2020 BlueBook 60 The Ultimate Guide to Fastpitch Softball Rules

2020 BlueBook 60   The Ultimate Guide to Fastpitch Softball Rules
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 134
Release: 2020
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: 9798614829735
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

2020 BlueBook 60 The Ultimate Guide to Fastpitch Softball Rules Book Review:

This is the 12th year publishing the best selling Blue Book 60, the ultimate teaching and reference tool for Umpires, Coaches, and Players that need to understand the nuances of fast pitch softball rules. This 100+ page guide covers complete references with detailed explanations of NCAA (collegiate), NFHS (high school), USA Softball (formerly ASA) and USSSA travel team softball rules. Blue Book 60 is the top rated fast pitch rules guide in publication for 10 seasons now in the US and Canada. If you're a COACH: This guide explains fastpitch rules in an easy to consume format for any level. Learn the important rules, the right way. If you're an ATHLETE: Learn the rules to get an edge on the competition, very easily using the Blue Book 60. If you're a PARENT: Learn the rules before to be a better educated fan and support your teams. If you're an UMPIRE: This guide is a must read, especially if you work multiple levels and need to remember different codes. Additionally the appendix contains several nice umpire tools to help you have better pregame discussions with your partners. 100% of all proceeds go directly toward educating coaches and umpires and also provide officiating scholarships through the non-profit "Zebra Foundation". (http: //projectzebra.org) Additions and updates can be found at http: //bluebook60.com. For more officiating resources (basketball and softball) visit "60 Seconds on Officiating" at http: //ref60.com and http: //gobeyondtherules.com.

The Softball Drill Book

The Softball Drill Book
Author: Kirk Walker
Publsiher: Human Kinetics
Total Pages: 280
Release: 2007-04-30
ISBN 10: 1492584177
ISBN 13: 9781492584179
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Softball Drill Book Book Review:

Packed with 175 drills straight from the practice sessions of the game’s most successful programs, The Softball Drill Book will add variety to your practices and precision to your game-day performances. The comprehensive collection covers every aspect of the game. From warm-up to conditioning, throwing to hitting, bunting to base-running, you’ll find drills to improve position skill and team execution - all from college coaches and programs that have won 13 NCAA Women’s College World Series titles and dozens of NCAA regional tournament titles. Contributors include: Louie Berndt, Florida State Carol Bruggeman, Louisville Yvette Girouard, Louisiana State Michelle Gromacki, Cal State Fullerton Deanna Gumpf, Notre Dame Carol Hutchins, Michigan Kelly Inouye-Perez, UCLA Jay Miller, Mississippi State Jennifer Ogee, Nebraska Kim Sowder, Long Beach State Heather Tarr, Washington Michelle Venturella, Iowa Kirk Walker, Oregon State Margie Wright, Fresno State One look at the names above and it is clear, The Softball Drill Book is your blueprint for championship practices. ContentsPart I Training Drills Chapter 1. Warming Up Carol Bruggeman Chapter 2. Conditioning Michelle Venturella Part II Fundamental Skills Drills Chapter 3. Catching Deanna Gumpf Chapter 4. Throwing Louie Berndt Chapter 5. Base Running Jay Miller Chapter 6. Hitting Jennifer Ogee Chapter 7. Bunting Michelle Gromacki Chapter 8. Slap Hitting Heather Tarr Part III Position-Specific Drills Chapter 9. Infielders Kim Sowder Chapter 10. Outfielders Margie Wright Chapter 11. Pitcher Kirk Walker Chapter 12. Catcher Kelly Inouye-Perez Part IV Tactical Drills Chapter 13. Team Offense Carol Hutchins Chapter 14. Team Defense Yvette Girouard

Bluebook 60 Fastpitch Softball Rules 2018

Bluebook 60 Fastpitch Softball Rules 2018
Author: Billy Martin
Publsiher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
Total Pages: 112
Release: 2017-12-29
ISBN 10: 9781981922246
ISBN 13: 1981922245
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Bluebook 60 Fastpitch Softball Rules 2018 Book Review:

