Philosophical Foundations of Education

Philosophical Foundations of Education
Author: Siddheshwar Rameshwar Bhatt
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 150
Release: 2018-07-16
ISBN 10: 9811304424
ISBN 13: 9789811304422
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Philosophical Foundations of Education Book Review:

This book provides a philosophical foundation to the theory and practice of education from the Indian perspective. It is guided by an 'axionoetic' approach to education and therefore it deals with the epistemological foundation and value orientation of education. The author discusses the ontological, epistemological, logical, ethical and axiological bases of education in a holistic and integrated manner. The author maintains that education is a planned, methodical and purposive enhancement of human potentialities as a natural development. This presupposes correct and adequate formulation of the objectives and goals of education as per the needs and aspirations of pupils. Education also equips individuals for a good quality of life. Keeping in view the applied dimension of philosophy, this book analyses practical issues of moral education like character building value-negativism in the context of education. It also deals with issues concerning peace, sustainable development, sustainable judicious consumption etc. which should have a bearing on educational policies and programmes.

Foundation of Education II

Foundation of Education II
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Goodwill Trading Co., Inc.
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2022
ISBN 10: 9789715740708
ISBN 13: 9715740707
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Foundation of Education II Book Review:

Foundations of Educational Technology

Foundations of Educational Technology
Author: J. Michael Spector
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 242
Release: 2015-06-19
ISBN 10: 1317653750
ISBN 13: 9781317653752
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Foundations of Educational Technology Book Review:

An engaging book for professional educators and an ideal textbook for certificate, masters, and doctoral programs in educational technology, instructional systems and learning design, Foundations of Educational Technology, Second Edition offers a fresh, interdisciplinary, problem-centered approach to the subject, helping students build extensive notes and an electronic portfolio as they navigate the text. The book addresses fundamental aspects of educational technology theory, research and practice that span various users, contexts and settings; includes a full range of engaging exercises for students that will contribute to their professional growth; and offers the following 4-step pedagogical features inspired by M. D. Merrill’s First Principles of Instruction: TELL: Primary presentations and pointers to major sources of information and resources ASK: Activities that encourage students to critique applications and share their individual interpretations SHOW: Activities that demonstrate the application of key concepts and complex skills with appropriate opportunities for learner responses DO: Activities in which learners apply key concepts and complex skills while working on practice assignments and/or projects to be created for their electronic portfolios The second edition of this textbook covers the core objectives addressed in introductory educational technology courses while adding new sections on mobile learning, MOOCs, open educational resources, "big data," and learning analytics along with suggestions to instructors and appendices on effective writing, professional associations, journal and trade magazines.

Foundations of Education

Foundations of Education
Author: Allan C. Ornstein,Daniel U. Levine
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 514
Release: 2006-04-01
ISBN 10: 9780618768790
ISBN 13: 0618768793
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Foundations of Education Book Review:

Foundations of Education incorporates relevant interdisciplinary perspectives and emphasizes coverage of key issues in education, with up-to-date research, primary resources, and documentation. This text provides comprehensive and substantive coverage of all "foundational" areas—including social, philosophical, historical, political, economic, curricular, and legal—for students who are preparing for a career in teaching and for those who simply wish to learn more about significant contemporary issues in education. The authors have included strong, thought-provoking pedagogy, and have emphasized the growing role of technology in education. This Teaching in Action Edition is packaged with a special guide that correlates text material with the HM Video Cases. In This Case boxed features contain brief, fictional case scenarios that describe situations in which new teachers might find themselves. Readers are asked to think critically about concepts discussed in each chapter. Expanded topical overview charts in each chapter summarize and compare key developments and topics in education. Information about standards addresses the growing emphasis on holding students, teachers, and schools accountable for performing at levels specified by local, state, and national standards.Legal issues, including the No Child Left Behind act, are addressed. [email protected], a popular feature in every chapter, updates students on relevant developments in educational technology and provides information that may prove useful in their teaching careers. Additional features include Focus Questions at the beginning of each chapter, Refocus Questions after major text sections, and Taking issue charts, offering arguments on both sides of a question. Houghton Mifflin Video Cases, four- to six-minute video modules presenting real classroom scenarios, enable students to observe the day-to-day challenges and rewards of teaching from the convenience of their computers. Available on the Online Teaching and Study Centers, HM Video Cases are enhanced by classroom artifacts, Viewing Questions, Interview Transcripts, Key Terms, and bonus video footage.

