GNSS Seismogeodesy

GNSS Seismogeodesy
Author: Jianghui Geng
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 350
Release: 2022-05-27
ISBN 10: 0128164875
ISBN 13: 9780128164877
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

GNSS Seismogeodesy Book Review:

GNSS Seismogeodesy: Theory and Applications combines GNSS and seismology theory and applications to offer both disciplines the background information needed to combine forces. It explores the opportunities for integrating GNSS and seismometers, as well as applications for earthquake and tsunami early warning applications. The book allows seismologists to better understand how GNSS positions are computed and how they can be combined with seismic data and allows geodesists to better understand how to apply GNSS to monitoring of crustal motion. This book is a valuable reference for researchers and students studying the interdisciplinary connection between GNSS geodesy and strong-motion seismology. It will also be ideal for anyone working on new approaches for monitoring and predicting geologic hazards. Bridges the gap for geodesists and seismologists to better understand how their fields can be complementary Offers an interdisciplinary approach to GNSS geodesy and strong-motion seismology, showing how high-precision GNSS positions can be combined with seismic data Covers the applications of seismogeodesy to earthquake early warning (EEW) and tsunami early warning (TEW) Includes algorithms and source code examples, along with links to open-source software and datasets

Position Navigation and Timing Technologies in the 21st Century Volumes 1 and 2

Position  Navigation  and Timing Technologies in the 21st Century  Volumes 1 and 2
Author: Y. Jade Morton,Frank van Diggelen,James J. Spilker, Jr.,Bradford W. Parkinson,Sherman Lo,Grace Gao
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 2064
Release: 2020-12-17
ISBN 10: 1119458420
ISBN 13: 9781119458425
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Position Navigation and Timing Technologies in the 21st Century Volumes 1 and 2 Book Review:

Covers the latest developments in PNT technologies, including integrated satellite navigation, sensor systems, and civil applications Featuring sixty-four chapters that are divided into six parts, this two-volume work provides comprehensive coverage of the state-of-the-art in satellite-based position, navigation, and timing (PNT) technologies and civilian applications. It also examines alternative navigation technologies based on other signals-of-opportunity and sensors and offers a comprehensive treatment on integrated PNT systems for consumer and commercial applications. Volume 1 of Position, Navigation, and Timing Technologies in the 21st Century: Integrated Satellite Navigation, Sensor Systems, and Civil Applications contains three parts and focuses on the satellite navigation systems, technologies, and engineering and scientific applications. It starts with a historical perspective of GPS development and other related PNT development. Current global and regional navigation satellite systems (GNSS and RNSS), their inter-operability, signal quality monitoring, satellite orbit and time synchronization, and ground- and satellite-based augmentation systems are examined. Recent progresses in satellite navigation receiver technologies and challenges for operations in multipath-rich urban environment, in handling spoofing and interference, and in ensuring PNT integrity are addressed. A section on satellite navigation for engineering and scientific applications finishes off the volume. Volume 2 of Position, Navigation, and Timing Technologies in the 21st Century: Integrated Satellite Navigation, Sensor Systems, and Civil Applications consists of three parts and addresses PNT using alternative signals and sensors and integrated PNT technologies for consumer and commercial applications. It looks at PNT using various radio signals-of-opportunity, atomic clock, optical, laser, magnetic field, celestial, MEMS and inertial sensors, as well as the concept of navigation from Low-Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellites. GNSS-INS integration, neuroscience of navigation, and animal navigation are also covered. The volume finishes off with a collection of work on contemporary PNT applications such as survey and mobile mapping, precision agriculture, wearable systems, automated driving, train control, commercial unmanned aircraft systems, aviation, and navigation in the unique Arctic environment. In addition, this text: Serves as a complete reference and handbook for professionals and students interested in the broad range of PNT subjects Includes chapters that focus on the latest developments in GNSS and other navigation sensors, techniques, and applications Illustrates interconnecting relationships between various types of technologies in order to assure more protected, tough, and accurate PNT Position, Navigation, and Timing Technologies in the 21st Century: Integrated Satellite Navigation, Sensor Systems, and Civil Applications will appeal to all industry professionals, researchers, and academics involved with the science, engineering, and applications of position, navigation, and timing technologies. pnt21book.com

The Seismic Cycle

The Seismic Cycle
Author: Frederique Rolandone
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 372
Release: 2022-09-16
ISBN 10: 1394173695
ISBN 13: 9781394173693
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Seismic Cycle Book Review:

The study of the seismic cycle has many applications, from the study of faulting to the estimation of seismic hazards. It must be considered at different timescales, from that of an earthquake, the co-seismic phase (a few seconds), the post seismic phase (from months to dozens of years) and the inter-seismic phase (from dozens to hundreds of years), up to cumulative deformations due to several seismic cycles (from a few thousand to hundreds of thousands of years). The Seismic Cycle uses many different tools to approach its subject matter, from short-term geodesic, such as GPS and InSAR, and seismological observations to long-term tectonic, geomorphological, morphotectonic observations, including those related to paleoseismology. Various modeling tools such as analog experiences, experimental approaches and mechanical modeling are also examined. Different tectonic contexts are considered when engaging with the seismic cycle, from continental strike-slip faults to subduction zones such as the Chilean, Mexican and Ecuadorian zones. The interactions between the seismic cycle and magmatism in rifts and interactions with erosion in mountain chains are also discussed.

Remote Sensing in Applied Geophysics

Remote Sensing in Applied Geophysics
Author: Chiara Colombero,Cesare Comina,Alberto Godio
Publsiher: MDPI
Total Pages: 318
Release: 2020-12-07
ISBN 10: 303943733X
ISBN 13: 9783039437337
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Remote Sensing in Applied Geophysics Book Review:

The Special Issue is focused on recent and upcoming advances in the combined application of remote sensing and applied geophysics. Applied geophysics analyzes the distribution of physical properties in the subsurface for a wide range of geological, engineering, and environmental applications at different scales. Seismic, electrical, magnetic, and electromagnetic methods are among the most applied and well-established geophysical techniques. These methods share the advantages of being non-invasive and exploring wide areas of investigation with respect to conventional methods (e.g., drilling). Geophysical surveys are usually carried out deploying or moving the appropriate instrumentation directly on the ground surface. However, recent technological advances have resulting in the development of innovative acquisition systems becoming more typical of the remote sensing community (e.g., airborne surveys). While applied geophysics mainly focuses on the subsurface, typical remote sensing techniques have the ability to accurately image the Earth’s surface with high-resolution investigations carried out by means of terrestrial, airborne, or satellite-based platforms. The integration of surface and subsurface information is often crucial for several purposes, including the processing of geophysical data, the characterization and time-lapse monitoring of surface and near-surface targets, and the reconstruction of highly detailed and comprehensive 3D models of the investigated areas. Recent contributions showing the added value of surface reconstruction and/or monitoring in the processing, interpretation, and cross-comparison of geophysical techniques for archaeological, environmental, and engineering studies are collected in this book. Pioneering geophysical acquisitions by means of innovative remote systems are also presented.

Seismogeodetic Methods for Earthquake and Tsunami Warning and Response

Seismogeodetic Methods for Earthquake and Tsunami Warning and Response
Author: Dara Elyse Goldberg
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 227
Release: 2018
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:1079908932
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Seismogeodetic Methods for Earthquake and Tsunami Warning and Response Book Review:

This dissertation presents a series of algorithms and plans for implementation of a prototype earthquake early warning system by merging two seismic observation tools: strong motion accelerometers and Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). The seismogeodetic approach, that which optimally merges these disparate data types, allows a reliable estimation of the earthquake source for early warning procedures from event detection to magnitude estimation and higher order products. We address implementation of this system in a real-time, automated environment, designed to operate without manual oversight. We assess the capabilities of low-cost micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) accelerometers merged with observatory-grade GNSS for seismic P-wave detection, and suggest statistical methods to determine whether P-wave detections are consistent between stations, which allows for the automated removal of poor quality detections to avoid propagating these errors to higher order warning products. In line with these goals, we demonstrate how seismogeodetic observations contribute to our view of initial rupture dynamics of large earthquakes. We address an open question in seismology regarding the deterministic nature of earthquakes, assessing how early it is possible to fully characterize the source parameters of large, damaging earthquakes. Our seismogeodetic observations suggest that final earthquake magnitude is not discernable from the first few seconds of observation and therefore the earthquake rupture process is not strongly deterministic. We further investigate the complete temporal evolution of seismic moment release to identify the earliest magnitude-dependent features in our observational dataset. We create synthetic rupture models to identify the physical basis responsible for the timing of observed magnitude-dependent qualities. Our findings suggest that earthquake magnitude can be estimated prior to rupture completion, consistent with a weakly deterministic rupture process. These results provide new insights into the best practices for early warning and rapid response, and suggest limitations on the timeliness of earthquake source characterization. Finally, we turn to the built environment to demonstrate the applicability of these multi-instrument sensors to long-term structural health and seismic monitoring, to bolster earthquake and other natural hazard response practices. We describe efforts to characterize local buildings by creating a baseline model for the healthy structure and propose methods by which structural health can be evaluated over time or following a major seismic event to assess building safety without the need for manual inspection. We again assess the capabilities of low-cost MEMS accelerometers and describe the limitations of this lower-quality instrumentation for structural monitoring applications.