Blue Book 60 provides the ultimate teaching and reference tool for Umpires, Coaches, and Players that need to understand the nuances of fast pitch softball rules. This 100+ page guide covers complete references with detailed explanations of NCAA (collegiate), NFHS (high school), USA Softball (formerly ASA) and USSSA travel team softball rules. Blue Book 60 is the top rated fast pitch rules guide in publication for 10 seasons now in the US and Canada. If you're a COACH: This guide explains fastpitch rules in an easy to consume format for any level. Learn the important rules, the right way. If you're an ATHLETE: Learn the rules to get an edge on the competition, very easily using the Blue Book 60. If you're a PARENT: Learn the rules before to be a better educated fan and support your teams. If you're an UMPIRE: This guide is a must read, especially if you work multiple levels and need to remember different codes. Additionally the appendix contains several nice umpire tools to help you have better pregame discussions with your partners. 100% of all proceeds go directly toward educating coaches and umpires and also provide officiating scholarships through the non-profit "Zebra Foundation." (http: //projectzebra.org) Additions and updates can be found at http: //bluebook60.com. For more officiating resources (basketball and softball) visit "60 Seconds on Officiating" at http: //ref60.com and http: //gobeyondtherules.com.

Sports Officiating

Sports Officiating
Author: Alan S. Goldberger
Publsiher: Referee Enterprises
Total Pages: 317
Release: 2007
ISBN 10: 1582080844
ISBN 13: 9781582080840
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Sports Officiating Book Review:

Campus Recreational Sports Facilities

Campus Recreational Sports Facilities
Author: National Intramural-Recreational Sports Association (U.S.)
Publsiher: Human Kinetics
Total Pages: 282
Release: 2009
ISBN 10: 0736063838
ISBN 13: 9780736063838
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Campus Recreational Sports Facilities Book Review:

"Campus Recreational Sports Facilities" covers the entire process of building a facility, from initial planning through design, construction, and move-in. Recreational sport directors, architects, and other experts provide construction options and share industry standards, guidelines, procedures, and more to help you navigate this complex process.

Baseball Rules in Black and White

Baseball Rules in Black and White
Author: JAMES C. BETTENCOURT
Publsiher: Lulu Publishing Services
Total Pages: 329
Release: 2016-08-23
ISBN 10: 9781483456331
ISBN 13: 1483456331
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Baseball Rules in Black and White Book Review:

The new 2017 Edition of Baseball Rules in Black & White ""Difficult High School Baseball Rules Made Easy"" includes three additional rule topics, plus the 2017 high school rule changes. The 2017 Edition has expanded to a total of 19 troublesome rule topics. From those 19 troublesome rules over 200 ruling actions, examples, and summaries in basic language and large font are provided. Each of the over 200 rulings include the original rule & page number from the high school rule book and this book includes a Table of Contents listed in alphabetical order, making finding a rule simple. Baseball Rules in Black and White will accelerate and increase a new umpire's baseball rule knowledge substantially. It is a great refresher for veteran umpires and coaches. By reading easy to find, clearly stated rules you will learn more in less time than reading a conventional rule book!

Sports Fields

Sports Fields
Author: James C. Puhalla,Jeffrey V. Krans,J. Michael Goatley, Jr.
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 624
Release: 2020-04-07
ISBN 10: 1119534755
ISBN 13: 9781119534754
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Sports Fields Book Review:

THE UPDATED, AUTHORITATIVE GUIDE TO SPORTS FIELD MANAGEMENT THAT INCLUDES THE LATEST DEVELOPMENTS IN, AND ON, THE FIELD The updated Third Edition of Sports Fields: Design, Construction, and Maintenance is a comprehensive reference for professionals who are responsible for the design, construction, renovation, and maintenance of athletic facilities. This book contains illustrative examples of specific design elements of the most popular sports facilities. This Third Edition contains new chapters on safety, public relations, and professionalism for future sports field managers, as well as fresh drawings and photos that highlight innovative field layout, grading, irrigation, and drainage. All-new case studies review best practices and techniques for sports fields ranging from youth and high school fields to fields that are designed for professional athletes. This text is also an ideal resource for anyone studying for Sports Field Manager Certification (offered by STMA). Features new case studies that include design and management best practices for all levels and types of sports facilities Offers new chapters on safety, public relations, and professionalism for future sports field managers Includes new illustrations and photos of innovative field layout, grading, irrigation, and drainage Contains the most recent information on sand-based field systems and synthetic turf Presents discussions of a range of fields including baseball, softball, football, soccer, lacrosse, field hockey, tennis, and track and field Sports Fields: Design, Construction, and Maintenance, Third Edition is a blueprint for field managers, designers, and builders for successful sports field projects.

