Mechanics of Smart Magneto electro elastic Nanostructures

Mechanics of Smart Magneto electro elastic Nanostructures
Author: Farzad Ebrahimi,Rajendran Selvamani
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 454
Release: 2021-06-23
ISBN 10: 0128231661
ISBN 13: 9780128231661
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Mechanics of Smart Magneto electro elastic Nanostructures Book Review:

Mechanics of Smart Magneto-electro-elastic Nanostructures provides mathematical models for buckling and vibration analysis of flexoelectric and magneto-electro-elastic nanostructures under thermal environment effects. Analytical results are presented in each chapter based on changes in different parameters, including various electric and magnetic potential, non-local parameters or different boundary conditions and their effects on vibration and buckling behavior on nanobeams and nanoplates. Key characteristics of smart materials and their response to external factors are presented, including size-dependency of nanostructures, effect of various gradient indexes, thermal environment effects, and effects of elastic foundation. Reviews vibration and buckling models of the responses of smart magneto-electro-elastic materials Addresses thermal environment and elastic foundation effects of magneto-electro-elastic materials Introduces piezoelectricity, flexoelectricity and magneto-electro-elasticity

Wave Propagation Analysis of Smart Nanostructures

Wave Propagation Analysis of Smart Nanostructures
Author: Farzad Ebrahimi,Ali Dabbagh
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 244
Release: 2019-12-06
ISBN 10: 1000760189
ISBN 13: 9781000760187
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Wave Propagation Analysis of Smart Nanostructures Book Review:

Wave Propagation Analysis of Smart Nanostructures presents a mathematical framework for the wave propagation problem of small-scale nanobeams and nanoplates manufactured from various materials, including functionally graded composites, smart piezoelectric materials, smart magneto-electro-elastic materials, smart magnetostrictive materials, and porous materials. In this book, both classical and refined higher-order shear deformation beam and plate hypotheses are employed to formulate the wave propagation problem using the well-known Hamilton’s principle. Additionally, the influences of small-scale nanobeams on the mechanical behaviors of nanostructures are covered using both nonlocal elasticity and nonlocal strain gradient elasticity theories. Impacts of various terms, such as elastic springs of elastic foundation, damping coefficient of viscoelastic substrate, different types of temperature change, applied electric voltage and magnetic potential, and intensity of an external magnetic field on the dispersion curves of nanostructures, are included in the framework of numerous examples.

Mechanics of Multiscale Hybrid Nanocomposites

Mechanics of Multiscale Hybrid Nanocomposites
Author: Farzad Ebrahimi,Ali Dabbagh
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 376
Release: 2022-02-01
ISBN 10: 0128231629
ISBN 13: 9780128231623
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Mechanics of Multiscale Hybrid Nanocomposites Book Review:

Mechanics of Multiscale Hybrid Nanocomposites provides a practical and application-based investigation of both static and dynamic behaviors of multiscale hybrid nanocomposites. The book outlines how to predict the mechanical behavior and material characteristics of these nanocomposites via two-step micromechanical homogenization techniques performed in an energy-based approach that is incorporated with the strain-displacement relations of shear deformable beam, plate and shell theories. The effects of using various nanofillers are detailed, providing readers with the best methods of improving nanocomposite stiffness. Both numerical (Ritz, Rayleigh-Ritz, etc.) and analytical (Navier, Galerkin, etc.) solution methods are outlined, along with examples and techniques. Demonstrates the influences of carbon nanotube agglomerates and wave phenomena on the constitutive modeling of three-phase hybrid nanocomposites Analyzes nonlinear dynamic characteristics of hybrid nanocomposite systems, as well as how to monitor the system’s stability via linearization technique Discusses the stability of linear nanocomposite systems subjected to the dispersion of elastic waves and bending loads Outlines how to design three-phase nanocomposite structures for resistance against buckling-mode failure Instructs how to derive the governing equations of continuous systems in both linear and nonlinear regimes in the framework of various types of kinematic shell and plate theories

Wave Propagation Analysis of Smart Nanostructures

Wave Propagation Analysis of Smart Nanostructures
Author: Farzad Ebrahimi,Ali Dabbagh
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 244
Release: 2019-12-20
ISBN 10: 1000760545
ISBN 13: 9781000760545
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Wave Propagation Analysis of Smart Nanostructures Book Review:

Wave Propagation Analysis of Smart Nanostructures presents a mathematical framework for the wave propagation problem of small-scale nanobeams and nanoplates manufactured from various materials, including functionally graded composites, smart piezoelectric materials, smart magneto-electro-elastic materials, smart magnetostrictive materials, and porous materials. In this book, both classical and refined higher-order shear deformation beam and plate hypotheses are employed to formulate the wave propagation problem using the well-known Hamilton’s principle. Additionally, the influences of small-scale nanobeams on the mechanical behaviors of nanostructures are covered using both nonlocal elasticity and nonlocal strain gradient elasticity theories. Impacts of various terms, such as elastic springs of elastic foundation, damping coefficient of viscoelastic substrate, different types of temperature change, applied electric voltage and magnetic potential, and intensity of an external magnetic field on the dispersion curves of nanostructures, are included in the framework of numerous examples.

Static Green s Functions in Anisotropic Media

Static Green s Functions in Anisotropic Media
Author: Ernian Pan,Weiqiu Chen
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 356
Release: 2015-04-30
ISBN 10: 1107034809
ISBN 13: 9781107034808
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Static Green s Functions in Anisotropic Media Book Review:

This book presents basic theory on static Green's functions in general anisotropic magnetoelectroelastic media including detailed derivations based on the complex variable method, potential method, and integral transforms. Green's functions corresponding to the reduced cases are also presented including those in anisotropic and transversely isotropic piezoelectric and piezomagnetic media, and in purely anisotropic elastic, transversely isotropic elastic and isotropic elastic media. Problems include those in three-dimensional, (two-dimensional) infinite, half, and biomaterial spaces (planes). While the emphasis is on the Green's functions related to the line and point force, those corresponding to the important line and point dislocation are also provided and discussed. This book provides a comprehensive derivation and collection of the Green's functions in the concerned media, and as such, it is an ideal reference book for researchers and engineers, and a textbook for both students in engineering and applied mathematics.

Advanced Ceramics for Energy and Environmental Applications

Advanced Ceramics for Energy and Environmental Applications
Author: Akshay Kumar
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 394
Release: 2021-11-25
ISBN 10: 1000404730
ISBN 13: 9781000404739
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Ceramics for Energy and Environmental Applications Book Review:

Advanced Ceramics possess various unique properties and are able to withstand harsh environments. The aim of this book is to cover various aspects of the advanced ceramics like carbides, nitrides and oxides for energy and environment related applications. Advanced ceramics with additional functionality propose significant potential for greater impact in the field of energy and environmental technologies. This book focuses on the nanostructured ceramics synthesis, properties, structure-property relation and application in the area of energy and environment. It covers the high impact work from around 50 leading researchers throughout the world working in this field. This will help metallurgists, biologists, mechanical engineers, ceramicists, material scientists and researchers working in the nanotechnology field with inclusion of every aspect of advanced ceramics for energy and environmental applications.

Handbook of Graphene

Handbook of Graphene
Author: Sulaiman Wadi Harun
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 512
Release: 2019-06-12
ISBN 10: 1119469813
ISBN 13: 9781119469810
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Graphene Book Review:

The eighth volume in a series of handbooks on graphene research and applications The Handbook of Graphene, Volume 8: Technology and Innovations discusses the role of graphene-based applications in technological advancements. Topics include graphene materials used in circuit board repairs; RFID antenna and sensor fabrication; and wearable healthcare electronics. Chapters present detailed information on: modeling methods used in graphene research; applications of graphene-on-silicon photonic integrated circuits; the development of graphene for engineering applications; and other graphene subjects of interest to scientists, chemists and physicists.

