporosis

Male Osteoporosis
Author: Alberto Ferlin,Silvia Migliaccio
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 224
Release: 2020-09-07
ISBN 10: 3319963767
ISBN 13: 9783319963761
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Male Osteoporosis Book Review:

This book represents a comprehensive, clinically oriented text covering all aspects of male osteoporosis, from the basic concepts of bone physiology and regulation of bone remodeling in men, the causes and pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the most frequent causes of osteoporosis, to diagnostic and screening protocols, as well as prevention and treatment approaches. It offers a broad overview of male osteoporosis by specialists involved in research and clinical practice and discusses the practical issues encountered. Filling a gap in the literature, this volume is a valuable resource for general practitioners, clinical endocrinologists, geriatricians and experts in osteoporosis.

Bone Health and Osteoporosis

Bone Health and Osteoporosis
Author: United States Public Health Service,Ge Surgeon General of the United States
Publsiher: International Law & Taxation Pub
Total Pages: 440
Release: 2004-12-01
ISBN 10: 9781410219275
ISBN 13: 1410219275
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Bone Health and Osteoporosis Book Review:

This first-ever Surgeon General's Report on bone health and osteoporosis illustrates the large burden that bone disease places on our Nation and its citizens. Like other chronic diseases that disproportionately affect the elderly, the prevalence of bone disease and fractures is projected to increase markedly as the population ages. If these predictions come true, bone disease and fractures will have a tremendous negative impact on the future well-being of Americans. But as this report makes clear, they need not come true: by working together we can change the picture of aging in America. Osteoporosis, fractures, and other chronic diseases no longer should be thought of as an inevitable part of growing old. By focusing on prevention and lifestyle changes, including physical activity and nutrition, as well as early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, Americans can avoid much of the damaging impact of bone disease and other chronic diseases. This Surgeon General's Report brings together for the first time the scientific evidence related to the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of bone disease. More importantly, it provides a framework for moving forward. The report will be another effective tool in educating Americans about how they can promote bone health throughout their lives. This first-ever Surgeon General's Report on bone health and osteoporosis provides much needed information on bone health, an often overlooked aspect of physical health. This report follows in the tradition of previous Surgeon Generals' reports by identifying the relevant scientific data, rigorously evaluating and summarizing the evidence, and determining conclusions.

Fragility Fracture Nursing

Fragility Fracture Nursing
Author: Karen Hertz,Julie Santy-Tomlinson
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 158
Release: 2018-06-15
ISBN 10: 3319766813
ISBN 13: 9783319766812
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fragility Fracture Nursing Book Review:

This open access book aims to provide a comprehensive but practical overview of the knowledge required for the assessment and management of the older adult with or at risk of fragility fracture. It considers this from the perspectives of all of the settings in which this group of patients receive nursing care. Globally, a fragility fracture is estimated to occur every 3 seconds. This amounts to 25 000 fractures per day or 9 million per year. The financial costs are reported to be: 32 billion EUR per year in Europe and 20 billon USD in the United States. As the population of China ages, the cost of hip fracture care there is likely to reach 1.25 billion USD by 2020 and 265 billion by 2050 (International Osteoporosis Foundation 2016). Consequently, the need for nursing for patients with fragility fracture across the world is immense. Fragility fracture is one of the foremost challenges for health care providers, and the impact of each one of those expected 9 million hip fractures is significant pain, disability, reduced quality of life, loss of independence and decreased life expectancy. There is a need for coordinated, multi-disciplinary models of care for secondary fracture prevention based on the increasing evidence that such models make a difference. There is also a need to promote and facilitate high quality, evidence-based effective care to those who suffer a fragility fracture with a focus on the best outcomes for recovery, rehabilitation and secondary prevention of further fracture. The care community has to understand better the experience of fragility fracture from the perspective of the patient so that direct improvements in care can be based on the perspectives of the users. This book supports these needs by providing a comprehensive approach to nursing practice in fragility fracture care.

Pocket Reference to Osteoporosis

Pocket Reference to Osteoporosis
Author: Serge Livio Ferrari,Christian Roux
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 98
Release: 2018-12-28
ISBN 10: 3319267574
ISBN 13: 9783319267579
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Pocket Reference to Osteoporosis Book Review:

This book responds to the daily needs of all clinicians treating patients with osteoporosis and provides a key reference guide for any challenges that arise in clinical practice. This book also covers the genetics of the disease, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and current and upcoming treatment recommendations in accordance with the latest international guidelines. Osteoporosis is a disease in which the density and quality of bone are greatly reduced, and as bones become more porous and fragile the risk of fracture increases greatly. It is one of the most common metabolic bone diseases globally with one in three women and one in five men at risk of an osteoporotic fracture, and can result in devastating physical, psychosocial, and economic consequences. However, in spite of this osteoporosis can often be overlooked and undertreated, thus there is a real need to raise awareness of this disease.