A Fan s Guide to Baseball Analytics

A Fan s Guide to Baseball Analytics
Author: Anthony Castrovince
Publsiher: Simon and Schuster
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2020-05-12
ISBN 10: 1683583450
ISBN 13: 9781683583455
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

A Fan s Guide to Baseball Analytics Book Review:

Broken up into sections (pitching, fielding, hitting), this authoritative yet fun and easy guide will help readers young and old fully understand and comprehend the statistics that are the present and future of our national pastime. We all know what a .300 hitter looks like. The same with a 20-game winner. Those numbers are ingrained in our brains. But do they mean as much as we think? Do we feel the same way when we hear a batter has a .390 wOBA? How about a pitcher with a 1.2 WHIP? These statistics are the future of modern baseball, and no fan should be in the dark about how these metrics apply to the game. In the last twenty years, an avalanche of analytics has taken over the way the game is played, managed, and assessed, but the statistics that drive the sport (metrics like wRC+, FIP, and WAR, just to name a few) read like alphabet soup to a large number of fans who still think batting average, RBIs, and wins are the best barometers for baseball players. In A Fan’s Guide to Baseball Analytics, MLB.com reporter and columnist Anthony Castrovince has taken on the role as explainer to help such fans understand why the old stats don’t always add up. Readers will also learn where these modern stats came from, what they convey, and how to use them to evaluate players of the present, past, and future. For instance, what if we told you that when Joe DiMaggio had his famous 56-game hitting streak in 1941, helping him win the AL MVP, that there was, perhaps, someone more deserving? In fact, the great Ted Williams actually had a higher fWAR, bWAR, wRC+, OPS, OPS+, ISO, RC . . . well, you get the picture. So, streak or no streak, Williams should have been league MVP. An introductory course on sabermetrics, A Fan’s Guide to Baseball Analytics is an easily digestible resource that readers can keep turning back to when they see a modern metric referenced in today’s baseball coverage.

CompTIA Security Study Guide

CompTIA Security  Study Guide
Author: Mike Chapple,David Seidl
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 672
Release: 2021-01-27
ISBN 10: 1119736250
ISBN 13: 9781119736257
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

CompTIA Security Study Guide Book Review:

Learn the key objectives and most crucial concepts covered by the Security+ Exam SY0-601 with this comprehensive and practical study guide The Eighth Edition of the CompTIA Security+ Study Guide Exam SY0-601 efficiently and comprehensively prepares you for the SY0-601 Exam. Accomplished authors and security experts Mike Chapple and David Seidl walk you through the fundamentals of crucial security topics, including the five domains covered by the SY0-601 Exam: Attacks, Threats, and Vulnerabilities Architecture and Design Implementation Operations and Incident Response Governance, Risk, and Compliance The study guide comes with the Sybex online, interactive learning environment that includes a pre-assessment test, hundreds of review questions, practice exams, flashcards, and a glossary of key terms. The book is written in a practical and straightforward manner, ensuring you can easily learn and retain the material. Perfect for everyone planning to take the SY0-601 Exam—as well as those who hope to secure a high-level certification like the CASP+, CISSP, or CISA—the study guide also belongs on the bookshelves of everyone who has ever wondered if the field of IT security is right for them. It’s a must-have reference!