Advanced Thermal Stress Analysis of Smart Materials and Structures

Advanced Thermal Stress Analysis of Smart Materials and Structures
Author: Zengtao Chen,Abdolhamid Akbarzadeh
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 304
Release: 2019-09-03
ISBN 10: 3030252019
ISBN 13: 9783030252014
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Thermal Stress Analysis of Smart Materials and Structures Book Review:

This is the first single volume monograph that systematically summarizes the recent progress in using non-Fourier heat conduction theories to deal with the multiphysical behaviour of smart materials and structures. The book contains six chapters and starts with a brief introduction to Fourier and non-Fourier heat conduction theories. Non-Fourier heat conduction theories include Cattaneo-Vernotte, dual-phase-lag (DPL), three-phase-lag (TPL), fractional phase-lag, and nonlocal phase-lag heat theories. Then, the fundamentals of thermal wave characteristics are introduced through reviewing the methods for solving non-Fourier heat conduction theories and by presenting transient heat transport in representative homogeneous and advanced heterogeneous materials. The book provides the fundamentals of smart materials and structures, including the background, application, and governing equations. In particular, functionally-graded smart structures made of piezoelectric, piezomagnetic, and magnetoelectroelastic materials are introduced as they represent the recent development in the industry. A series of uncoupled thermal stress analyses on one-dimensional structures are also included. The volume ends with coupled thermal stress analyses of one-dimensional homogenous and heterogeneous smart piezoelectric structures considering different coupled thermopiezoelectric theories. Last but not least, fracture behavior of smart structures under thermal disturbance is investigated and the authors propose directions for future research on the topic of multiphysical analysis of smart materials.

Wave Dynamics and Composite Mechanics for Microstructured Materials and Metamaterials

Wave Dynamics and Composite Mechanics for Microstructured Materials and Metamaterials
Author: Mezhlum A. Sumbatyan
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 258
Release: 2017-03-28
ISBN 10: 9811037973
ISBN 13: 9789811037979
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Wave Dynamics and Composite Mechanics for Microstructured Materials and Metamaterials Book Review:

This volume deals with topical problems concerning technology and design in construction of modern metamaterials. The authors construct the models of mechanical, electromechanical and acoustical behavior of the metamaterials, which are founded upon mechanisms existing on micro-level in interaction of elementary structures of the material. The empiric observations on the phenomenological level are used to test the created models. The book provides solutions, based on fundamental methods and models using the theory of wave propagation, nonlinear theories and composite mechanics for media with micro- and nanostructure. They include the models containing arrays of cracks, defects, with presence of micro- and nanosize piezoelectric elements and coupled physical-mechanical fields of different nature. The investigations show that the analytical, numerical and experimental methods permit evaluation of the qualitative and quantitative properties of the materials of this sort, with diagnosis of their effective characteristics, frequency intervals of effective energetic cutting and passing, as well as effective regimes of damage evaluation by the acoustic methods.

Nanostructures and Thin Films for Multifunctional Applications

Nanostructures and Thin Films for Multifunctional Applications
Author: Ion Tiginyanu,Pavel Topala,Veaceslav Ursaki
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 576
Release: 2016-04-02
ISBN 10: 3319301985
ISBN 13: 9783319301983
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nanostructures and Thin Films for Multifunctional Applications Book Review:

This book is focused on recent advances in the development of thin films for photovoltaic applications, TiO2/WO3 bi-layers for applications with enhanced photo-catalytic properties, nanometer oxide and hydroxide films for anticorrosive coatings, surface passivation in chemical industries, micro- and nanoelectronics, trilayers of metglas and lead free piezoelectrics for magnetic field sensors, current sensors, spintronics, microwave and read/write devices. Diluted ferromagnetic alloy films are also considered for superconducting spintronics based on superconducting spin-valves. Thermal properties of segmented nanowires are analyzed with respect to thermoelectric applications. Recent advances in template production of nanocomposites are also reviewed with particular focus on technologies for template assisted formation of metal nanotubes. Some elements related to abrasive flow machining (AFM), specifically state of the art elements of technological systems and construction of equipment are presented. The book is written for researchers in materials science, nanotechnologies, PhD students and graduate student.

Ferroic Functional Materials

Ferroic Functional Materials
Author: Jörg Schröder,Doru C. Lupascu
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 285
Release: 2017-11-23
ISBN 10: 3319688839
ISBN 13: 9783319688831
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Ferroic Functional Materials Book Review:

The book covers experiments and theory in the fields of ferroelectrics, ferromagnets, ferroelastics, and multiferroics. Topics include experimental preparation and characterization of magnetoelectric multiferroics, the modeling of ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials, the formation of ferroic microstructures and their continuum-mechanical modeling, computational homogenization, and the algorithmic treatment in the framework of numerical solution strategies.

