Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals
Author: Gunnar F. Nordberg,Max Costa
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 1052
Release: 2021-12-10
ISBN 10: 0128231386
ISBN 13: 9780128231388
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals Book Review:

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, Volume II: Specific Metals, Fifth Edition provides complete coverage of 38 individual metals and their compounds. This volume is the second volume of a two-volume work which emphasizes toxic effects in humans, along with discussions on the toxic effects of animals and biological systems in vitro when relevant. The book has been systematically updated with the latest studies and advances in technology. As a multidisciplinary resource that integrates both human and environmental toxicology, the book is a comprehensive and valuable reference for toxicologists, physicians, pharmacologists, and environmental scientists in the fields of environmental, occupational and public health. Contains peer-reviewed chapters that deal with the effects of metallic elements and their compounds on biological systems with a focus on human health effects Includes information on sources, transport, and the transformation of metals in the environment Provides critical information on the properties, use, biological monitoring, dose-response relationships, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 38 metallic elements and their compounds

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals
Author: Gunnar F. Nordberg,Max Costa
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 796
Release: 2021-12-10
ISBN 10: 0128232935
ISBN 13: 9780128232934
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals Book Review:

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, Fifth Edition, Volume I: General Considerations is the first volume of a two-volume work that gives an overview and reviews topics of general importance including reviews of various health effects of trace metals. The book emphasizes toxic effects in humans, along with discussions on the toxic effects of animals and biological systems in vitro when relevant. The book has been systematically updated with the latest studies and advances in technology and contains several new chapters. As a multidisciplinary resource that integrates both human and environmental toxicology, the book is a comprehensive and valuable reference for toxicologists, physicians, pharmacologists, and environmental scientists in the fields of environmental, occupational and public health. Contains peer-reviewed chapters that deal with the effects of metallic elements and their compounds on biological systems Includes information on sources, transport and the transformation of metals in the environment Covers the ecological effects of metals to provide a basis for better understanding of the potential for adverse effects on human health Provides critical information on the properties, use, biological monitoring, dose-response relationships, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of metallic elements and compounds

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals Specific metals

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals  Specific metals
Author: Lars Friberg,Gunnar Nordberg,Velimir B. Vouk
Publsiher: Elsevier Science Limited
Total Pages: 704
Release: 1986
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: UOM:39015011641050
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals Specific metals Book Review:

Chapters on specific metals include physical and chemical properties, methods and problems of analysis, production and uses, environmental levels and exposures, metabolism, levels in tissues and biological fluids, effects and dose-response relationships, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, teratogenicity and preventative measures, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals
Author: Monica Nordberg,Gunnar F. Nordberg,Bruce A. Fowler,Lars Friberg
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 1024
Release: 2011-04-28
ISBN 10: 9780080546100
ISBN 13: 0080546102
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals Book Review:

Handbook of the Toxicology of Metals is the standard reference work for physicians, toxicologists and engineers in the field of environmental and occupational health. This new edition is a comprehensive review of the effects on biological systems from metallic elements and their compounds. An entirely new structure and illustrations represent the vast array of advancements made since the last edition. Special emphasis has been placed on the toxic effects in humans with chapters on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of metal poisoning. This up-to-date reference provides easy access to a broad range of basic toxicological data and also gives a general introduction to the toxicology of metallic compounds. * Covers up-to-date toxicological information on 31 metallic elements and their compounds, each in a separate chapter * New chapters on general chemistry, biological monitoring and biomarkers, essential metals, principles for prevention of the toxic effects of metals, and more

Metal Toxicology Handbook

Metal Toxicology Handbook
Author: Debasis Bagchi,Manashi Bagchi
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 490
Release: 2020-11-19
ISBN 10: 0429795742
ISBN 13: 9780429795749
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Metal Toxicology Handbook Book Review:

Heavy metals and metalloids, singly or in combination, induce toxic manifestations either through acute or chronic pathology. In particular, long-term chronic exposure to diverse heavy metals and metalloids to humans and animals can lead to numerous physical, muscular, neurological, nephrological, and diverse degenerative diseases and dysfunctions, including multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, cardiovascular disorders, and several others. Recognized heavy metals such as lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, thallium, and hexavalent chromium are known for enormous toxicity. The immediate vital signs of acute heavy metal exposure include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and acute abdominal pain. Mercury has been identified as the most toxic heavy metal, and mercury poisoning is known as acrodynia or pink disease. Similarly, lead, another toxic heavy metal, was at one time an integral part of painting. Metal Toxicology Handbook further explains and discusses the varying attributes of metals, discussing toxicity, safety, and proper human utilization of metals. Beginning with a broad overview of metals, metalloids, redox biology, and neurodegeneration and going further into the roles, benefits, and toxicity of metals with each section, the text contains 28 chapters from eminent researchers and scientists in their respective fields and is a must-have for anyone researching the potential toxicity in metals. Key Features Discusses the pathology of metal toxicity Highlights the benefits of metals Explains the mechanism and salient features of restoring metabolic homeostasis Highlights dose-dependent beneficial and adverse effects of vanadium safety and toxicity The initial introductory section provides a broad overview of metals, metalloids, redox biology, and neurodegeneration. The second section discusses the pathology of metal toxicity in two chapters, while the third section highlights the mechanism and salient features of restoring metabolic homeostasis in two chapters. The fourth section demonstrates the aspect of radionuclides toxicity. In a change of pace, the fifth section discusses the benefits of metals in four chapters. The sixth section, titled "Toxic Manifestations by Diverse Heavy Metals and Metalloids," provides fourteen chapters that discuss the toxicological mechanism and manifestation of individual metals. The editors have crafted a commentary titled "A Treatise on Metal Toxicity" and summarized a vivid scenario of metal toxicity and its consequences.

Handbook of Arsenic Toxicology

Handbook of Arsenic Toxicology
Author: Swaran Jeet Singh Flora
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 752
Release: 2014-12-26
ISBN 10: 0124199550
ISBN 13: 9780124199552
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Arsenic Toxicology Book Review:

Throughout history, arsenic has been used as an effective and lethal poison. Today, arsenic continues to present a real threat to human health all over the world, as it contaminates groundwater and food supplies. Handbook of Arsenic Toxicology presents the latest findings on arsenic, its chemistry, its sources and its acute and chronic effects on the environment and human health. The book takes readings systematically through the target organs, before detailing current preventative and counter measures. This reference enables readers to effectively assess the risks related to arsenic, and provide a comprehensive look at arsenic exposure, toxicity and toxicity prevention. Brings together current findings on the effects of arsenic on the environment and human health Includes state-of-the-art techniques in arsenic toxicokinetics, speciation and molecular mechanisms Provides all the information needed for effective risk assessment, prevention and countermeasure

Handbook of Human Toxicology

Handbook of Human Toxicology
Author: Edward J. Massaro
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 1136
Release: 1997-07-09
ISBN 10: 9781439805756
ISBN 13: 143980575X
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Human Toxicology Book Review:

Covering some of the most important topics in modern toxicology, the Handbook of Human Toxicology is a unique and valuable addition to the current literature. It addresses issues, answers questions, and provides data related to. Within each of these five major sections are several carefully selected topics that reflect the current state of human to

Handbook of Food Toxicology

Handbook of Food Toxicology
Author: S.S. Deshpande
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 920
Release: 2002-08-29
ISBN 10: 9780203908969
ISBN 13: 0203908961
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Food Toxicology Book Review:

From health and economic consequences to exposure assessment and detoxification, this reference comprehensively covers the formation, characteristics, and control of various toxins that occur in the production, storage, handling, and preparation of food. The author discusses toxin sources, mechanisms, routes of exposure and absorption, and their chemical and biochemical components to prevent contamination of food products and reduce epidemics of foodborne disease. The book contains more than 3000 references to facilitate further research, as well as recent guidelines from the FDA and World Health Organization regarding food hygiene and safety.