Bulletin

Bulletin
Author: Michigan High School Athletic Association
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 329
Release: 2007
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: UOM:39015078318519
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Bulletin Book Review:

Softball Skills Drills

Softball Skills   Drills
Author: Judi F. Garman,Michelle M. Gromacki
Publsiher: Human Kinetics
Total Pages: 328
Release: 2011-02-14
ISBN 10: 1492583057
ISBN 13: 9781492583059
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Softball Skills Drills Book Review:

Looking for the ultimate book to help you learn and master softball’s essential skills? Look no further than the guide that has helped develop the game’s top players and most successful teams. This new edition of Softball Skills & Drills is completely updated with more skills, more drills and strategies, and more of the stellar instruction that have made it the top-selling title on the sport. Judi Garman, one of the winningest coaches in NCAA history, teams with Cal State Fullerton’s Michelle Gromacki to share their secrets to developing and mastering every aspect of the game. With step-by-step instruction, full-color photo sequences, technique tips, and unique insight into the game, you’ll learn every fundamental skill: •Hitting •Bunting •Slap Hitting •Baserunning •Sliding •Fielding •Throwing •Pitching •Catching And with over 230 of the game’s best drills, coverage of team offense and defense, pitch selection, pitch recognition, and in-game strategies, Softball Skills and Drills is simply the most comprehensive and practical guide on the sport. Whether striving to become a complete player or preparing your team for another championship run, Softball Skills &Drills is the one book you cannot be without.

The Good Daughters

The Good Daughters
Author: Joyce Maynard
Publsiher: Harper Collins
Total Pages: 304
Release: 2010-08-24
ISBN 10: 0062006827
ISBN 13: 9780062006820
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Good Daughters Book Review:

“A story of choices and events so intimate I felt I was part of it. The novel is wrenching, the emotions radiant, and it will leave readers transformed” —Luanne Rice, author of The Deep Blue Sea for Beginners “Joyce Maynard has outdone herself in this beautifully written story you’ll find hard to put down and impossible to forget.” — Elizabeth Berg, author of The Last Time I Saw You Bestselling author of the critically acclaimed Labor Day, Joyce Maynard now brings us The Good Daughters, a spellbinding novel about friendship, family secrets, and the strange, unexpected twists of fate that shape our lives. The story of two women born the same day in the same hospital, but raised in vastly different emotional environments, The Good Daughters is another high note in Maynard’s already distinguished writing career.

Baseball Field Guide

Baseball Field Guide
Author: Dan Formosa,Paul Hamburger
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2016-03-22
ISBN 10: 9780606379540
ISBN 13: 0606379541
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Baseball Field Guide Book Review:

For use in schools and libraries only. A clear, comprehensive, and visual guide to the rules of baseball.

Practice Perfect Softball

Practice Perfect Softball
Author: National Fastpitch Coaches Association
Publsiher: Human Kinetics
Total Pages: 224
Release: 2016-06-24
ISBN 10: 149258567X
ISBN 13: 9781492585671
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Practice Perfect Softball Book Review:

The road to a championship season begins long before the first pitch of the opening game. It begins before a player even steps onto the field. In Practice Perfect Softball, the game’s premier coaches share their approaches, experiences, and philosophies of every aspect of practice. This authoritative guide goes beyond the stretches and drills, straight to the heart of winning—effort and attitude. From structuring sessions to evaluating practice performance, you’ll find proven and practical recommendations from the all-star lineup of contributors: • Julie Lenhart • Rachel Hanson • Beverly Smith • Rachel Lawson • Lisa (Sweeney) Van Ackeren • Dot Richardson • Ken Eriksen • Connie Clark • Celeste Knierim • Bill Gray and Melissa Chmielewski • Lonni Alameda • Jo Evans • Jen McIntyre • Donna Papa • JoAnne Graf (editor) Inside, you’ll identify and establish practice ethics; assess team strengths; and develop players’ skills in the field, on the mound, and at the plate. Developed by the National Fastpitch Coaches Association, Practice Perfect Softball is your guide to developing champions on and off the field.