Smart Structures

Smart Structures
Author: Vinod K. Wadhawan
Publsiher: OUP Oxford
Total Pages: 368
Release: 2007-10-18
ISBN 10: 0191527998
ISBN 13: 9780191527999
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Smart Structures Book Review:

A structure is an assembly that serves an engineering function. A smart structure is one that serves this function smartly, i.e. by responding adaptively in a pre-designed useful and efficient manner to changing environmental conditions. Adaptive behaviour of one or more materials constituting a smart structure requires nonlinear response. This book describes the three main types of nonlinear-response materials: ferroic materials, soft materials, and nanostructured materials. Information processing by biological and artificial smart structures is also discussed. A smart structure typically has sensors, actuators, and a control system. Progress in all these aspects of smart structures has leant heavily on mimicking Nature, and the all-important notion in this context has been that of evolution. Artificial Darwinian and Lamarckian evolution holds the key to the development of truly smart structures. Modestly intelligent robots are already on the horizon. Projections about the low-cost availability of adequate computing power and memory size indicate that the future really belongs to smart structures. This book covers in a compact format the entire gamut of concepts relevant to smart structures. It should be of interest to a wide range of students and professionals in science and engineering.

Nanosensors for Smart Manufacturing

Nanosensors for Smart Manufacturing
Author: Sabu Thomas,Tuan Anh Nguyen,Mazaher Ahmadi,Ali Farmani,Ghulam Yasin
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 632
Release: 2021-06-10
ISBN 10: 0128236523
ISBN 13: 9780128236529
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nanosensors for Smart Manufacturing Book Review:

Nanosensors for Smart Manufacturing provides information on the fundamental design concepts and emerging applications of nanosensors in smart manufacturing processes. In smart production, if the products and machines are integrated, embedded, or equipped with sensors, the system can immediately collect the current operating parameters, predict the product quality, and then feed back the optimal parameters to machines in the production line. In this regard, smart sensors and their wireless networks are important components of smart manufacturing. Nanomaterials-based sensors (nanosensors) offer several advantages over their microscale counterparts, including lower power consumption, fast response time, high sensitivity, lower concentration of analytes, and smaller interaction distance between sensors and products. With the support of artificial intelligence (AI) tools such as fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms, neural networks, and ambient intelligence, sensor systems have become smarter. This is an important reference source for materials scientists and engineers who want to learn more about how nanoscale sensors can enhance smart manufacturing techniques and processes. Outlines the smart nanosensor classes used in manufacturing applications Shows how nanosensors are being used to make more efficient manufacturing systems Assesses the major obstacles to designing nanosensor-based manufacturing systems at an industrial scale

Advanced Materials

Advanced Materials
Author: Shun-Hsyung Chang,Ivan A. Parinov,Vitaly Yu. Topolov
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 380
Release: 2014-03-25
ISBN 10: 3319037498
ISBN 13: 9783319037493
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Materials Book Review:

Advanced materials are the basis of modern science and technology. This proceedings volume presents a broad spectrum of studies of novel materials covering their processing techniques, physics, mechanics, and applications. The book is concentrated on nanostructures, ferroelectric crystals, materials and composites, materials for solar cells and also polymeric composites. Nanotechnology approaches, modern piezoelectric techniques and also latest achievements in materials science, condensed matter physics, mechanics of deformable solids and numerical methods are presented. Great attention is devoted to novel devices with high accuracy, longevity and extended possibilities to work in wide temperature and pressure ranges, aggressive media etc. The characteristics of materials and composites with improved properties opening new possibilities of various physical processes, in particular transmission and receipt of signals under water, are described.

Smoothed Point Interpolation Methods

Smoothed Point Interpolation Methods
Author: Gui-Rong Liu,G. Y. Zhang
Publsiher: World Scientific
Total Pages: 696
Release: 2013
ISBN 10: 9814452858
ISBN 13: 9789814452854
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Smoothed Point Interpolation Methods Book Review:

This book describes the various Smoothed Point Interpolation Method (S-PIM) models in a systematic, concise and easy-to-understand manner. The underlying principles for the next generation of computational methods, G space theory, novel weakened weak (W2) formulations, techniques for shape functions, formulation procedures, and implementation strategies are presented in detail.

