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|Author||: Charles E. McClelland|
|Publsiher||: Peter Lang Pub Incorporated|
|Total Pages||: 238|
|ISBN 13||: UOM:39015064799656|
|Language||: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL|
How did German visual artists relate to the broader society around them between the invention of the artist as «genius» and visionary, in the Romantic era of the nineteenth century, and the struggle to overcome pauperization and social marginalization through collective professionalization during much of the twentieth? The collective - if not always agreed - aspirations and expectations of artists in this long period are best reflected in the schools and academies that came to dominate their education, in their professional associations, and their strategies of marketing and economic well-being. Like members of other German learned professions, visual artists struggled to achieve autonomy from state, church, and other powerful social and economic forces while also raising and maintaining ever-evolving professional standards. Like other professions, they were forced also to make compromises with power and money, losing many battles in the process. The subjectivity of values surrounding art, the de facto economic status of artists as small entrepreneurs unable or unwilling to submit fully to corporate, bureaucratic, or union organization, and the practical inability to limit their numbers all conspired to undermine fully successful professionalization. By bringing the tools of social history to bear, this book sheds rare illumination on the little-known history of the many «everyday» German artists, rather than on the better-known works of the few.
|Author||: Gregor Dobler|
|Publsiher||: BASLER AFRIKA BIBLIOGRAPHIEN|
|Total Pages||: 248|
|ISBN 10||: 3905758407|
|ISBN 13||: 9783905758405|
|Language||: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL|
Taking the history of trade and of traders as its subject matter, this book offers the first economic history of northern Namibia during the twentieth century. It traces Namibia’s way from a rural, largely self-relying society into a globalised economy of consumption. This transformation built on colonial economic activities, but it was crucially shaped by local traders, a new social elite emerging during the 1950s and 1960s. Becoming a trader was one of the few possibilities for black Namibians to gain monetary income at home. It was a pathway out of migrant labour, to new status in the local society and often to prosperity. Politically, most traders occupied a middle ground: content of their own social position, but intent on political emancipation from colonial rule. Economically, their energy and business acumen transformed northern Namibia into an increasingly urban consumer society. The development path they chose, however, depended too much on the colonial reserve economy to remain sustainable after 1990. Their legacy still shapes spatial and social structures in northern Namibia, but most traders’ businesses have today closed down. By telling the history of the rise and decline of traders and trade in northern Namibia, this book is thus also a reflection on the conundrums of economic development under conditions of structural inequality.