Toxicology of Metals

Toxicology of Metals
Author: Louis W. Chang
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 1232
Release: 1996-08-02
ISBN 10: 9780873718035
ISBN 13: 0873718038
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Toxicology of Metals Book Review:

This volume offers the most comprehensive presentation available on metal toxicology. It discusses not only metals but also the toxic endpoints, such as neurotoxicity, renal toxicity, and cancer induction. Chapters are written by experts in their respective fields, focusing on carcinogenesis and human exposures and highlighting the major aspects and issues of toxicity in general.

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals
Author: Gunnar F. Nordberg,Bruce A. Fowler,Monica Nordberg
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 1542
Release: 2014-08-07
ISBN 10: 0123973392
ISBN 13: 9780123973399
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals Book Review:

Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, Fourth Edition bridges the gap between established knowledgebase and new advances in metal toxicology to provide one essential reference for all those involved in the field. This book provides comprehensive coverage of basic toxicological data, emphasizing toxic effects primarily in humans, but also those of animals and biological systems in vitro. The fourth edition also contains several new chapters on important topics such as nanotoxicology, metals in prosthetics and dental implants, gene-environment interaction, neurotoxicology, metals in food, renal, cardiovascular, and diabetes effects of metal exposures and more. Volume I covers “General Considerations and Volume II is devoted to “Specific Metals. A multidisciplinary resource with contributions from internationally-recognized experts, the fourth edition of the Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals is a prominent and indispensable reference for toxicologists, physicians, pharmacologists, engineers, and all those involved in the toxicity of metals. Contains 61 peer reviewed chapters dealing with the effects of metallic elements and their compounds on biological systems Includes information on sources, transport and transformation of metals in the environment and on certain aspects of the ecological effects of metals to provide a basis for better understanding of the potential for adverse effects on human health Covers the toxicology of metallic nanomaterials in a new comprehensive chapter Metal toxicology in developing countries is dealt with in another new chapter emphasizing the adverse effects on human health by the inadequate handling of "ewaste Other new chapters in the 4th edition include: Toxic metals in food; Toxicity of metals released from medical devices; Gene-environment interactions; Neurotoxicology of metals; Cardiovascular disease; Renal effects of exposure to metals; Gold and gold mining; Iridium; Lanthanum; Lithium and Rhodium

Risk Assessment for Human Metal Exposures

Risk Assessment for Human Metal Exposures
Author: Gunnar F. Nordberg,Bruce A. Fowler
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 348
Release: 2018-09-17
ISBN 10: 9780128042274
ISBN 13: 0128042273
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Risk Assessment for Human Metal Exposures Book Review:

Risk Assessment for Human Metal Exposures: Mode of Action and Kinetic Approaches examines the current principles of risk assessment in human metal exposures, with a focus on Mode of Action(MOA), Toxicokinetic and Toxicodynamic (TKTD) considerations, and computer models. Derived from the highly respected Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, Fourth Edition (2014), the book summarizes principles and methods and provides examples of how MOA -TKTD can be used. In addition, it presents tactics on how information generated by such methods can be confirmed by epidemiological data. Furthermore, it demonstrates how epidemiological data can be confirmed and evaluated by the examined models and considerations. This resource uniquely integrates several important topics, such as risk assessment, characterization, management and communication-the classic risk assessment paradigm-with mode of action, TKTD, and epidemiology, all topics related to human exposure. Written by pioneers in the field, this book is an essential reference for researchers, students and technicians in toxicology and risk assessment. Covers fundamental risk assessment concerns for the effects of metals on human health Provides an easy-to-use structure to quickly locate specific methods Uses case studies to illustrate the methods and theories described Written to be understood by students, researchers and industry workers who need to conduct risk assessment in metals and human health