Ferromagnetic Resonance

Ferromagnetic Resonance
Author: Dr. Orhan Yalçın
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 250
Release: 2013-07-31
ISBN 10: 9535111868
ISBN 13: 9789535111863
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Ferromagnetic Resonance Book Review:

The book Ferromagnetic Resonance - Theory and Applications highlights recent advances at the interface between the science and technology of nanostructures (bilayer-multilayers, nanowires, spinel type nanoparticles, photonic crystal, etc.). The electromagnetic resonance techniques have become a central field of modern scientific and technical activity. The modern technical applications of ferromagnetic resonance are in spintronics, electronics, space navigation, remote-control equipment, radio engineering, electronic computers, maritime, electrical engineering, instrument-making and geophysical methods of prospecting.

Ferroic Materials for Smart Systems

Ferroic Materials for Smart Systems
Author: Jiyan Dai
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 262
Release: 2020-02-25
ISBN 10: 3527344764
ISBN 13: 9783527344765
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Ferroic Materials for Smart Systems Book Review:

Presents state-of-the-art knowledge?from basic insights to applications?on ferroic materials-based devices This book covers the fundamental physics, fabrication methods, and applications of ferroic materials and covers bulk, thin films, and nanomaterials. It provides a thorough overview of smart materials and systems involving the interplays among the mechanical strain, electrical polarization, magnetization, as well as heat and light. Materials presented include ferroelectric, multiferroic, piezoelectric, electrostrictive, magnetostrictive, and shape memory materials as well as their composites. The book also introduces various sensor and transducer applications, such as ultrasonic transducers, surface acoustic wave devices, microwave devices, magneto-electric devices, infrared detectors and memories. Ferroic Materials for Smart Systems: Fabrication, Devices and Applications introduces advanced measurement and testing techniques in ferroelectrics, including FeRAM and ferroelectric tunnelling based resistive switching. It also looks at ferroelectricity in emerging materials, such as 2D materials and high-k gate dielectric material HfO2. Engineering considerations for device design and fabrication are examined, as well as applications for magnetostrictive devices. Multiferroics of materials possessing both ferromagnetic and ferroelectric orders is covered, along with ferroelastic materials represented by shape memory alloy and magnetic shape memory alloys. -Brings together physics, fabrication, and applications of ferroic materials in a coherent manner -Discusses recent advances in ferroic materials technology and applications -Covers dielectric, ferroelectric, pyroelectric and piezoelectric materials -Introduces electrostrictive materials and magnetostrictive materials -Examines shape memory alloys and magneto-shape-memory alloys -Introduces devices based on the integration of ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials such as multiferroic memory device and ME coupling device for sensor applications Ferroic Materials for Smart Systems: Fabrication, Devices and Applications will appeal to a wide variety of researchers and developers in physics, materials science and engineering.

Nonlocal Continuum Field Theories

Nonlocal Continuum Field Theories
Author: A. Cemal Eringen
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 376
Release: 2007-06-14
ISBN 10: 0387226435
ISBN 13: 9780387226439
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nonlocal Continuum Field Theories Book Review:

Nonlocal continuum field theories are concerned with material bodies whose behavior at any interior point depends on the state of all other points in the body -- rather than only on an effective field resulting from these points -- in addition to its own state and the state of some calculable external field. Nonlocal field theory extends classical field theory by describing the responses of points within the medium by functionals rather than functions (the "constitutive relations" of classical field theory). Such considerations are already well known in solid-state physics, where the nonlocal interactions between the atoms are prevalent in determining the properties of the material. The tools developed for crystalline materials, however, do not lend themselves to analyzing amorphous materials, or materials in which imperfections are a major part of the structure. Nonlocal continuum theories, by contrast, can describe these materials faithfully at scales down to the lattice parameter. This book presents a unified approach to field theories for elastic solids, viscous fluids, and heat-conducting electromagnetic solids and fluids that include nonlocal effects in both space and time (memory effects). The solutions to the field equations agree remarkably well with atomic theories and experimental observations.