The 2011 Brd

The 2011 Brd
Author: Carl Childress
Publsiher: CreateSpace
Total Pages: 416
Release: 2011-02-10
ISBN 10: 9781456487126
ISBN 13: 1456487124
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The 2011 Brd Book Review:

“Referee Magazine” called “Baseball Rule Differences” an essential reference for any umpire working with more than one rulebook. It began in 1982 as a 40-page mimeographed document. Today, it's over 400 pages, containing 537 rule sections, 272 plays, 371 official interpretations, 58 authoritative opinion boxes, 1335 cross-references, and nearly 2500 rule citations.You know this book, of course, by its nickname: The BRD.Inside you'll find a complete discussion of all rule differences among the various codes: National Federation (high school), the NCAA and NAIA, and the Official Baseball Rules, used in professional baseball and serving as the basis for most youth baseball.All changes from the 2009 edition, published by Officiating.com, are clearly marked, including “changed rules,” editorial revisions, added notes, revised and expanded case rulings. In the two years since the last edition, baseball rules committees have made more significant changes than in any previous two-year period. If you don't own the 2011 BRD, you will face a daunting task as you try to harmonize play situations in the games you work.Over the years, readers have marveled at the help provided by the alphabetical index. It's 43 pages devoted to every subject, no matter how small, included in the book. Additionally, there's a rule citation index which is invaluable in finding a specific rule. Grab a rulebook, pick a rule, note its citation (7.09a, for example), then check to see if it's explained in the BRD. The index contains 2373 such citations.The author, over the years, has had generous help from rule interpreters and those with authoritative opinions. You find the comments of Mike Fitzpatrick from PBUC, Jim Evans of the Annotated Rules, Rick Roder of the Jaksa/Roder Manual, Kyle McNeeley, chairman of the NFHS rules committee, Joe Paronto, editor of the NCAA book, and many others too numerous to mention here.Here's a sample of a rule change for the 2011 season:48 BATTER: BATTER'S BOX: STEPS: ON PLATE / OUTSIDE BOX: HITS FAIR OR FOUL OR FOUL TIPFED: The batter is out and the ball is dead if he hits fair or foul while (changed - 10) either foot or knee “is touching the ground completely outside the lines of the batter's box or touching home plate.” (7-3-2; 7-3-2 Pen) Last edition: No provision for being out while the knee is on the plate and the pitch is hit.56. ALSO: OFF INTERP 51-48: HOPKINS: If the batter hits a foul tip while touching the plate or outside the lines of the batter's box: The ball is dead and the batter is out. (Website, 2003, #2)NCAA: The batter is out if he hits fair or foul while touching the plate or with one foot on the ground completely outside the lines of the batter's box. (7-10a; 7-10a Pen)57. ALSO: If the batter hits a “foul tip” while not “within the lines of the batter's box,” it is not a foul tip but a foul ball. He is out. (7-8) (See sect. 73.)OBR: If the batter hits fair or foul with one foot on the ground completely outside the batter's box: Same as FED / NCAA. (6.06a) If the batter steps on the plate and hits fair or foul: Point not covered.OFF INTERP 52-48: FITZPATRICK: Unless the batter's foot is completely outside the lines of the box when he steps on the plate, he is not out when he hits the pitched ball fair or foul. (email to cc, 11/15/00) (See sect. 83.)58. ALSO: OFF INTERP 53-48: PBUC MANUAL: The batter is out if he hits a foul tip with one foot completely outside the batter's box. {3.17}Play 46-48: B1 is in the front of the batter's box to hit the curve before it breaks. He takes a mighty swing and foul tips the pitch, which the catcher catches. The umpire notices the batter has one foot on the ground outside the batter's box. Ruling: In FED, the batter is out. [Website interpretation] In NCAA, the batter is out [black-letter law]. In OBR, the batter is out. [PBUC interpretation]The author guarantees you'll get your money's worth!

2015 Official Rules of Tennis

2015 Official Rules of Tennis
Author: USTA,International Tennis Federation
Publsiher: Triumph Books (IL)
Total Pages: 128
Release: 2015-05-15
ISBN 10: 9781629370873
ISBN 13: 1629370878
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

2015 Official Rules of Tennis Book Review:

Including helpful interpretations in addition to the official rules and regulations, this is the singular resource to everything tennis, put forth by the sport's governing body, the United States Tennis Association. With detailed sections and ample appendices, this guide will prove an invaluable resource to players, officials, coaches, parents, and fans. This edition is completely updated for 2015.