A Handbook of Environmental Toxicology

A Handbook of Environmental Toxicology
Author: J.P.F. D'Mello
Publsiher: CABI
Total Pages: 673
Release: 2019-12-04
ISBN 10: 1786394677
ISBN 13: 9781786394675
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

A Handbook of Environmental Toxicology Book Review:

Written by an international team of authors from a range of educational, medical and research establishments, this book is an essential reference for advanced students and researchers in the areas of environmental sciences, ecology, agriculture, environmental health and medicine, in addition to industry and government personnel responsible for environmental regulations and directives. A Handbook of Environmental Toxicology focuses on two key aspects: human disorders and ecotoxicology as affected by major toxins originating from biological sources and pollutants, as well as radiation generated spontaneously or as a result of anthropogenic activity. A diverse array of these potentially harmful agents regularly appear in the atmosphere, soil, water and food, compromising both human health and biodiversity in natural and managed ecosystems.

Mercury Cadmium Lead Handbook for Sustainable Heavy Metals Policy and Regulation

Mercury     Cadmium     Lead Handbook for Sustainable Heavy Metals Policy and Regulation
Author: M.J. Scoullos,Gerrit H. Vonkeman,I. Thornton,Z. Makuch
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 525
Release: 2012-12-06
ISBN 10: 940100403X
ISBN 13: 9789401004039
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Mercury Cadmium Lead Handbook for Sustainable Heavy Metals Policy and Regulation Book Review:

Although this is a handbook for policy and regulation, the major part of it is filled with data on the three heavy metals that served as examples: mercury, cadmium and lead. Their stocks, productions, prices, trade flows, uses and applications, recovery and recycling, as well as their (eco)toxicological characteristics have been collected and presented to their fullest extent. In addition, they are thoroughly analysed for consistency, future developments and trends and, of course, their consequences for sustainable development and future policy and regulation. The second part, on policy and regulation, begins with an extensive and fundamental consideration on the characteristics of a sustainable heavy metals policy, whereby innovative policy tools are developed. In many aspects, these considerations are also valid for other metals and even non-metallic persistent substances. Addressing the European Union in particular, its policy-making structure and practice are critically analysed, in order to develop feasible and viable guidelines for long-, medium- and short-term EU policy measures. The results of this exercise are then applied to the three heavy metals. In each of these three chapters, all existing EU measures are presented in detail and confronted with better practices elsewhere, resulting in many suggestions and recommendations for the future. In the last chapter, the main conclusions and recommendations are carefully summarised. Together with a very extended table of contents, this makes the book easily accessible, in spite of its volume. This Handbook is a must for policy-makers and administrators at all levels, as well as for their counterparts in a wide variety of industries. In addition, it is well-suited for environmental science courses at academic or higher professional level.

Handbook of Developmental Neurotoxicology

Handbook of Developmental Neurotoxicology
Author: William Slikker, Jr.,Merle G. Paule,Cheng Wang
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 616
Release: 2018-01-04
ISBN 10: 0128093943
ISBN 13: 9780128093948
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Developmental Neurotoxicology Book Review:

Handbook of Developmental Neurotoxicology, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive view of the fundamental aspects of neurodevelopment, the pathways and agents that affect them, relevant clinical syndromes, and risk assessment procedures for developmental neurotoxicants. The editors and chapter authors are internationally recognized experts whose collaboration heralds a remarkable advance in the field, bridging developmental neuroscience with the principles of neurotoxicology. The book features eight new chapters with newly recruited authors, making it an essential text for students and professionals in toxicology, neurotoxicology, developmental biology, pharmacology, and neuroscience. Presents a comprehensive, up-to-date resource on developmental neurotoxicology with updated chapters from the first edition Contains new chapters that focus on subjects recent to the field Includes well-illustrated material, with diagrams, charts, and tables Contains compelling case studies and chapters written by world experts

