Macrophages Biology and Tissue Inflammation in Health and Disease

Macrophages Biology and Tissue Inflammation in Health and Disease
Author: Stuart Goodman,Michiaki Takagi,Jiri Gallo
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 366
Release: 2021-09-01
ISBN 10: 0128217626
ISBN 13: 9780128217627
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Macrophages Biology and Tissue Inflammation in Health and Disease Book Review:

Macrophages Biology and Tissue Inflammation in Health and Disease, outlines the important role of macrophages, keys cells in the innate immune system, as regulators and orchestrators of inflammation and repair in health and disease. It contains chapters by leading authors on the basic and translational aspects of macrophage biology, in maintaining tissue homeostatis and dealing with internal and external biological threats. Outlines the important role of macrophages, key cells in the innatue immune system, as regulators and orchestrators of inflammation and repair in health and disease Contains chapters by leading authors on the basic and translational aspects of macrophage biology, in maintaining tissue homeostasis Deals with internal and external treats.

Janeway s Immunobiology

Janeway s Immunobiology
Author: Kenneth Murphy,Paul Travers,Mark Walport,Peter Walter
Publsiher: Garland Science
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2010-06-22
ISBN 10: 9780815344575
ISBN 13: 0815344570
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Janeway s Immunobiology Book Review:

The Janeway's Immunobiology CD-ROM, Immunobiology Interactive, is included with each book, and can be purchased separately. It contains animations and videos with voiceover narration, as well as the figures from the text for presentation purposes.

Macrophages Biology and Role in the Pathology of Diseases

Macrophages  Biology and Role in the Pathology of Diseases
Author: Subhra K. Biswas,Alberto Mantovani
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 615
Release: 2014-11-12
ISBN 10: 1493913115
ISBN 13: 9781493913114
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Macrophages Biology and Role in the Pathology of Diseases Book Review:

Macrophages are a key component of the innate immune system and play an integral role in host defense and homeostasis. On one hand, these cells contribute to host defence by triggering inflammation, displaying microbicidal/tumoricidal properties, regulating the activation of adaptive immunity and promoting resolution of inflammation. On the other hand, they contribute to essential trophic functions such as neural patterning, bone morphogenesis and ductal branching in mammary glands. Thus, macrophages are extremely versatile cells that can respond efficiently to tissue micro environmental cues by polarizing to distinct phenotypes, depending on the functions they need to perform. Indeed, functional diversity and plasticity are hallmarks of these cells. Macrophages may also play a detrimental role. An overwhelming body of literature has indicated their crucial role in pathogenesis. The list includes sepsis, cancer, metabolic syndrome, immunodeficiency, auto-immune disease-virtually impacting every major pathology that we know. These observations have suggested macrophages and their related molecules as potential targets in therapeutic applications. Available evidence proclaims macrophages as a key player in homeostasis, host defense and disease. Crucial developments in the past few years call for a re-evaluation and update of our understanding of macrophages. The present book is an endeavour that attempts provide state-of-the art knowledge of these cells in health and disease.

Macrophage Activation

Macrophage Activation
Author: Khalid Hussain Bhat
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 132
Release: 2020-03-25
ISBN 10: 1789846447
ISBN 13: 9781789846447
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Macrophage Activation Book Review:

Macrophages are the sentinels of the immune system whose role has evolved beyond providing aseptic conditions to homeostasis, immune regulation, development, and behaviour. These cells have varied ontogenetic origins which reflects in their phenotypic and functional heterogeneity. Macrophage functions are fine-tuned by exogenous and endogenous signals and once tweaked, the information is included in their genetic makeup, albeit not indefinitely. Subversion of the macrophage functions is the hallmark of many pathogenic organisms and modulation of macrophage activity is pivotal to many therapeutic strategies. Fascinating and rapid developments in this field have necessitated the maintenance of currency of knowledge. This book provides a current account of information on varied topics in macrophage biology. Literature surveys have been presented in a captivating and lucid language. The contributing authors have also provided brief accounts of their own research. Every chapter provides a future perspective of what more could be achieved in the context of the current knowledge. The book will be of interest to students and researchers in microbiology, immunobiology, translational research, pathology, and related fields.