Foundations of Educational Leadership

Foundations of Educational Leadership
Author: Jeffrey S. Brooks,Anthony H. Normore
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 202
Release: 2017-09-07
ISBN 10: 1134629044
ISBN 13: 9781134629046
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Foundations of Educational Leadership Book Review:

Foundations of Educational Leadership provides a fresh and research-based perspective on educational leadership, exploring 10 specific aspects of ‘glocalization’ in which educational leaders must be literate in order to establish and sustain relevant and useful educational experiences for students in their schools. In addition to covering traditional concepts such as culture, instructional leadership, professional ethics, and politics, well-known authors Brooks and Normore also introduce several conventionally neglected, cutting edge concepts like spirituality, holistic health, and information leadership. This important book emphasizes how a framework of learning, literacy, leadership, and reflection is critical to the preparation and practice of educational leaders. Foundations of Educational Leadership ensures aspiring and practicing leaders will be prepared to influence processes and outcomes for creating a more just and equitable environment for all students. Key Features: Each chapter focuses on what leaders need to learn, the concepts with which they need to be literate, how to lead in the area, and aspects on which they should reflect. Discussion sections at the end of each chapter include prompts, questions, and activities suited for engaging ideas, alone, or with classmates. An eResource features additional resources and video content.

The Cultural and Social Foundations of Educational Leadership

The Cultural and Social Foundations of Educational Leadership
Author: Romuald Normand,Lejf Moos,Min Liu,Pierre Tulowitzki
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 267
Release: 2021-07-12
ISBN 10: 3030744973
ISBN 13: 9783030744977
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Cultural and Social Foundations of Educational Leadership Book Review:

This book identifies the cultural and moral foundations of country-specific educational governance and school leadership and presents the principles of justice and the diversity of common goods that guide leadership practices in schools. It contributes to an existing research field that studies diversity and ethical leadership in schools. The social dimension of school leadership is not limited to issues related to equality and equity, or social inclusion. The capacity of leaders to promote civic-mindedness and social cooperation, consensus and acceptance of others, the right balance between freedom and duties, and reciprocity of obligations, are essential to maintain democratic rights and facilitate the life together while respecting ethnic and cultural differences. Therefore, the book gathers contributions from a range of international authors capable of reporting these moral and cultural features, while broadening the research perspectives on school leadership.

Education in the Emerging Indian Society

Education in the Emerging Indian Society
Author: J. C. Aggarwal
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 472
Release: 2008-01-01
ISBN 10: 9788175414150
ISBN 13: 8175414154
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Education in the Emerging Indian Society Book Review:

Preface 1. Philosophical Analysis of Basic Concept of Education 2. Education; Teaching; Instruction; Training and Indoctrination and Allied Terms 3. Types of Education: Formal; Informal and Non-formal Education 4. Philosophy-Knowledge 5. Educational Philosophy 6. Aims of Education; Curriculum; Methods of Teaching; Discipline and Teacher's Role (Influence of Idealism; Naturalism and pragmatism on Different Aspects of Education) 7. Educational Thoughts of Mahatma Gandhi: Impact on Education 8. Educational Thoughts of Rabindranath Tagore: Impact on Education 9. Educational Thoughts of Swami Vivekananda: Impact on Indian Education 10. Aims of Education in Contemporary Indian Society: Education for Values 11. Education for Modernisation 12. Education for Vocationalisation 13. Education for Health: Physical; Mental and Emotional 14. Democratic Outlook 15. Agencies of Education: Formal Agencies- School and State 16. Informal Agencies of Education (Home; Community; Peer Groups; Mass Media) 17. Home School Partnership: School- Community Collaboration 18. Structure of Indian Society: Class; Caste; Religion; Ethnicity and Language; Etc. 19. Concerns of Indian Society: Democracy 20. Social Justice and Equality 21. Human Rights 22. Secularism; Gender Equality and Social Cohesion 23. National Integration 24. Population Explosion 25. Environmental Degradation 26. Globalisation and Privatisation 27. Education and Social Change 28. Education and National Development 29. Role of Education in Economic Development 30. Futurology: Education in Future 31. Future Education in India 32. Future Teachers; Methods and Discipline Appendix: Major Policy Making Educational Organisations (CABE; NCERT; NCTE; NUEPA; AICTE; UGC; SCERT) The book provides deep and penetrating analysis of socio-economic concerns in emerging India and the role of education in suitably meeting the challenges. All the emerging concerns are discussed in their constitutional, philosophical, sociological and global perspectives. Three chapters are devoted to the Futurology, future educational scenario and the role of the educational institutions etc. Role of education in secularism, socialism, democracy and national integration is highlighted thoroughly. The book may prove useful to students of education and teachers.