With Jesus in Her Heart and a Softball in Her Hand She s Unstoppable

With Jesus in Her Heart and a Softball in Her Hand She s Unstoppable
Author: Favorite Softball Sports Journals
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 124
Release: 2020-01-05
ISBN 10: 9781656118561
ISBN 13: 1656118564
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

With Jesus in Her Heart and a Softball in Her Hand She s Unstoppable Book Review:

The game is called Softball but a real girl plays hardball in the position of a catcher or pitcher? This special WITH JESUS IN HER HEART AND A SOFTBALL IN HER HAND SHE'S UNSTOPPABLE journal is perfect to track your and your team's trainings program, your season and everday goals in sports, school, life. Be a star and win the game with a pitch, fastpitch, windmill. Hit a Dinger or a frozen rope. Because good girls steal and no place is like home! Fill this notebook with all your ideas, memories from a match, training and working notes as a planer. Use it to motivate yourself as well as all your player crew members. Features of this journal: 6 x 9" inches Softcover Journal Book 120 matte pages (Blank) Useful size for all purposes, can be taken in your purse, handbag, carrying case, backpack or sport equipment bag Great for taking notes, thoughts and ideas while being in classroom, locker room or at home, sitting in the bus or train

Coaching Fastpitch Softball Successfully

Coaching Fastpitch Softball Successfully
Author: Kathy J. Veroni,Roanna Brazier
Publsiher: Human Kinetics
Total Pages: 221
Release: 2006
ISBN 10: 9780736060103
ISBN 13: 0736060103
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Coaching Fastpitch Softball Successfully Book Review:

Field a winning fastpitch softball team year after year with the knowledge and insights of a coaching legend! Coaching Fastpitch Softball Successfully provides the guidance and technical expertise you need in order to build and maintain a competitive team, covering every facet of leading a squad on the field and developing a program off of it. Hall of Fame coach Kathy Veroni, who has won more than 1,250 fastpitch games in her career, and pitching expert Roanna Brazier share their insights and experiences in this authoritative, comprehensive guide to coaching fastpitch softball. From developing a coaching philosophy and planning for the season to teaching the skills and tactics of the game, you will find proven formulas for success within these pages. With practice and conditioning plans, administrative forms, sample scouting charts, tactics for dozens of game situations, and more than 130 drills, Coaching Fastpitch Softball Successfully is the most complete resource available for aspiring and experienced coaches alike. Take advantage of the authors' expertise to gain a winning edge over your competition.

Robert s Rules of Order

Robert s Rules of Order
Author: Henry M. Robert
Publsiher: Blurb
Total Pages: 108
Release: 2019-04-13
ISBN 10: 9780368599347
ISBN 13: 0368599345
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Robert s Rules of Order Book Review:

Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised, commonly referred to as Robert's Rules of Order, RONR, or simply Robert's Rules, is the most widely used manual of parliamentary procedure in the United States. It governs the meetings of a diverse range of organizations-including church groups, county commissions, homeowners associations, nonprofit associations, professional societies, school boards, and trade unions-that have adopted it as their parliamentary authority. The manual was first published in 1876 by .US Army officer Henry Martyn Robert, who adapted the rules and practice of Congress to the needs of non-legislative societies. Ten subsequent editions have been published, including major revisions in 1915 and 1970. The copyright to Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised is owned by the Robert's Rules Association, which selects by contract an authorship team to continue the task of revising and updating the book. The 11th and current edition was published in 2011. In 2005, the Robert's Rules Association published an official concise guide, titled Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised In Brief. A second edition of the brief book was published in 2011.

Softball

Softball
Author: Adam Hofstetter
Publsiher: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc
Total Pages: 48
Release: 2007-01-15
ISBN 10: 9781404209961
ISBN 13: 1404209964
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Softball Book Review:

Offers an introduction to the history, techniques, equipment, and rules of softball.