One No one One Hundred Thousand The Multifaceted Role of Macrophages in Health and Disease Part A

One  No one  One Hundred Thousand   The Multifaceted Role of Macrophages in Health and Disease   Part A
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 218
Release: 2022-04-20
ISBN 10: 0323907423
ISBN 13: 9780323907422
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

One No one One Hundred Thousand The Multifaceted Role of Macrophages in Health and Disease Part A Book Review:

One, No one, One Hundred Thousand - The Multifaceted Role of Macrophages in Health and Disease - Part A, provides in-depth reviews on the last progresses on the role of macrophages in health and diseases with a special focus on the role of macrophages in SARS-COV2, breast cancer, liver and salivary glands. Provides accurate reviews from selected experts on the topic of macrophages in different tissues such as lung, uterus, breast and liver Each chapter of the volume provides useful graphic material for ease of reading of the audience Provides the latest insights and future perspectives on macrophage heterogeneity in different diseases

One No One One Hundred Thousand The Multifaceted Role of Macrophages in Health and Disease Part B

One  No One  One Hundred Thousand   The Multifaceted Role of Macrophages in Health and Disease   Part B
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 268
Release: 2022-05-28
ISBN 10: 032390744X
ISBN 13: 9780323907446
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

One No One One Hundred Thousand The Multifaceted Role of Macrophages in Health and Disease Part B Book Review:

One, No One, One Hundred Thousand - The Multifaceted Role of Macrophages in Health and Disease - Part B, Volume 369 provides in-depth reviews on the last progresses on the role of macrophages in health and diseases, with a special focus on the role of macrophages during development. New chapters cover The role of salivary gland macrophages in infection, disease and repair, Reprogramming or replacing brain macrophages to treat neurodegenerative disease, Targeting macrophages for cancer immunotherapy, Heart Macrophages at steady-state and disease: simple bystanders or active players?, Macrophages in the liver, and Developmental programming of macrophages. Provides accurate reviews from selected experts on the topic of macrophages in different tissues such as gut, kidney and heart Presents useful graphic material for ease of reading and learning for users Covers the latest insights and future perspectives on macrophage heterogeneity in different diseases

One No One One Hundred Thousand The Multifaceted Role of Macrophages in Health and Disease Part A

One  No One  One Hundred Thousand   The Multifaceted Role of Macrophages in Health and Disease   Part A
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 277
Release: 2022-04-29
ISBN 10: 0323907415
ISBN 13: 9780323907415
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

One No One One Hundred Thousand The Multifaceted Role of Macrophages in Health and Disease Part A Book Review:

One, No one, One Hundred Thousand - The Multifaceted Role of Macrophages in Health and Disease - Part A, provides in-depth reviews on the last progresses on the role of macrophages in health and diseases with a special focus on the role of macrophages in SARS-COV2, breast cancer, liver and salivary glands. Provides accurate reviews from selected experts on the topic of macrophages in different tissues such as lung, uterus, breast and liver Each chapter of the volume provides useful graphic material for ease of reading of the audience Provides the latest insights and future perspectives on macrophage heterogeneity in different diseases

The Mononuclear Phagocyte System in Infectious Disease

The Mononuclear Phagocyte System in Infectious Disease
Author: Geanncarlo Lugo-Villarino,Céline Cougoule,Etienne Meunier,Yoann Rombouts,Christel Vérollet,Luciana Balboa
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2019-10-04
ISBN 10: 2889630579
ISBN 13: 9782889630578
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Mononuclear Phagocyte System in Infectious Disease Book Review:

The Mononuclear Phagocyte System (MPS) of vertebrates is composed of monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. Together, they form part of the first line of immune defense against a variety of pathogens (bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses), and thus play an important role in maintaining organism homeostasis. The mode of transmission, type of replication and mechanism of disease-causing differ significantly for each pathogen, eliciting a unique immune response in the host. Within this context, the MPS acts as both the sentinel and tailor of the immune system. As sentinels, MPS cells are found in blood and within tissues throughout the body to patrol against pathogenic insult. The strategy to detect 'microbial non-self' relies on MPS to recognize conserved microbial products known as 'pathogen-associated molecular pattern' (PAMPs). PAMPs recognition represents a checkpoint in the response to pathogens and relies on conserved 'pattern recognition receptors' (PRRs). Upon PRR engagement, MPS mount a cell-autonomous attack that includes the internalization and compartmentalization of intracellular pathogens into toxic compartments that promote destruction. In parallel, MPS cells launch an inflammatory response composed of a cellular arm and soluble factors to control extracellular pathogens. In cases when innate immunity fails to eliminate the invading microbe, MPS serves as a tailor to generate adaptive immunity for pathogen eradication and generation of "memory" cells, thus ensuring enhanced protection against re-infection. Indeed, MPS cell functions comprise the capture, process, migration and delivery of antigenic information to lymphoid organs, where type-1 immunity is tailored against intracellular microbes and type-2 immunity against extracellular pathogens. However, this potent adaptive immunity is also a double-edge sword that can cause aberrant inflammatory disorders, like autoimmunity or chronic inflammation. For this reason, MPS also tailors tolerance immunity against unwanted inflammation. Successful clearance of the microbe results in its destruction and proper collection of debris, resolution of inflammation and tissue healing for which MPS is essential. Reciprocally, as part of the evolutionary process taking place in all organisms, microbes evolved strategies to circumvent the actions bestowed by MPS cells. Multiple pathogens modulate the differentiation, maturation and activation programs of the MPS, as an efficient strategy to avoid a dedicated immune response. Among the most common evasion strategies are the subversion of phagocytosis, inhibition of PRR-mediated immunity, resistance to intracellular killing by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, restriction of phagosome maturation, modulation of cellular metabolism and nutrient acquisition, regulation of cell death and autophagy, and modulation of pro-inflammatory responses and hijacking of tolerance mechanisms, among others. The tenet of this eBook is that a better understanding of MPS in infection will yield insights for development of therapeutics to enhance antimicrobial processes or dampen detrimental inflammation for the host's benefit. We believe that contributions to this topic will serve as a platform for discussion and debate about relevant issues and themes in this field. Our aim is to bring expert junior and senior scientists to address recent progress, highlight critical knowledge gaps, foment scientific exchange, and establish conceptual frameworks for future MPS investigation in the context of infectious disease.

The Metabolic Challenges of Immune Cells in Health and Disease

The Metabolic Challenges of Immune Cells in Health and Disease
Author: Claudio Mauro,Christian Frezza
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2015-07-13
ISBN 10: 2889196224
ISBN 13: 9782889196227
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Metabolic Challenges of Immune Cells in Health and Disease Book Review:

Obesity and its co-morbidities, including atherosclerosis, insulin resistance and diabetes, are a world-wide epidemic. Inflammatory immune responses in metabolic tissues have emerged as a universal feature of these metabolic disorders. While initial work highlighted the contribution of macrophages to tissue inflammation and insulin resistance, recent studies demonstrate that cells of the adaptive immune compartment, including T and B lymphocytes and dendritic cells also participate in obesity-induced pathogenesis of these conditions. However, the molecular and cellular pathways by which the innate and adaptive branches of immunity control tissue and systemic metabolism remain poorly understood. To engage in growth and activation, cells need to increase their biomass and replicate their genome. This process presents a substantial bioenergetic challenge: growing and activated cells must increase ATP production and acquire or synthesize raw materials, including lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. To do so, they actively reprogram their intracellular metabolism from catabolic mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis and other anabolic pathways. This metabolic reprogramming is under the control of specific signal transduction pathways whose underlying molecular mechanisms and relevance to physiology and disease are subject of considerable current interest and under intense study. Recent reports have elucidated the physiological role of metabolic reprogramming in macrophage and T cell activation and differentiation, B- and dendritic cell biology, as well as in the crosstalk of immune cells with endothelial and stem cells. It is also becoming increasingly evident that alterations of metabolic pathways play a major role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory disorders. Due to the scientific distance between immunologists and experts in metabolism (e.g., clinicians and biochemists), however, there has been limited cross-talk between these communities. This collection of articles aims at promoting such cross-talk and accelerating discoveries in the emerging field of immunometabolism.