Psychological Foundations of Education

Psychological Foundations of Education
Author: B. Claude Mathis,John W. Cotton,Lee Sechrest
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 796
Release: 2013-09-17
ISBN 10: 1483258165
ISBN 13: 9781483258164
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Psychological Foundations of Education Book Review:

Psychological Foundations of Education presents some of the principles of psychology that are relevant to learning and teaching. It presents an alternative answer to the problem of the bifurcation of general and educational psychology in the curriculum of teacher preparation. While the solution is provisional and has obvious imperfections, it is offered in the hope that it may stimulate discussion of the problem and other solutions and/or explicit justifications for past practice. Key concepts discussed include teachers’ attitudes and behavior, different types of learning, technology in education, forgetting and extinction, child development, and intelligence measurements. Also covered are the assessment of educational achievement, the social psychology of the classroom, and education in urban schools. This text should have a variety of uses in classes where students are preparing for teaching. It was written specifically for those situations in which the prospective teacher is introduced to psychology through a one- or two-semester integrated sequence.

Educating Teachers of Science Mathematics and Technology

Educating Teachers of Science  Mathematics  and Technology
Author: National Research Council,Center for Education,Committee on Science and Mathematics Teacher Preparation
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 232
Release: 2001-01-18
ISBN 10: 0309070333
ISBN 13: 9780309070331
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Educating Teachers of Science Mathematics and Technology Book Review:

Each new headline about American students' poor performance in math and science leads to new calls for reform in teaching. Education Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology puts the whole picture together by synthesizing what we know about the quality of math and science teaching, drawing conclusions about why teacher preparation needs reform, and then outlining recommendations for accomplishing the most important goals before us. As a framework for addressing the task, the book advocates partnerships among school districts, colleges, and universities, with contributions from scientists, mathematicians, teacher educators, and teachers. It then looks carefully at the status of the education reform movement and explores the motives for raising the bar for how well teachers teach and how well students learn. Also examined are important issues in teacher professionalism: what teachers should be taught about their subjects, the utility of in-service education, the challenge of program funding, and the merits of credentialing. Professional Development Schools are reviewed and vignettes presented that describe exemplary teacher development practices.

Psychological Foundation of Education

Psychological Foundation of Education
Author: S. Bhattacharya
Publsiher: Atlantic Publishers & Dist
Total Pages: 154
Release: 2006
ISBN 10: 9788171566570
ISBN 13: 817156657X
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Psychological Foundation of Education Book Review:

From The Dawn Of Civilization, Man Has Been Marching In Search Of Wisdom. Various Experiments Are Projected Through Education, So That Humanity, Happiness And Harmony Be Wedded Together. Education Is Indispensable For Making Life And Living Meaningful And Purposive. Its Significance Cannot Be Fully Appreciated Unless It Is Looked At In Proper Perspectives Philosophical, Sociological And Psychological.Psychology Has A Very Significant Bearing On Education Because Of Its Influence On The Various Factors Related To Learning And Teaching. The Fundamental Principles In Psychology Have Tremendous Impact On Education And Teaching.Without The Knowledge Of Psychology A Teacher Is At A Loss To Understand The Needs And Problems In A Child S Life.Psychology Provides The Key To Know The Individual Differences And Meets Them With Appropriate Educational Programmes. It Also Helps The Teachers To Offer Guidance And Counselling To The Pupils. In Fact, Psychology Places Education On A Scientific Basis And Brings Dignity To Education As A Discipline.The Experimental Approach Has Become Feasible Because Of The Contribution Of Psychology To Education.Powers And Propensities Of Mind Have Been Analysed With The Help Of Psychological Techniques And Measurement Of Mind Has Been A Reality With The Introduction Of Psychology As An Objective Science. Besides, It Has Been Possible To Mark Out The Different Areas Of Mental Operation. The Mental Process And The Product, Its Structure And Function Have Been Discussed At Length In The Present Book For Bringing Out The Practical Value Of Psychological Approach.It Is Hoped That The Present Book Will Prove Immensely Useful For The Students And Teachers Of Both Education And Psychology. Even The General Readers Will Find It Highly Informative.

Sociological Foundation of Education

Sociological Foundation of Education
Author: Srinibas Bhattacharya
Publsiher: Atlantic Publishers & Dist
Total Pages: 122
Release: 2006
ISBN 10: 9788171566556
ISBN 13: 8171566553
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Sociological Foundation of Education Book Review:

From The Dawn Of Civilization, Man Has Been Marching In Search Of Wisdom. Various Experiments Are Projected Through Education, So That Humanity, Happiness And Harmony Be Wedded Together. Education Is Indispensable For Making Life And Living Meaningful And Purposive. Its Significance Cannot Be Fully Appreciated Unless It Is Looked At In Proper Perspectives Philosophical, Sociological And Psychological.The Sociological Foundation Of Education Has Added A New Dimension To Education As An Interdisciplinary Approach.Man Not Only Lives In A Society, He Grows And Functions In A Social Context And Various Factors Contribute To The Growth Of An Individual.Sociology Which Involves The Study Of Society, Social Process And Social Change Is A Growing Science. Education Can Hardly Be Separated From Society And So From Sociology.School Is A Miniature Society And What Happens In A Society Also Happens In A School Situation. Like Parents In A Family, Teachers Take Important Roles In A School.Culture Occupies A Significant Place In A Society. A Community Cannot Grow Without Culture. Similarly, A Society Cannot Survive Without Culture. As In Every Dynamic Society There Are Problems, So In Every School There Are Typical Situations. Teacher Has A Distinct Role As A Social Worker And Community Member.Obviously, Of All The Foundations Of Education, The Sociological Basis Has A More Practical Bearing On Day-To-Day Living. In The Present Book An Attempt Has Been Made To Analytically Deal With Education In Relation To Social Environment, Culture, Social Control, Social Stratification And Social Mobility, Social Change, And National Integration. In Addition, It Elucidates The Significance Of Education For Survival, Peace, Harmony, International Understanding, Emancipation Of Creative Consciousness Etc. The Present Indian Society And Its Problems In Educational Perspectives Have Been Particularly Studied.It Is Hoped That The Present Book Will Prove Immensely Useful For The Students And Teachers Of Both Education And Sociology. Even The General Readers Will Find It Highly Informative.

Handbook of the Cultural Foundations of Learning

Handbook of the Cultural Foundations of Learning
Author: Na'ilah Suad Nasir,Carol D. Lee,Roy Pea,Maxine McKinney de Royston
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 480
Release: 2020-05-01
ISBN 10: 1135039305
ISBN 13: 9781135039301
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of the Cultural Foundations of Learning Book Review:

Edited by a diverse group of expert collaborators, the Handbook of the Cultural Foundations of Learning is a landmark volume that brings together cutting-edge research examining learning as entailing inherently cultural processes. Conceptualizing culture as both a set of social practices and connected to learner identities, the chapters synthesize contemporary research in elaborating a new vision of the cultural nature of learning, moving beyond summary to reshape the field toward studies that situate culture in the learning sciences alongside equity of educational processes and outcomes. With the recent increased focus on culture and equity within the educational research community, this volume presents a comprehensive, innovative treatment of what has become one of the field’s most timely and relevant topics.