China Satellite Navigation Conference CSNC 2017 Proceedings Volume II

China Satellite Navigation Conference  CSNC  2017 Proceedings  Volume II
Author: Jiadong Sun,Jingnan Liu,Yuanxi Yang,Shiwei Fan,Wenxian Yu
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 647
Release: 2017-05-02
ISBN 10: 9811045917
ISBN 13: 9789811045912
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

China Satellite Navigation Conference CSNC 2017 Proceedings Volume II Book Review:

These proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2017, held during 23th-25th May in Shanghai, China. The theme of CSNC2017 is Positioning, Connecting All. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2017, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

A Multi Sensor Approach for Near Shore Tsunami Early Warning and Monitoring Earthquake Effects on Structures

A Multi Sensor Approach for Near Shore Tsunami Early Warning and Monitoring Earthquake Effects on Structures
Author: Jessie Kate Saunders
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 162
Release: 2019
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:1097613540
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

A Multi Sensor Approach for Near Shore Tsunami Early Warning and Monitoring Earthquake Effects on Structures Book Review:

In this dissertation, we explore how high-rate displacement data from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) sensors can be used in combination with other instrumentation, including strong-motion accelerometers and seafloor geodetic sensors, for applications to near-shore tsunami early warning and structural monitoring of earthquakes. Accurate estimates of fault slip amount and along-strike rupture extent are necessary for determining the coastal extent of high-amplitude tsunami waves. We describe how these values can be estimated using static slip inversions of coseismic data from GNSS sensors used in conjunction with seafloor coseismic data from hypothetical offshore networks. We find that a trench-parallel profile of offshore stations over the deformation front is an optimized offshore network for this approach. We find that the most accurate slip estimates require horizontal seafloor coseismic data which is currently not feasible to obtain in real time. We then explore how using existing real-time technology--high-rate GNSS as well as onshore and offshore three-component strong-motion accelerometers--could be used in a rapid hypothesis test of modified kinematic slip inversions to confirm the depth of slip location of a megathrust earthquake given that shallow earthquakes produce the most dangerous tsunamis. If the GNSS sensors and accelerometers are collocated, their data can be combined in a Kalman filter to produce seismogeodetic waveforms: broadband displacements that contain the high-frequency information from the accelerometers and low-frequency and static offset information from the GNSS sensors. As the GNSS and seismic monitoring networks were developed independently, many of these stations are not collocated. We compare with a shake table experiment how Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) accelerometers perform relative to observatory-grade accelerometers at frequencies of interest, and evaluate their applicability to upgrading existing GNSS sensors into seismogeodetic stations for earthquake early warning and rapid response purposes. This experiment demonstrated the utility of the combined seismogeodetic data for structural monitoring, and we provide an example applying seismogeodetic instrumentation to record in-situ building motion for an aging reinforced concrete structure in Oklahoma, an oil producing region that is currently experiencing high rates of induced seismicity.

The New Frontiers of Earthquake Early Warning Systems

The New Frontiers of Earthquake Early Warning Systems
Author: Simona Colombelli,Maren Böse,Angela Isobel Chung,Huseyin Serdar Kuyuk,Mitsuyuki Hoshiba,Masumi Yamada
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2022-02-21
ISBN 10: 2889744469
ISBN 13: 9782889744466
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The New Frontiers of Earthquake Early Warning Systems Book Review:

International Symposium on Geodesy for Earthquake and Natural Hazards GENAH

International Symposium on Geodesy for Earthquake and Natural Hazards  GENAH
Author: Manabu Hashimoto
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 168
Release: 2016-12-09
ISBN 10: 3319397680
ISBN 13: 9783319397689
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

International Symposium on Geodesy for Earthquake and Natural Hazards GENAH Book Review:

These proceedings contain a selection of peer-reviewed papers presented at the International Symposium on Geodesy for Earthquake and Natural Hazards (GENAH), Matsushima, Japan, 22-26 July, 2014. The scientific sessions focused on monitoring temporal and spatial changes in Earth's lithosphere and atmosphere using geodetic satellite systems, high rate GNSS as well as high resolution imaging (InSAR, Lidar). Researchers in various fields of geodesy discussed the role of geodesy in disaster mitigation and how groups with different techniques can collaborate toward such a goal.