Molecular Biology of the Cell

Molecular Biology of the Cell
Author: Bruce Alberts
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2004
ISBN 10: 9780815332183
ISBN 13: 0815332181
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Molecular Biology of the Cell Book Review:

Translational Inflammation

Translational Inflammation
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 294
Release: 2018-11-24
ISBN 10: 0128138335
ISBN 13: 9780128138335
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Translational Inflammation Book Review:

Translational Inflammation links laboratory and clinical data within primary and secondary care to clinical research data and offers a holistic and innovative approach to chronic inflammation and ageing. Understanding the role of inflammation as a part of clinical disease states is becoming a valuable tool in both direct treatment and the development of therapeutics. Translational Inflammation, the 4th volume in the Perspectives in Translational Cell Biology series, offers content for professors, students and researchers across basic and translational biology. Emphasizes the role of inflammation in disease and therapeutic approaches Integrates broad concepts relating inflammation to other fields Offers a bridge to review literature and primary research on the inflammatory response towards medical application

The Resolution of Inflammation

The Resolution of Inflammation
Author: Adriano Rossi,Deborah A. Sawatzky
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2008-03-17
ISBN 10: 376437506X
ISBN 13: 9783764375065
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Resolution of Inflammation Book Review:

This book provides readers with an up-to-date and comprehensive view on the resolution of inflammation and on new developments in this area, including pro-resolution mediators, apoptosis, macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells, possible novel drug developments.

Biology of C Reactive Protein in Health and Disease

Biology of C Reactive Protein in Health and Disease
Author: Waliza Ansar,Shyamasree Ghosh
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 301
Release: 2016-03-23
ISBN 10: 8132226801
ISBN 13: 9788132226802
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biology of C Reactive Protein in Health and Disease Book Review:

This book offers a comprehensive study of C-reactive protein (CRP) belonging to the pentraxin family, including a brief history of CRP, its structure, synthesis and evolution. Focusing on the emerging role of CRP and its clinical application in the field of disease biology, it details the pathophysiological role of CRP in a host of diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancers, rheumatoid arthritis and infectious diseases and others. It also discusses the role of innate immunity and acute phase response (APR) and their key mediators in the host body in response to tissue injury, infection, trauma or surgery, immunological disorders or neoplastic growth. CRP’s significance in inflammation is highlighted, and its importance as a clinical marker in cardiovascular disease, its functional significance in Leishmania and Plasmodium infections, its association with the development of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus, and its role in cancer are discussed in detail. The book also includes clinical data studies and presents the latest research advances to further readers’ understanding of CRP.

Human Monocytes

Human Monocytes
Author: Marek Zembala,G. L. Asherson
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 553
Release: 1989
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: UOM:39015015056834
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Human Monocytes Book Review:

Monocytes represent one of the major types of white blood cells in man which prevent infection by ingesting and killing invading pathogens and by releasing factors which stimulate and regulate lymphocytes. Monocytes "purify" the blood, removing immune complexes, mediating inflammatory responses, and initiating tissue repair. Human Monocytes represents an up-to-date, definitive account of this important cell. It covers the cells biochemical, immunological, and inflammatory functionsand its role in many diseases, including asthma, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and AIDS.