The Poisoner s Handbook

The Poisoner s Handbook
Author: Deborah Blum
Publsiher: Penguin
Total Pages: 336
Release: 2011-01-25
ISBN 10: 1101524898
ISBN 13: 9781101524893
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Poisoner s Handbook Book Review:

Equal parts true crime, twentieth-century history, and science thriller, The Poisoner's Handbook is "a vicious, page-turning story that reads more like Raymond Chandler than Madame Curie." —The New York Observer “The Poisoner’s Handbook breathes deadly life into the Roaring Twenties.” —Financial Times “Reads like science fiction, complete with suspense, mystery and foolhardy guys in lab coats tipping test tubes of mysterious chemicals into their own mouths.” —NPR: What We're Reading A fascinating Jazz Age tale of chemistry and detection, poison and murder, The Poisoner's Handbook is a page-turning account of a forgotten era. In early twentieth-century New York, poisons offered an easy path to the perfect crime. Science had no place in the Tammany Hall-controlled coroner's office, and corruption ran rampant. However, with the appointment of chief medical examiner Charles Norris in 1918, the poison game changed forever. Together with toxicologist Alexander Gettler, the duo set the justice system on fire with their trailblazing scientific detective work, triumphing over seemingly unbeatable odds to become the pioneers of forensic chemistry and the gatekeepers of justice. In 2014, PBS's AMERICAN EXPERIENCE released a film based on The Poisoner's Handbook.

Fundamentals of Toxicology

Fundamentals of Toxicology
Author: PK Gupta
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 422
Release: 2016-08-26
ISBN 10: 0128054034
ISBN 13: 9780128054031
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fundamentals of Toxicology Book Review:

Fundamentals of Toxicology: Essential Concepts and Applications provides a crisp, easy-to-understand overview of the most important concepts, applications, and ideas needed to learn the basics of toxicology. Written by a pre-eminent toxicologist with over five decades of teaching experience, this comprehensive resource offers the hands-on knowledge needed for a strong foundation in the wide field of toxicology. Fundamentals of Toxicology includes a clear structure divided into five units to assist learning and understanding. The first unit provides extensive coverage on the background of toxicology including commonly used definitions and historical perspective, while following units cover: basic concepts; regulatory requirements and good laboratory practices, including types of toxicology testing and evaluation; toxic agents and adverse effects on health; and analytical, forensic, and diagnostic toxicology. This is an essential book for advanced students in toxicology and across the biomedical sciences, life sciences, and environmental sciences who want to learn the concepts of toxicology, as well as early researchers needing to refresh outside of their specialty. Explains the essential concepts of toxicology in a clear fashion Provides in-depth coverage of testing protocols, common drugs, chemicals, and laboratory-based diagnostic and analytical toxicology Explores the history, foundations, and most recent concepts of toxicology Serves as an essential reference for advanced students in toxicology and across the biomedical, life, and environmental sciences who want to learn the concepts of toxicology

Metals Fertility and Reproductive Toxicity

Metals  Fertility  and Reproductive Toxicity
Author: Mari S. Golub
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 280
Release: 2005-11-10
ISBN 10: 9781420023282
ISBN 13: 1420023284
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Metals Fertility and Reproductive Toxicity Book Review:

Environmental endocrine disruptors have been at the heart of discussions about chemicals and their effects on fertility, but the focus has been on organic compounds and the role of metals has been largely overlooked - until now. Taking an organ-system-based approach, Metals, Fertility, and Reproductive Toxicity examines the effects of metals found in the everyday environment on fertility rates in humans and animal populations. This volume summarizes and evaluates the literature in the area of metal effects on fertility and reproduction in humans, laboratory animals, and wildlife. International experts have contributed chapters that explore how the ovary, testes, uterine system, and neuroendocrine system, among others, respond to metal exposure. Reviewing both current knowledge and cutting edge data, the chapters focus on either a particular metal or a particular population. A massive amount of data on this subject has been generated, summarized, and reviewed over the years. While there are many books available on metals toxicity and on reproductive toxicity, no current book explores both in the same volume. Culling information from throughout the literature, Metals, Fertility, and Reproductive Toxicity supplies an in-depth look at the role of metals in endocrine disruption and the spectrum of mechanisms involving metals that can influence reproduction.