The Osteoporosis Manual

The Osteoporosis Manual
Author: Reiner Bartl,Christoph Bartl
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 564
Release: 2019-02-06
ISBN 10: 3030007316
ISBN 13: 9783030007317
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Osteoporosis Manual Book Review:

This comprehensive manual covers all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of osteoporosis, offering an upbeat and optimistic assessment of what can be achieved. While scientifically based, the book provides easy-to-follow guidelines for lifelong maintenance of skeletal structure and function. It deals with everything from the basic physiology of bone and mineral metabolism to the diagnostic utility of radiologic imaging and specialized tests and current treatment recommendations, including for fracture management. The relationship of osteoporosis to a variety of other disorders is also thoroughly explored and elucidated. Osteoporosis represents a global threat because every human being is vulnerable to it as time passes. The authors point out the enormous scale of the problem in terms of the human suffering, morbidity, and mortality on the one hand and the associated astronomical national and global costs on the other. Osteoporosis is preventable, and every doctor in every medical discipline can contribute to this goal. And though prevention is better than cure, it is never too late for effective therapy, as outlined in this book. Bone is every doctorʼs and every bodyʼs business!

Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis
Author: Benjamin Z. Leder,Marc N. Wein
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 516
Release: 2020-01-31
ISBN 10: 3319692879
ISBN 13: 9783319692876
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Osteoporosis Book Review:

Completely revised and updated, and utilizing the most current evidence and practice guidelines for the treatment of osteoporosis, this comprehensive third edition discusses the basic aspects of bone metabolism, the pathophysiology of osteoporosis, current diagnostic techniques and medical treatment strategies. Osteoporosis is a common disorder that is prevalent in over 20 million Americans over the age of 60. One and a half million osteoporotic fractures occur in the United States every year, including 300,000 hip fractures. Mortality rates after hip fracture approach 25%, with another 50% of patients experiencing a major decrease in their prior level of independence and quality of life. Despite the wide prevalence and severe consequences of osteoporosis, it remains a disorder that is severely under-diagnosed and treated. In this context, specialists and primary care physicians alike are having increasing difficulty keeping up with the rapid changes to the field and incorporating these advances to clinical care. In the years since the last edition of this book was published, the osteoporosis field has changed drastically. In addition to revising and updating existing chapters and removing a few that are no longer as relevant, new chapters discuss an advanced understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the disorder, the introduction of new diagnostic imaging techniques, a more nuanced appreciation of the risks and benefits of osteoporosis therapies, and the introduction of two new classes of osteoporosis medications. Following the format of the second edition, and including helpful key points at the opening of each chapter, this text will present a comprehensive overview of both the basic and clinical concepts relating to each topic, when appropriate. Chapter authors were chosen based on their high level of expertise and leadership in the field. Taken together, this text should thus be of great interest to physicians of multiple specialties, allied health professionals, as well as basic and clinical researchers.

Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis
Author: Natalie E. Cusano
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 200
Release: 2021-11-02
ISBN 10: 3030839516
ISBN 13: 9783030839512
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Osteoporosis Book Review:

Comprised of clinical cases of patients with osteoporosis, this concise, practical casebook will provide clinicians with the best real-world strategies to properly diagnose and treat the various elements of the disorder they may encounter. It presents a detailed cross-section of patients across all age groups, with different etiologies of the disease and possible complications, to present sensible management scenarios to physicians treating patients with osteoporosis. The cases presented include considerations for screening and diagnosis, assessment tools, nutrition and lifestyle choices, medical treatments, specific populations including men, the elderly and athletes, and more. Pragmatic and reader-friendly, Osteoporosis: A Clinical Casebook is an excellent resource for primary care providers, endocrinologists, rheumatologists, and other clinicians caring for patients with this disease.