Carbon Nanowalls

Carbon Nanowalls
Author: Mineo Hiramatsu,Masaru Hori
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 161
Release: 2010-07-23
ISBN 10: 3211997180
ISBN 13: 9783211997185
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Carbon Nanowalls Book Review:

Representing the first text to cover this exciting new area of research, this book will describe synthesis techniques of CNWs, their characterization and various expected applications using CNWs. Carbon-nanowalls (CNWs) can be described as two-dimensional graphite nanostructures with edges comprised of stacks of plane graphene sheets standing almost vertically on the substrate. These sheets form a wall structure with a high aspect ratio. The thickness of CNWs ranges from a few nm to a few tens of nm. The large surface area and sharp edges of CNWs may prove useful for a number of applications such as electrochemical devices, field electron emitters, storage materials for hydrogen gas, catalyst support. In particular, vertically standing CNWs with a high surface-to-volume ratio, serve as an ideal material for catalyst support for fuel cells and in gas storage materials.

ROBOTICS ENGINEERING

ROBOTICS ENGINEERING
Author: PRABHU TL
Publsiher: NestFame Creations Pvt Ltd.
Total Pages: 1643
Release: 2022
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: 9182736450XXX
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

ROBOTICS ENGINEERING Book Review:

Robotics is an area of engineering and science that encompasses electronics, mechanical engineering, and computer science, among other disciplines. This branch is concerned with the design, building, and use of robots, as well as sensory feedback and data processing. In the coming years, these are some of the technologies that will replace humans and human activities. These robots are designed to be utilised for a variety of tasks, however they are currently being used in sensitive environments such as bomb detection and deactivation. Robots can take on any shape, although many of them have a human-like look. The robots that have taken on a human-like appearance are expected to move, speak, and think like humans. Robotics is the engineering discipline that deals with the conception, design, operation, and manufacture of robots. Issac Asimov, a science fiction novelist, claimed to be the first to name robotics in a short tale written in the 1940s. Issac proposed three principles for guiding these types of robotic robots in that scenario. Issac's three rules of Robotics were later named after these three ideas. The following are the three laws: Humans will never be harmed by robots. With the exception of breaking law one, robots will follow human commands. Without breaking any other restrictions, robots will defend themselves. Characteristics The following are some of the properties of robots: Robots have a physical body that they can move around in. They are maintained in place by their body's structure and moved by their mechanical components. Robots will be nothing more than a software programme if they don't have an appearance. On-board control unit is another name for the brain in robots. This robot receives data and then sends commands as an output. Otherwise, the robot will just be a remote-controlled machine without this control device. Sensors: These sensors are used in robots to collect data from the outside world and deliver it to the Brain. These sensors, in essence, have circuits in them that produce voltage. Actuators are the robots that move and the pieces that move with the help of these robots. Motors, pumps, and compressors are examples of actuators. These actuators are told when and how to respond or move by the brain. Robots can only work or respond to instructions that are given to them in the form of a programme. These programmes merely inform the brain when to do certain things, such as move or make sounds. These programmes only instruct the robot on how to make judgments based on sensor data. The robot's behaviour is determined by the programme that was created for it. When the robot starts moving, it's easy to identify what kind of programme it's running. The Different Types of Robots The following are some examples of robots: Articulated: This robot's distinguishing feature is its rotational joints, which range in number from two to ten or more. The rotary joint is attached to the arm, and each joint is known as an axis, which allows for a variety of movements. Cartesian robots are also referred to as gantry robots. The Cartesian coordinate system, i.e. x, y, and z, is used in these three joints. Wrists are fitted to these robots to give rotatory mobility. Cylindrical robots contain at least one rotatory and one prismatic joint for connecting the links. Rotatory joints are used to rotate along an axis, while prismatic joints offer linear motion. Spherical robots are sometimes known as polar robots. The arm has a twisting joint that connects it to the base, as well as two rotatory joints and one linear joint. Scara: Assembly robots are the most common use for these robots. Its arm is shaped like a cylinder. It features two parallel joints that give compliance in a single plane. Delta: These robots have a spider-like structure to them. They're made up of joint parallelograms joined by a shared basis. In a dome-shaped work area, the parallelogram moves. They're mostly used in the food and electronics industries. Robots' scope and limitations: Advanced machines are robots that are trained to make decisions on their own and are utilised to do advanced tasks. When designing a robot, the most crucial considerations are what function the robot will perform and what the robot's constraints are. Each robot has a fundamental level of complexity, with each level having a scope that restricts the functions that may be done. The number of limbs, actuators, and sensors used in basic robots determines their complexity, whereas the number of microprocessors and microcontrollers used in sophisticated robots determines their complexity. As with any increase,