China Satellite Navigation Conference CSNC 2014 Proceedings Volume II

China Satellite Navigation Conference  CSNC  2014 Proceedings  Volume II
Author: Jiadong Sun,Wenhai Jiao,Haitao Wu,Mingquan Lu
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business
Total Pages: 499
Release: 2014-04-25
ISBN 10: 3642547435
ISBN 13: 9783642547430
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

China Satellite Navigation Conference CSNC 2014 Proceedings Volume II Book Review:

China Satellite Navigation Conference (CSNC) 2014 Proceedings presents selected research papers from CSNC2014, held on 21-23 May in Nanjing, China. The theme of CSNC2014 is 'BDS Application: Innovation, Integration and Sharing'. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 9 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2014, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications. SUN Jiadong is the Chief Designer of the Compass/ BDS and the Academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS); JIAO Wenhai is a researcher at China Satellite Navigation Office; WU Haitao is a professor at Navigation Headquarters, CAS; LU Mingquan is a professor at Department of Electronic Engineering of Tsinghua University.

A Painted House

A Painted House
Author: John Grisham
Publsiher: Anchor
Total Pages: 386
Release: 2010-03-16
ISBN 10: 0307576043
ISBN 13: 9780307576040
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

A Painted House Book Review:

#1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER • Until that September of 1952, Luke Chandler had never kept a secret or told a single lie. But in the long, hot summer of his seventh year, two groups of migrant workers — and two very dangerous men — came through the Arkansas Delta to work the Chandler cotton farm. And suddenly mysteries are flooding Luke’s world. A brutal murder leaves the town seething in gossip and suspicion. A beautiful young woman ignites forbidden passions. A fatherless baby is born ... and someone has begun furtively painting the bare clapboards of the Chandler farmhouse, slowly, painstakingly, bathing the run-down structure in gleaming white. And as young Luke watches the world around him, he unravels secrets that could shatter lives — and change his family and his town forever....

Earth Observations for Geohazards

Earth Observations for Geohazards
Author: Zhenhong Li,Roberto Tomás
Publsiher: MDPI
Total Pages: 500
Release: 2018-07-05
ISBN 10: 3038424005
ISBN 13: 9783038424000
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Earth Observations for Geohazards Book Review:

This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Earth Observations for Geohazards" that was published in Remote Sensing

Factorization Methods for Discrete Sequential Estimation

Factorization Methods for Discrete Sequential Estimation
Author: Gerald J. Bierman
Publsiher: Courier Corporation
Total Pages: 241
Release: 2006-05-26
ISBN 10: 0486449815
ISBN 13: 9780486449814
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Factorization Methods for Discrete Sequential Estimation Book Review:

This estimation reference text thoroughly describes matrix factorization methods successfully employed by numerical analysts, familiarizing readers with the techniques that lead to efficient, economical, reliable, and flexible estimation algorithms. Topics include a review of least squares data processing and the Kalman filter algorithm; positive definite matrices, the Cholesky decomposition, and some of their applications; Householder orthogonal transformations; sequential square root data processing; mapping effects and process noise; biases and correlated process noise; and covariance analysis of effects due to mismodeled variables and incorrect filter a priori statistics. The concluding chapters explore SRIF error analysis of effects due to mismodeled variables and incorrect filter a priori statistics as well as square root information smoothing. Geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students, this pragmatically oriented and detailed presentation is also a useful reference, featuring numerous helpful appendixes throughout the text.

Iceland Within the Northern Atlantic Volume 1

Iceland Within the Northern Atlantic  Volume 1
Author: Brigitte Van Vliet-Lanoe
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 256
Release: 2021-07-19
ISBN 10: 1119850908
ISBN 13: 9781119850908
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Iceland Within the Northern Atlantic Volume 1 Book Review:

The volcanic island of Iceland is a unique geological place due both to its position in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean and its repeated glaciations. It has been an accurate recorder of geodynamic and regional climatic evolutions for at least the last 15 million years. This book traces the history of Iceland, which is linked to the opening of the North Atlantic and the reactivation of the ancient suture of the Iapetus Ocean. It gives a view of climate evolution that is partly controlled by the dynamics of the ocean floor and analyzes the movement of the Jan Mayen tectonic plate and the progressive insularization of the Greenland–Faroe Ridge, which gave birth to Iceland. It also tries to understand the formation and migration of the deep Iceland hotspot and the lava flows that have, for millions of years, shaped this island. This book brings together the internal and external geodynamics of our planet to understand how Iceland functions and its role as a recorder of the paleoclimatic evolution of the Northern Hemisphere.