The Aging Skeleton

The Aging Skeleton
Author: Clifford J. Rosen,Julie Glowacki,John P. Bilezikian
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 642
Release: 1999-08-19
ISBN 10: 0080542379
ISBN 13: 9780080542379
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Aging Skeleton Book Review:

The Aging Skeleton is a comprehensive and timely book on all aspects of the skeleton as it ages, including basic mechanisms and pathways as well as pathobiology. Chapters cover general aspects and models of aging, determinants and maintenance of peak bone mass, mechanisms of age-related bone loss, quantifiable manifestations of age-related bone loss, fractures, and therapeutics. Covers all aspects of the aging skeleton in one comprehensive volume Looks at the influence of genetics, nutrition, environment, hormones, and other factors on bone mass Provides a thorough discussion of fractures, one of the major consequences of the aging skeleton Reviews current therapeutic approaches and methods Written by internationally renowned authors and edited by leaders in the field Is the only book available on this subject

New Horizons in Osteoporosis Management

New Horizons in Osteoporosis Management
Author: Yasser El Miedany
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2022
ISBN 10: 303087950X
ISBN 13: 9783030879501
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

New Horizons in Osteoporosis Management Book Review:

This book provides a review of the most recent data on osteoporosis and bone health, presenting a vision of diagnosis and management for the year 2021 and beyond. It covers all pertinent aspects of bone health including diagnosis, fracture prevention, optimized practice, impaired orthostasis, and falls. The book examines recent developments in therapeutics, including goal-directed therapy, individualizing therapy, sequential and combined therapies, pharmaceuticals, and anabolic vs. antiresorptive therapy. In addition, it provides an in-depth overview of osteoporosis and bone health in complex patients, covering Duchene dystrophy, renal failure, periodontal diseases, and steroid-induced osteoporosis as well as considerations for pediatric populations and men. New Horizons in Osteoporosis Management is an essential resource for physicians and related professionals, residents, fellows, graduate students and nurses in rheumatology, endocrinology, radiology, pediatrics, primary care, and internal medicine. .

Advances in Osteoporosis

Advances in Osteoporosis
Author: Yannis Dionyssiotis
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 176
Release: 2015-03-04
ISBN 10: 9535120271
ISBN 13: 9789535120278
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Osteoporosis Book Review:

A balanced regulation of bone formation and resorption in the healthy individual is required for a healthy bone. On the other side, there are many factors which can lead to alterations in bone density and microarchitecture. Menopause is a condition which can increase the remodeling process in favor of resorption. Moreover, there are also some diseases, i.e. chronic kidney bone disease, that increase the possibility of fractures and the subsequent disability leading to increased mortality. However, it is clear that drugs are an essential element of the therapy and this issue is analyzed extensively in this book. Some novel pathophysiological mechanisms are also presented, offering advanced knowledge to the reader. The book includes chapters from scientific departments and researchers from all over the world.

Osteoporosis Rehabilitation

Osteoporosis Rehabilitation
Author: Christina V. Oleson
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 498
Release: 2017-05-12
ISBN 10: 3319450840
ISBN 13: 9783319450841
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Osteoporosis Rehabilitation Book Review:

Taking an expansive perspective on osteoporosis and its ramifications, but with a central focus on the transition from diagnosis to treatment, rehabilitation and current management options, this practical guide discusses the most recent knowledge and literature on osteoporosis for the wide cross-section of professionals involved in treating this pervasive condition. It enables the physician or physician extender to develop a strategy for diagnosing osteoporosis, including detailed laboratory tests as well as imaging, interpreting findings, and determining options appropriate to the needs of individual patients. The material offers guidance on how to treat osteoporosis patients who are suffering from neurological conditions such as brain and spinal cord injuries, rheumatologic syndromes, peripheral neuropathies, gastrointestinal conditions, as well as cardiopulmonary, liver and kidney disorders, among others. Additional chapters address management of osteoporosis in men, patients with advanced medical illnesses including various forms of cancer, organ failure and organ transplantation, pediatric onset of primary and secondary osteoporosis, and the female athlete triad. Covering the gamut of considerations presented by osteoporosis patients, Osteoporosis Rehabilitation: A Practical Approach is a timely, interdisciplinary resource for orthopedists, rehabilitation specialists, primary care physicians, nurses and any other professionals who bring their expertise to bear on the management of this common condition.