Democracy and Education

Democracy and Education
Author: John Dewey
Publsiher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
Total Pages: 434
Release: 1916
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: UOM:39015061013978
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Democracy and Education Book Review:

. Renewal of Life by Transmission. The most notable distinction between living and inanimate things is that the former maintain themselves by renewal. A stone when struck resists. If its resistance is greater than the force of the blow struck, it remains outwardly unchanged. Otherwise, it is shattered into smaller bits. Never does the stone attempt to react in such a way that it may maintain itself against the blow, much less so as to render the blow a contributing factor to its own continued action. While the living thing may easily be crushed by superior force, it none the less tries to turn the energies which act upon it into means of its own further existence. If it cannot do so, it does not just split into smaller pieces (at least in the higher forms of life), but loses its identity as a living thing. As long as it endures, it struggles to use surrounding energies in its own behalf. It uses light, air, moisture, and the material of soil. To say that it uses them is to say that it turns them into means of its own conservation. As long as it is growing, the energy it expends in thus turning the environment to account is more than compensated for by the return it gets: it grows. Understanding the word "control" in this sense, it may be said that a living being is one that subjugates and controls for its own continued activity the energies that would otherwise use it up. Life is a self-renewing process through action upon the environment.

The Theory and Practice of Online Learning

The Theory and Practice of Online Learning
Author: Terry Anderson
Publsiher: Athabasca University Press
Total Pages: 472
Release: 2008
ISBN 10: 1897425082
ISBN 13: 9781897425084
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Theory and Practice of Online Learning Book Review:

Neither an academic tome nor a prescriptive 'how to' guide, The Theory and Practice of Online Learning is an illuminating collection of essays by practitioners and scholars active in the complex field of distance education. Distance education has evolved significantly in its 150 years of existence. For most of this time, it was an individual pursuit defined by infrequent postal communication. But recently, three more developmental generations have emerged, supported by television and radio, teleconferencing, and computer conferencing. The early 21st century has produced a fifth generation, based on autonomous agents and intelligent, database-assisted learning, that has been referred to as Web 2.0. The second edition of "The Theory and Practice of Online Learning" features updates in each chapter, plus four new chapters on current distance education issues such as connectivism and social software innovations.

Handbook of Academic Learning

Handbook of Academic Learning
Author: Gary D. Phye
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 607
Release: 1997-01-08
ISBN 10: 9780080532936
ISBN 13: 0080532934
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Academic Learning Book Review:

The Handbook of Academic Learning provides a comprehensive resource for educational and cognitive psychologists, as well as educators themselves, on the mechanisms and processes of academic learning. Beginning with general themes that cross subject and age level, the book discusses what motivates students to learn and how knowledge can be made personal for better learning and remembering. Individual chapters identify proven effective teaching methods for the specific domains of math, reading, writing, science, and critical problem solving, how students learn within those domains, and how learning can be accurately assessed for given domains and age levels. The Handbook takes a constructivist perspective to academic learning, emphasizing the construction of personal knowledge of an academic nature. Constructivism within the context of learning theory is viewed as involving an active learner that constructs an academic knowledge base through the development of cognitive strategies and metacognition. The book discusses the development of basic literacy skills that provide the foundation for higher order thinking and problem solving. Constructivism recognizes the social dimension of classroom learning and emphasizes the motivational elements of self-regulation and volition as essential learner characteristics. Written by authors who have first-hand experience with both theory development and the development of authentic classroom instructional techniques, the Handbook empowers educators to develop, implement, and field-test authentic instructional practices at their school site. The book provides a review of the literature, theory, research, and skill techniques for effective teaching and learning. Key Features * Identifies effective teaching with specific techniques * Covers elementary school through high school * Discusses teaching methods for all main subject areas: reading, writing, math, science, and critical thinking * Identifies how students learn to learn * Reviews theory, research, techniques, and assessment * Contains field tested examples for the educational professional at the school site * Provides a resource for staff development

Foundations of Education Research

Foundations of Education Research
Author: Joy Egbert,Sherry Sanden
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 10
Release: 2019-07-12
ISBN 10: 0429841272
ISBN 13: 9780429841279
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Foundations of Education Research Book Review:

Now in its second edition, Foundations of Education Research defines, discusses, and offers applications for the central components of educational research, providing both novice and experienced researchers with a common ground from which to work. Fully updated throughout, the second edition adds a glossary of terms, additional examples, and includes a discussion of similarities and differences in education research. Eight concise, accessible chapters cover conceptual framework, epistemology, paradigm, theory, theoretical framework, and methodology/method. This unique primer demystifies jargon and makes the theoretical components of research accessible, giving students the tools they need to understand existing education research literature and to produce theoretically-grounded work of their own. Each chapter begins with perspectives from both novice and experienced researchers, whose guiding questions assist researchers engaging with theory for the first time and those looking to improve their understanding of the fundamentals. Practice exercises, examples, and suggested reading lists at the end of each chapter offer students resources they can apply to their own research and thinking in concrete ways. A perfect accompaniment to standard research courses, this book is designed to help students achieve a deeper understanding of what is expected of them and ideas about how to achieve it.

Mental Health in Education

Mental Health in Education
Author: Samantha Garner
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 100
Release: 2019-09-30
ISBN 10: 0429762259
ISBN 13: 9780429762253
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Mental Health in Education Book Review:

Mental health and well-being are becoming increasingly important areas of focus in education, yet schools often find themselves lacking the tools, time and resources to tackle the issues. Mental health support is frequently seen as an additional responsibility of the school setting, rather than a core aspect of it. This practical, fully accessible book provides straightforward guidance and low-budget strategies to help school settings get mental health support right. With a focus on the well-being of both students and staff, chapters focus on techniques to develop self-esteem, manage behaviour and build positive relationships at all levels. Key features include: low-cost and easy-to-implement strategies suitable for the busy classroom environment, as well as whole school approaches downloadable activities and planning sheets based on cognitive behavioural therapy techniques a focus on building strong foundations based on mental health basics Refreshingly honest and conscious of the realities of the school environment, this book is a crucial tool for anybody working within education.

Advanced Educational Foundations for Teachers

Advanced Educational Foundations for Teachers
Author: Donald K. Sharpes
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 368
Release: 2013-10-11
ISBN 10: 1135720584
ISBN 13: 9781135720582
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Educational Foundations for Teachers Book Review:

Sharpes' approach synthesizes historical, philosophical, and cultural standpoints. The text contains practical teaching applications alongside theory and an integrated emphasis of diversity and other multicultural themes. It also covers the history of schooling from ancient times to the present, including biographies of major non-Western figures as well as the canon of educational innovators.

A Text Book of Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of

A Text Book of Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of
Author: showkeen bilal gul,Zebun Khan
Publsiher: CreateSpace
Total Pages: 52
Release: 2015-01-12
ISBN 10: 9781507523704
ISBN 13: 150752370X
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

A Text Book of Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Book Review:

This book is beneficial for learners in the field of educational studies

Building the Foundation Whole Numbers in the Primary Grades

Building the Foundation  Whole Numbers in the Primary Grades
Author: Maria G. Bartolini Bussi,Xu Hua Sun
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 536
Release: 2018-03-29
ISBN 10: 3319635557
ISBN 13: 9783319635552
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Building the Foundation Whole Numbers in the Primary Grades Book Review:

This twenty-third ICMI Study addresses for the first time mathematics teaching and learning in the primary school (and pre-school) setting, while also taking international perspectives, socio-cultural diversity and institutional constraints into account. One of the main challenges of designing the first ICMI primary school study of this kind is the complex nature of mathematics at the early level. Accordingly, a focus area that is central to the discussion was chosen, together with a number of related questions. The broad area of Whole Number Arithmetic (WNA), including operations and relations and arithmetic word problems, forms the core content of all primary mathematics curricula. The study of this core content area is often regarded as foundational for later mathematics learning. However, the principles and main goals of instruction on the foundational concepts and skills in WNA are far from universally agreed upon, and practice varies substantially from country to country. As such, this study presents a meta-level analysis and synthesis of what is currently known about WNA, providing a useful base from which to gauge gaps and shortcomings, as well as an opportunity to learn from the practices of different countries and contexts.