Macrophages in inflammation and its resolution

Macrophages in inflammation and its resolution
Author: Heiko Mühl,Patrizia Rovere-Querini,Amiram Ariel,Jerrold S. Levine,Isabelle Maridonneau-Parini
Publsiher: Frontiers E-books
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2022
ISBN 10: 2889190730
ISBN 13: 9782889190737
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Macrophages in inflammation and its resolution Book Review:

Macrophages were initially identified as a key element in the innate host response to infection and injury due to their phagocytic clearance and elimination of pathogenic and non-pathogenic entities. However, as macrophage research advanced it became clear that not only are these cells amenable to the acquisition of multiple plastic phenotypes during inflammatory responses to different pathogens, they also play a paramount role in the termination of inflammation and acquired immune responses. In addition, macrophages profoundly affect host physiology when they migrate to distant sites and differentiate to specialized cells, like foam cells, osteoclasts, adipose tissue- and tumor -associated macrophages and other macrophage-derived cell types. These processes are affected by the inflammation-resolution axis and can result in health threats, such as atherosclerosis, bone loss, obesity, fibrosis and cancer. This Research Topic issue will cover a wide range of topics in macrophage biology: 1. Macrophages in immune responses to pathogens 2. Macrophages in the termination of acute and acquired immunity. 3. The role of macrophages and their descendents in inflammation-associated pathologies. 4. Macrophage polarization and differentiation. Particular focus will be given to the modulation of macrophage phenotype and function following their encounter with apoptotic cells and the signaling cascades that govern these changes.

Lung Macrophages in Health and Disease

Lung Macrophages in Health and Disease
Author: Sandra Hodge
Publsiher: Bentham Science Publishers
Total Pages: 120
Release: 2009-09-12
ISBN 10: 1608050203
ISBN 13: 9781608050208
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Lung Macrophages in Health and Disease Book Review:

"This Ebook is edited by Sandra Hodge, a recognized expert in the field of macrophage dysfunction in chronic lung disease. The book consists of 8 chapters which provide a full coverage of macrophage function in both healthy and chronically diseased lungs, "

Regulation of Inflammatory Signaling in Health and Disease

Regulation of Inflammatory Signaling in Health and Disease
Author: Dakang Xu
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 244
Release: 2017-09-18
ISBN 10: 981105987X
ISBN 13: 9789811059872
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Regulation of Inflammatory Signaling in Health and Disease Book Review:

This book discusses recent research in innate immunity, which has revealed a large number of receptors that sense the presence of microorganisms or cellular damage in tissues. In complex tissues, many of these sensing events occur simultaneously. Thus, the downstream signaling pathways need to be integrated so that an appropriate cellular inflammatory response can be initiated. In addition, the inflammasome defines the molecular and cellular processes of inflammation in response to microbial infection. Previous data suggested that regulation of inflammasomes is mediated by microbes, but inflammasomes also have antimicrobial functions. Increasing evidence in mouse models, together with human data, strongly implicates an involvement of the inflammasome and uncontrolled inflammation in the initiation and progression of diseases with a high impact on public health. The book reviews novel aspects of functional genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, post-translat ional modifications, microbiome and immunometabolism in order to understand inflammatory signaling and responses, covering recent findings on the mechanisms underlying the regulation of inflammatory responses to pathogens, dysregulation of these responses in inflammatory disease, and the use of such mechanisms to boost or subdue the inflammatory response. Bridging the gaps in understanding between the fields of human and mouse immunology, it provides valuable insights into inflammatory-mediated disease and immune defense. Such innovative perspectives in both basic and clinical research promote the translation of knowledge to the clinic.