GALILEO Positioning Technology

GALILEO Positioning Technology
Author: Jari Nurmi,Elena Simona Lohan,Stephan Sand,Heikki Hurskainen
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 402
Release: 2014-09-12
ISBN 10: 9400718306
ISBN 13: 9789400718302
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

GALILEO Positioning Technology Book Review:

This book covers multi-band Galileo receivers (especially E1-E5 bands of Galileo) and addresses all receiver building blocks, from the antenna and front end, through details of the baseband receiver processing blocks, up to the navigation processing, including the Galileo message structure and Position, Velocity, Time (PVT) computation. Moreover, hybridization solutions with communications systems for improved localization are discussed and an open-source GNSS receiver platform (available for download) developed at Tampere University of Technology (TUT) is addressed in detail.

Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems

Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems
Author: Richard C. Aster,Brian Borchers,Clifford H. Thurber
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 360
Release: 2013
ISBN 10: 0123850487
ISBN 13: 9780123850485
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems Book Review:

Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems, Second Edition provides geoscience students and professionals with answers to common questions like how one can derive a physical model from a finite set of observations containing errors, and how one may determine the quality of such a model. This book takes on these fundamental and challenging problems, introducing students and professionals to the broad range of approaches that lie in the realm of inverse theory. The authors present both the underlying theory and practical algorithms for solving inverse problems. The authors' treatment is appropriate for geoscience graduate students and advanced undergraduates with a basic working knowledge of calculus, linear algebra, and statistics. Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems, Second Edition introduces readers to both Classical and Bayesian approaches to linear and nonlinear problems with particular attention paid to computational, mathematical, and statistical issues related to their application to geophysical problems. The textbook includes Appendices covering essential linear algebra, statistics, and notation in the context of the subject. Includes appendices for review of needed concepts in linear, statistics, and vector calculus. Accessible to students and professionals without a highly specialized mathematical background.

Earthquake Data in Engineering Seismology

Earthquake Data in Engineering Seismology
Author: Sinan Akkar,Polat Gülkan,Torild van Eck
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 276
Release: 2011-01-03
ISBN 10: 9400701527
ISBN 13: 9789400701526
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Earthquake Data in Engineering Seismology Book Review:

This book addresses current activities in strong-motion networks around the globe, covering issues related to designing, maintaining and disseminating information from these arrays. The book is divided into three principal sections. The first section includes recent developments in regional and global ground-motion predictive models. It presents discussions on the similarities and differences of ground motion estimations from these models and their application to design spectra as well as other novel procedures for predicting engineering parameters in seismic regions with sparse data. The second section introduces topics about the particular methodologies being implemented in the recently established global and regional strong-motion databanks in Europe to maintain and disseminate the archived accelerometric data. The final section describes major strong-motion arrays around the world and their historical developments. The last three chapters of this section introduce projects carried out within the context of arrays deployed for seismic risk studies in metropolitan areas. Audience: This timely book will be of particular interest for researchers who use accelerometric data extensively to conduct studies in earthquake engineering and engineering seismology.

GNSS Global Navigation Satellite Systems

GNSS     Global Navigation Satellite Systems
Author: Bernhard Hofmann-Wellenhof,Herbert Lichtenegger,Elmar Wasle
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 518
Release: 2007-11-20
ISBN 10: 3211730176
ISBN 13: 9783211730171
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

GNSS Global Navigation Satellite Systems Book Review:

This book extends the scientific bestseller "GPS - Theory and Practice" to cover Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and includes the Russian GLONASS, the European system Galileo, and additional systems. The book refers to GNSS in the generic sense to describe the various existing reference systems for coordinates and time, the satellite orbits, the satellite signals, observables, mathematical models for positioning, data processing, and data transformation. This book is a university-level introductory textbook and is intended to serve as a reference for students as well as for professionals and scientists in the fields of geodesy, surveying engineering, navigation, and related disciplines.

Mathematical Geodesy

Mathematical Geodesy
Author: Martin Hotine
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 416
Release: 1969
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: UIUC:30112059292133
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Mathematical Geodesy Book Review:

The Geodynamics of the Aegean and Anatolia

The Geodynamics of the Aegean and Anatolia
Author: Tuncay Taymaz,Yücel Yilmaz,Yildirim Dilek
Publsiher: Geological Society of London
Total Pages: 314
Release: 2007
ISBN 10: 9781862392397
ISBN 13: 1862392390
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Geodynamics of the Aegean and Anatolia Book Review:

This book contains current results and ideas regarding the geodynamics of the Aegean and Anatolia.