Handbook of Metal Microbe Interactions and Bioremediation

Handbook of Metal Microbe Interactions and Bioremediation
Author: Surajit Das,Hirak Ranjan Dash
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 813
Release: 2017-04-07
ISBN 10: 1498762433
ISBN 13: 9781498762434
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Metal Microbe Interactions and Bioremediation Book Review:

Around the World, metal pollution is a major problem. Conventional practices of toxic metal removal can be ineffective and/or expensive, delaying and exacerbating the crisis. Those communities dealing with contamination must be aware of the fundamentals advances of microbe-mediated metal removal practices because these methods can be easily used and require less remedial intervention. This book describes innovations and efficient applications for metal bioremediation for environments polluted by metal contaminates.

Biomarkers in Toxicology

Biomarkers in Toxicology
Author: Ramesh C. Gupta
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 1246
Release: 2019-02-13
ISBN 10: 0128146567
ISBN 13: 9780128146569
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biomarkers in Toxicology Book Review:

Biomarkers in Toxicology, Second Edition, is a timely and comprehensive reference dedicated to all aspects of biomarkers that relate to chemical exposure and their effects on biological systems. This revised and completely updated edition includes both vertebrate and non-vertebrate species models for toxicological testing and the development of biomarkers. Divided into several key sections, this reference volume contains new chapters devoted to topics in microplastics, neuroimmunotoxicity and nutraceuticals, along with a look at the latest cutting-edge technologies used to detect biomarkers. Each chapter contains several references to current literature and important resources for further reading. Given this comprehensive treatment, this book is an essential reference for anyone interested in biomarkers across the scientific and biomedical fields. Evaluates the expansive literature, providing one resource covering all aspects of toxicology biomarkers Includes completely revised chapters, along with additional chapters on the newest developments in the field Identifies and discusses the most sensitive, accurate, unique and validated biomarkers used as indicators of exposure Covers special topics and applications of biomarkers, including chapters on molecular toxicology biomarkers, biomarker analysis for nanotoxicology, development of biomarkers for drug efficacy evaluation, and much more

Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Metals

Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Metals
Author: Tom Clarkson
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 846
Release: 2012-12-06
ISBN 10: 1461593468
ISBN 13: 9781461593461
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Metals Book Review:

The Permanent Commission and International Association on Occupational Health (PCIAOH) established in 1969 a Subcommittee on the Toxicology of Metals under the chairmanship of Lars Friberg. This committee, which later was named the Scientific Committee on the Toxicology of Metals, has organized a number of previous meetings that have led to publications in three major areas of metal toxicology: a preliminary meeting in Slanchev Bryag, Bulgaria in- 1971, followed by a meeting in 1972 in Buenos Aires, Argentina which produced two reports (Dukes and Friberg, 1971; Task Group on Metal Accumulation, 1973), that discussed the metabolism of metals with special reference to absorption, excretion and biological half-times. The effects and dose-response relationships of toxic metals, including a discussion of general principles, was the second major topic addressed by the Scientific Committee at a meeting in Tokyo in 1974 (Nordberg, 1976). The philosophy of this conference, as well as the previous one in Buenos Aires, was based on the concept of a "threshold dose" for the occurrence of adverse effects. In a conference held in Atlanta, USA in 1980, the scope of discussion on metal effects was broadened to include the role of metals in carcinogenesis. Thus, for the first time, the Scientific Committee took under consideration the possibility of non-threshold relationships (Belman and Nordberg, 1981). In addition, the Scientific Committee on the Toxicology of Metals organized a workshop on metal interactions in Stockholm 1977 (Nordberg et al.