Myeloid Cells in Health and Disease

Myeloid Cells in Health and Disease
Author: Siamon Gordon
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 892
Release: 2020-07-10
ISBN 10: 1555819192
ISBN 13: 9781555819194
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Myeloid Cells in Health and Disease Book Review:

The structure, functions, and interactions of myeloid cells have long been the focus of research and therapeutics development. Yet, much more remains to be discovered about the complex web of relationships that makes up the immune systems of animals. Scientists today are applying genome-wide analyses, single-cell methods, gene editing, and modern imaging techniques to reveal new subclasses of differentiated myeloid cells, new receptors and cytokines, and important interactions among immune cells. In Myeloid Cells in Health and Disease: A Synthesis, Editor Siamon Gordon has assembled an international team of esteemed scientists to provide their perspectives of myeloid cells during innate and adaptive immunity. The book begins by presenting the foundational research of Paul Ehrlich, Elie Metchnikoff, and Donald Metcalf. The following chapters discuss evolution and the life cycles of myeloid cells; specific types of differentiated myeloid cells, including macrophage differentiation; and antigen processing and presentation. The rest of the book is organized by broad topics in immunology, including the recruitment of myeloid and other immune cells following microbial infection the role of myeloid cells in the inflammation process and the repair of damaged tissue the vast arsenal of myeloid cell secretory molecules, including metalloproteinases, tumor necrosis factor, histamine, and perforin receptors and downstream signaling pathways that are activated following ligand-receptor binding roles of myeloid cells during microbial and parasite infections contributions of myeloid cells in atherosclerosis myeloid-derived suppressor cells in tumor development and cancer Myeloid Cells in Health and Disease: A Synthesis will benefit graduate students and researchers in immunology, hematology, microbial pathogenesis, infectious disease, pathology, and pharmacology. Established scientists and physicians in these and related fields will enjoy the book's rich history of myeloid cell research and suggestions for future research directions and potential therapies.

Immunity and Inflammation in Health and Disease

Immunity and Inflammation in Health and Disease
Author: Shampa Chatterjee,Wolfgang Jungraithmayr,Debasis Bagchi
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 476
Release: 2017-08-31
ISBN 10: 0128054026
ISBN 13: 9780128054024
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Immunity and Inflammation in Health and Disease Book Review:

Immunity and Inflammation in Health and Disease: Emerging Roles of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods in Immune Support provides a comprehensive description of the various pathways by which the vertebrate immune system works, the signals that trigger immune response and how fnew and novel nutraceuticals and functional foods, can be used to contain inflammation and also to boost immunity and immune health. Inflammation is a tool to fight pathogens and the vertebrate immune system has a very complex network of cells to achieve this. However inflammation that goes awry is also the leding cause of several diseases ranging from cardiovascular diseases to diabetes. This book covers the entire gamut from the various cellular players in the inflammation-immune response to its ramifications in terms of protection against pathogens as well as in onset of metabolic, aging and auto-immune related diseases. Finally, the balancing role of dietary nutrients between host defence and immune support is also showcased. The first three scetions explain the various components of the immune system and their modes of activation. The fourth section deals with the ramifications of a robust and execessive inflammatory response. The fifth section is focused on the association between nutrition and immunity and how deficiencies in certain nutrients may affect immunocompetence. The sixth section chapters represent a vision of paradigm shifts within the field and discusses possible future directions. This bool will be a valuable reference for researchers studying immune health either in academia, or in the nutraceutical or functional food industries. Product developers in nutraceutical, supplement, functional food, and health food companies will also appreciate the information presented here. Conceptualizes the key features in natural products which can boost immune function and immune health Explains the intricate mechanistic aspects and balance behind immune health Presents the pathophysiology of several diseases associated with immune system disruption

Handbook on Immunosenescence

Handbook on Immunosenescence
Author: Tamas Fulop,Claudio Franceschi,Katsuiki Hirokawa,Graham Pawelec
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 1693
Release: 2009-02-27
ISBN 10: 1402090633
ISBN 13: 9781402090639
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook on Immunosenescence Book Review:

This authoritative handbook covers all aspects of immunosenescence, with contributions from experts in the research and clinical areas. It examines methods and models for studying immunosenescence; genetics; mechanisms including receptors and signal transduction; clinical relevance in disease states including infections, autoimmunity, cancer, metabolic syndrome, neurodegenerative diseases, frailty and osteoporosis; and much more.