Glucocorticoid induced Osteoporosis

Glucocorticoid induced Osteoporosis
Author: Andrea Giustina,Alberto Angeli,Ernesto Canalis
Publsiher: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
Total Pages: 204
Release: 2002
ISBN 10: 3805572964
ISBN 13: 9783805572965
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Glucocorticoid induced Osteoporosis Book Review:

Osteoporosis is one of the most clinically relevant disabling chronic disease encountered in clinical practice. A common cause of osteoporosis is glucocorticoid excess, as glucocorticoids may increase bone resorption, inhibit bone formation, have indirect actions on bone by decreasing intestinal calcium absorption and induce hypercalciuria. This book presents a comprehensive overview of the effects of glucocorticoids on bone metabolism and structure and on the diagnosis and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. It aims at providing updated information on the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of this often dramatic complication of glucocorticoid excess. Being one of the few publications completely devoted to glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis it will heighten the awareness of specialists who prescribe glucocorticoids of the clinical relevance of this treatment complication. 'Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis' is addressed to clinical experts as well as to general practitioners who will both benefit from the comprehensive and integrative view of the management of patients exposed to glucocorticoids.

Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis
Author: Dale W. Stovall
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 288
Release: 2013-07-17
ISBN 10: 1118316312
ISBN 13: 9781118316313
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Osteoporosis Book Review:

Osteoporosis is a growing major public health problem that impacts many women and men. In the US alone, it is estimated that 10 million Americans have osteoporosis and another 34 million have low bone mass. Both of these conditions put patients at increased risk for fracture. This book takes a "generalist" approach to the challenge of osteoporosis. It is aimed at those specialists, in particular gynecologists, who have regular clinical contact with particularly prone populations, such as menopausal and post menopausal women, who do not have the need for in-depth knowledge of the subject.

Marcus and Feldman s Osteoporosis

Marcus and Feldman s Osteoporosis
Author: David W. Dempster,Jane A. Cauley,Mary L. Bouxsein,Felicia Cosman
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 1946
Release: 2020-10-08
ISBN 10: 0128130741
ISBN 13: 9780128130742
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Marcus and Feldman s Osteoporosis Book Review:

Marcus and Feldman's Osteoporosis, Fifth Edition, is the most comprehensive, authoritative reference on this disease. Led by a new editorial team, this fifth edition offers critical information on reproductive and hormonal risk factors, new therapeutics, ethnicity, nutrition, therapeutics, management and economics, comprising a tremendous wealth of knowledge in a single source not found elsewhere. Written by renowned experts in the field, this two-volume reference is a must-have for biomedical researchers, research clinicians, fellows, academic and medical libraries, and any company involved in osteoporosis drug research and development. Summarizes the latest research in bone biology and translational applications in a range of new therapeutic agents, including essential updates on therapeutic uses of calcium, vitamin D, SERMS, bisphosphonates, parathyroid hormone, and new therapeutic agents Recognizes the critical importance of new signaling pathways for bone health, including Wnt, OPG and RANK, of interest to both researchers who study bone biology and clinicians who treat osteoporosis Offers new insights into osteoporosis associated with menopause, pre-menopause, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, HIV and other immune disorders

The Parathyroids

The Parathyroids
Author: John P. Bilezikian,Robert Marcus,Michael A. Levine
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 881
Release: 2001-07-21
ISBN 10: 9780080525778
ISBN 13: 0080525776
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Parathyroids Book Review:

Written by world experts, this books follows upon the monumental success of the first edition of The Parathyroids, which was universally acclaimed as the best text on the subject. An authoritative reference that spans the basic science of parathyroid hormone treatment to major clinical disorders in a superb, single compendium, The Parathyroids offers an objective and authoritative view on controversial clinical issues in this rapidly changing field. Every medical school library and virtually every major hospital library will need this book as a reference for students and clinicians. Key Features * Offers objective and authoritative reviews on controversial clinical issues * Written by world experts on parathyroid hormone and its disorders * Superb, state-of-the-art compendium in one convenient volume * Bridges basic science of parathyroid hormone to major clinical disorders * Practical information on clinical management of parathyroid hormone disorders

Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis
Author: Byron Lawrence Riggs,L. Joseph Melton
Publsiher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Total Pages: 524
Release: 1995
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: UOM:39015034868714
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Osteoporosis Book Review:

Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis
Author: Robert Marcus,David Feldman,Dorothy Nelson,Clifford Rosen
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 2016
Release: 2007-11-08
ISBN 10: 9780080553474
ISBN 13: 0080553478
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Osteoporosis Book Review:

Now in its third edition, Osteoporosis, is the most comprehensive, authoritative reference on this disease. Written by renowned experts in the field, this two-volume reference is a must-have for academic and medical libraries, physicians, researchers, and any company involved in osteoporosis research and development. Worldwide, 200 million women between 60-80 suffer from osteoporosis and have a lifetime risk of fracture between 30 and 40 percent continuing to make osteoporosis a hot topic in medicine. This newest edition covers everything from basic anatomy and physiology to diagnosis, management and treatment in a field where direct care costs for osteoporitic fractures in the U.S. reach up to $18 billion each year. NEW TO THIS EDITION: *Recognizes the critical importance of the Wnt signaling pathway for bone health *Incorporates new chapters on osteocytes, phosphatonins, mouse genetics, and CNS and bone *Examines essential updates on estrogen prevention and treatment and the recent results from the WHI *Discusses the controversial topics of screening and clinical trial design for drug registration *Includes essential updates on therapeutic uses of calcium, vitamin D, SERMS, bisphosphonates, and parathyroid hormone * Offers critical reviews of reproductive and hormonal risk factors, ethnicity, nutrition, therapeutics, management, and economics comprising a tremendous wealth of knowledge in a single source not found elsewhere

Who Fears Death

Who Fears Death
Author: Nnedi Okorafor
Publsiher: Penguin
Total Pages: 432
Release: 2011-06-07
ISBN 10: 1101516003
ISBN 13: 9781101516003
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Who Fears Death Book Review:

Now optioned as a TV series for HBO, with executive producer George R. R. Martin! An award-winning literary author enters the world of magical realism with her World Fantasy Award-winning novel of a remarkable woman in post-apocalyptic Africa. In a post-apocalyptic Africa, the world has changed in many ways; yet in one region genocide between tribes still bloodies the land. A woman who has survived the annihilation of her village and a terrible rape by an enemy general wanders into the desert, hoping to die. Instead, she gives birth to an angry baby girl with hair and skin the color of sand. Gripped by the certainty that her daughter is different—special—she names her Onyesonwu, which means "Who fears death?" in an ancient language. It doesn't take long for Onye to understand that she is physically and socially marked by the circumstances of her conception. She is Ewu—a child of rape who is expected to live a life of violence, a half-breed rejected by her community. But Onye is not the average Ewu. Even as a child, she manifests the beginnings of a remarkable and unique magic. As she grows, so do her abilities, and during an inadvertent visit to the spirit realm, she learns something terrifying: someone powerful is trying to kill her. Desperate to elude her would-be murderer and to understand her own nature, she embarks on a journey in which she grapples with nature, tradition, history, true love, and the spiritual mysteries of her culture, and ultimately learns why she was given the name she bears: Who Fears Death.

Chalk Talks in Internal Medicine

Chalk Talks in Internal Medicine
Author: Somnath Mookherjee,Lauren A. Beste,Jared W. Klein,Jennifer Wright
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 353
Release: 2020-09-30
ISBN 10: 3030348148
ISBN 13: 9783030348144
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Chalk Talks in Internal Medicine Book Review:

This book provides teaching scripts for medical educators in internal medicine and coaches them in creating their own teaching scripts. Every year, thousands of attending internists are asked to train the next generation of physicians to master a growing body of knowledge. Formal teaching time has become increasingly limited due to rising clinical workload, medical documentation requirements, duty hour restrictions, and other time pressures. In addition, today’s physicians-in-training expect teaching sessions that deliver focused, evidence-based content that is integrated into clinical workflow. In keeping with both time pressures and trainee expectations, academic internists must be prepared to effectively and efficiently teach important diagnostic and management concepts. A teaching script is a methodical and structured plan that aids in effective teaching. The teaching scripts in this book anticipate learners’ misconceptions, highlight a limited number of teaching points, provide evidence to support the teaching points, use strategies to engage the learners, and provide a cognitive scaffold for teaching the topic that the teacher can refine over time. All divisions of internal medicine (e.g. cardiology, rheumatology, and gastroenterology) are covered and a section on undifferentiated symptom-based presentations (e.g. fatigue, fever, and unintentional weight loss) is included. This book provides well-constructed teaching scripts for commonly encountered clinical scenarios, is authored by experienced academic internists and allows the reader to either implement them directly or modify them for their own use. Each teaching script is designed to be taught in 10-15 minutes, but can be easily adjusted by the reader for longer or shorter talks. Teaching Scripts in Internal Medicine is an ideal tool for internal medicine attending physicians and trainees, as well as physician’s assistants, nurse practitioners, and all others who teach and learn internal medicine.