Groupthink Or Deadlock
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Are good and bad outcomes significantly affected by the decision-making process itself? Indeed they are, in that certain decision-making techniques and practices limit the ability of policymakers to achieve their goals and advance the national interest. The success of policy often turns on the quality of the decision-making process. Mark Schafer and Scott Crichlow identify the factors that contribute to good and bad policymaking, such as the personalities of political leaders, the structure of decision-making groups, and the nature of the exchange between participating individuals. Analyzing thirty-nine foreign-policy cases across nine administrations and incorporating both statistical analyses and case studies, including a detailed examination of the decision to invade Iraq in 2003, the authors pinpoint the factors that are likely to lead to successful or failed decision making, and they suggest ways to improve the process. Schafer and Crichlow show how the staffing of key offices and the structure of central decision-making bodies determine the path of an administration even before topics are introduced. Additionally, they link the psychological characteristics of leaders to the quality of their decision processing. There is no greater work available on understanding and improving the dynamics of contemporary decision making.
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William Newmann examines the ways in which presidents make national security decisions, and explores how those processes evolve over time. He creates a complex portrait of policy making, which may help future presidents design national security decision structures that fit the realities of the office in today's world.
What happens when a government begins a major foreign policy commitment and then later receives new information that it is failing? The question of how to deal with adverse feedback to high-stakes foreign policy speaks to a number of important, current scenarios in international relations. Indeed, how to handle signs that major prior commitments are not working as intended is common to every aspect of human existence—from the owner of an old car who has to decide whether to make additional repairs after a critical breakdown, to management deciding what course to follow when a new investment fails. Important work has been undertaken on this decision dilemma in a variety of fields. This book brings many of these insights to bear on the especially challenging circumstances where life and death and international politics can add dramatically to the costs of ineffective reactions. The esteemed contributors to this book offer explanations and illustrative case studies of these critical choice points in foreign and national security policy. They offer alternative theoretical frameworks for determining if and when policy will change in response to evidence of failing efforts. Competing theories from several of disciplines—primarily psychology, political science and management—offer insight into a subject that has been rarely studied in foreign policy, yet is as current as today’s headlines.
A Companion to Ronald Reagan evaluates in unprecedenteddetail the events, policies, politics, and people of Reagan’sadministration. It assesses the scope and influence of his variouscareers within the context of the times, providing wide-rangingcoverage of his administration, and his legacy. Assesses Reagan and his impact on the development of the UnitedStates based on new documentary evidence and engagementwith the most recent secondary literature Offers a mix of historiographic chapters devoted to foreign anddomestic policy, with topics integrated thematically andchronologically Includes a section on key figures associated politically andpersonally with Reagan
How to Get an MBA is a short handbook for either prospective MBA students wanting to know more about what is involved, or students seeking to prepare themselves for the experience to come. As the first step on the road to a managerial career and lifelong learning, the MBA is one of the most important things a student will ever do. The student must take care to acquire not only the hard technical skills that the MBA provides directly through coursework, but also the soft skills, especially the ability to communicate and to establish and maintain networks, which are developed indirectly through the entire MBA experience. The author shows how to get the most out of an MBA programme, the instructors and fellow students. Topics covered include how to: *read and prepare a case *work in teams *design a project *carry out a project *present written material *communicate effectively in classrooms *interact with instructors and fellow students *use libraries and other resources *develop and manage personal networks *look for a job at the end of the programme.
This book introduces the reader to terms and concepts that are necessary to understand organization behavior and their application to modern organizations. This edition features new material on emotional intelligence, knowledge management, group dynamics, virtual teams, organizational change, and organizational structure.
A collection of political commentaries published originally in the Wall Street Journal by a Reagan critic. No index. No bibliography. Contributors from both Britain and the US (but mostly Britain) cover Reagan's management of institutions (Congress, the Supreme Court, the Cabinet councils and the White House staff, the mass media, the political parties) and assess his leadership in the arenas of economic policy and foreign affairs. Generally oriented to the level of advanced undergraduate students, and generally well done, though an index is sorely lacking. Distributed in the US and Canada by St. Martins Press. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
Jack Snyder's analysis of the attitudes of military planners in the years prior to the Great War demonstrates that it is not only rational analysis that determines strategic doctrine, but also the attitudes of military planners. --Samuel R. Williamson Jr., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill "Orbis"
From routine operations to the workings of a White House in crisis, this comprehensive, best-selling text examines all facets of the presidency in rich detail, with a special emphasis on policy. George C. Edwards and Stephen J. Wayne use an engaging combination of analytical prose and timely, fascinating examples to examine the presidency from two theoretical standpoints--the President as "facilitator," and the President as "director of change." Their theoretical (versus chronological) approach, combined with the currency and relevance of the material covered in the text, have made PRESIDENTIAL LEADERSHIP: POLITICS AND POLICY MAKING the most comprehensive and best-selling text available today for your presidential studies course.
Presenting significant new insights into Eisenhower's foreign policy and his relationship with John Foster Dulles, the authors provide probing analyses of issues ranging from Indochina, the Middle East, Latin America, and China, to nuclear arms control and German rearmament.
Introduction to the Presidency provides a comprehensive analysis of the concepts and structures, history and politics of presidential leadership using a unique “seven laws of presidential leadership” approach that facilitates learning retention by synthesizing scholarship on the presidency and presidential leadership. The book assesses the important impact of morality and moral issues on presidential leadership and includes a comprehensive topical bibliography. The author examines the seven laws of the presidency: the law of history; the law of rhetoric; the law of theory; the law of culture; law of character; the law of politics and the law of management. For those interested in a unique comprehensive look at the American presidency.
As the scope and size of the U.S. government has expanded, the importance of good management to the success of a presidency has also increased. Although good management cannot guarantee political or policy success, poor management can certainly undermine good policy and political efforts. In this second edition of The Managerial Presidency James P. Pfiffner brings together both classic analyses and more recent treatments of managerial issues that affect the presidency. Some of the foremost presidency scholars have contributed to this volume, including Richard Neustadt, Charles O. Jones, Hugh Heclo, George Edwards, and Louis Fisher. This second edition includes more recent scholarship by Roger Porter, Steven Kelman, Peri Arnold, and Ronald Moe. The focus of this collection is the extent to which presidents can exercise control over the executive branch bureaucracies and whether it is wise for them to exert that control. Part one deals with the question of how to organize the White House staff. If this organizational problem is not resolved, solving the broader problems of organization and policy will be that much more difficult. Part two addresses the question of how much control presidents should exert over the departments and agencies of the executive branch and how the White House staff and other political appointees relate to career civil servants. The final section examines presidential managerial reform efforts and the congressional role in managing the government. Although the contributors to this collection do not all agree on how the presidency should be managed, there is surprising consensus on which questions ought to be asked. The analyses addressing those questions will be of interest to students and scholars of the modern presidency as well as those interested in executive leadership and public administration.
Focusing on how Eisenhower used a hidden hand leadership style to direct both policy development and crisis management, this volume provides extensive new data to support the view of Eisenhower as an activist, hands-on, involved president.