Fatigue in Friction Stir Welding

Fatigue in Friction Stir Welding
Author: J. Brian Jordon,Robert Amaro,Paul Allison,Harish Rao
Publsiher: Butterworth-Heinemann
Total Pages: 196
Release: 2019-02-27
ISBN 10: 0128163054
ISBN 13: 9780128163054
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fatigue in Friction Stir Welding Book Review:

Fatigue in Friction Stir Welding provides knowledge on how to design and fabricate high performance, fatigue resistance FSW joints. It summarizes fatigue characterizations of key FSW configurations, including butt and lap-shear joints. The book's main focus is on fatigue of aluminum alloys, but discussions of magnesium, steel, and titanium alloys are also included. The FSW process-structure-fatigue performance relationships, including tool rotation, travel speeds, and pin tools are covered, along with sections on extreme fatigue conditions and environments, including multiaxial, variable amplitude, and corrosion effects on fatigue of the FSW. From a practical design perspective, appropriate fatigue design guidelines, including engineering and microstructure-sensitive modeling approaches are discussed. Finally, an appendix with numerous representative fatigue curves for design and reference purposes completes the work. Provides a comprehensive characterization of fatigue behavior for various FSW joints and alloy combinations, along with an in-depth presentation on crack initiation and growth mechanisms Presents the relationships between process parameters and fatigue behavior Discusses modeling strategies and design recommendations, along with experimental data for reference purposes

Mechanical Fatigue of Metals

Mechanical Fatigue of Metals
Author: José A.F.O. Correia,Abílio M.P. De Jesus,António Augusto Fernandes,Rui Calçada
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 413
Release: 2019-05-07
ISBN 10: 3030139808
ISBN 13: 9783030139803
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Mechanical Fatigue of Metals Book Review:

This volume contains the proceedings of the XIX International Colloquium on Mechanical Fatigue of Metals, held at the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto, Portugal, 5-7 September 2018. This International Colloquium facilitated and encouraged the exchange of knowledge and experiences among the different communities involved in both basic and applied research in the field of the fatigue of metals, looking at the problem of fatigue exploring analytical and numerical simulative approaches. Fatigue damage represents one of the most important types of damage to which structural materials are subjected in normal industrial services that can finally result in a sudden and unexpected abrupt fracture. Since metal alloys are still today the most used materials in designing the majority of components and structures able to carry the highest service loads, the study of the different aspects of metals fatigue attracts permanent attention of scientists, engineers and designers.

Friction Stir Welding and Processing

Friction Stir Welding and Processing
Author: Rajiv Sharan Mishra,Partha Sarathi De,Nilesh Kumar
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 338
Release: 2014-08-04
ISBN 10: 3319070436
ISBN 13: 9783319070438
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Friction Stir Welding and Processing Book Review:

This book lays out the fundamentals of friction stir welding and processing and builds toward practical perspectives. The authors describe the links between the thermo-mechanical aspects and the microstructural evolution and use of these for the development of the friction stir process as a broader metallurgical tool for microstructural modification and manufacturing. The fundamentals behind the practical aspects of tool design, process parameter selection and weld related defects are discussed. Local microstructural refinement has enabled new concepts of superplastic forming and enhanced low temperature forming. The collection of friction stir based technologies is a versatile set of solid state manufacturing tools.

Fatigue of Friction Stir Welded Lap Joints with Sealants

Fatigue of Friction Stir Welded Lap Joints with Sealants
Author: Kenneth Thomas Nathaniel Doering
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 256
Release: 2009
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:436086276
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fatigue of Friction Stir Welded Lap Joints with Sealants Book Review:

"A lack of understanding of corrosion fatigue in friction stir welded aluminum joints prevents friction stir welding from being implemented in aerospace applications. Fatigue testing reveals a 60-75% reduction in the fatigue life of friction stir welded aluminum lap joints immersed in 3.5% NaCl solution (corrosion fatigue) compared with that of lap joints tested in ambient air. The loss in fatigue life is attributed to accelerated fatigue cracking due to hydrogen environment embrittlement. Two polymer sealant candidates are investigated: silicone rubber and nylon-11. Both sealant candidates can be applied prior to welding and seal the faying surface gaps in lap joints upon welding. The rubber sealant cures at room temperature after welding and can be welded with the same parameters as without the sealant. The 50% sample population corrosion fatigue life is increased by 22% with the use of the rubber sealant, but the effectiveness of the rubber sealant is limited by its cohesive mechanical properties, e.g. elongation to failure. In ambient fatigue, the nylon sealed welds exhibit twice the 50% sample population fatigue life of other welds. Finite element modeling predicts a reduction in the stresses in the weld due the stiffness contribution of the nylon sealant. The effectiveness of the nylon sealant is limited by its adhesive bond strength. When immersed in water, as in corrosion fatigue, the adhesive bond strength is reduced, the sealant bond fails within 500 fatigue cycles, and the mechanical benefits of the nylon sealant are negated. The corrosion fatigue life of nylon sealed welds is 26% less than that of welds without sealant because of the more severe hook defect associated with hotter welding conditions required to melt the nylon. Finite element modeling results indicate an increase in stress intensity factors of about 10% in welds with more severe hook defects--Abstract, leaf iii.

Advances in Friction Stir Welding and Processing

Advances in Friction Stir Welding and Processing
Author: M.-K. Besharati-Givi,P. Asadi
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 796
Release: 2014-12-08
ISBN 10: 0857094556
ISBN 13: 9780857094551
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Friction Stir Welding and Processing Book Review:

Friction-stir welding (FSW) is a solid-state joining process primarily used on aluminum, and is also widely used for joining dissimilar metals such as aluminum, magnesium, copper and ferrous alloys. Recently, a friction-stir processing (FSP) technique based on FSW has been used for microstructural modifications, the homogenized and refined microstructure along with the reduced porosity resulting in improved mechanical properties. Advances in friction-stir welding and processing deals with the processes involved in different metals and polymers, including their microstructural and mechanical properties, wear and corrosion behavior, heat flow, and simulation. The book is structured into ten chapters, covering applications of the technology; tool and welding design; material and heat flow; microstructural evolution; mechanical properties; corrosion behavior and wear properties. Later chapters cover mechanical alloying and FSP as a welding and casting repair technique; optimization and simulation of artificial neural networks; and FSW and FSP of polymers. Provides studies of the microstructural, mechanical, corrosion and wear properties of friction-stir welded and processed materials Considers heat generation, heat flow and material flow Covers simulation of FSW/FSP and use of artificial neural network in FSW/FSP

Friction Stir Welding and Processing VIII

Friction Stir Welding and Processing VIII
Author: Rajiv Mishra,Murray Mahoney,Yutaka Sato,Yuri Hovanski
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 300
Release: 2016-12-01
ISBN 10: 3319481738
ISBN 13: 9783319481739
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Friction Stir Welding and Processing VIII Book Review:

This collection focuses on all aspects of science and technology related to friction stir welding and processing.

Friction Stir Welding

Friction Stir Welding
Author: Daniela Lohwasser,Zhan Chen
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 436
Release: 2009-12-18
ISBN 10: 1845697715
ISBN 13: 9781845697716
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Friction Stir Welding Book Review:

Friction stir welding (FSW) is a highly important and recently developed joining technology that produces a solid phase bond. It uses a rotating tool to generate frictional heat that causes material of the components to be welded to soften without reaching the melting point and allows the tool to move along the weld line. Plasticized material is transferred from the leading edge to trailing edge of the tool probe, leaving a solid phase bond between the two parts. Friction stir welding: from basics to applications reviews the fundamentals of the process and how it is used in industrial applications. Part one discusses general issues with chapters on topics such as basic process overview, material deformation and joint formation in friction stir welding, inspection and quality control and friction stir welding equipment requirements and machinery descriptions as well as industrial applications of friction stir welding. A chapter giving an outlook on the future of friction stir welding is included in Part one. Part two reviews the variables in friction stir welding including residual stresses in friction stir welding, effects and defects of friction stir welds, modelling thermal properties in friction stir welding and metallurgy and weld performance. With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Friction stir welding: from basics to applications is a standard reference for mechanical, welding and materials engineers in the aerospace, automotive, railway, shipbuilding, nuclear and other metal fabrication industries, particularly those that use aluminium alloys. Provides essential information on topics such as basic process overview, materials deformation and joint formation in friction stir welding Inspection and quality control and friction stir welding equipment requirements are discussed as well as industrial applications of friction stir welding Reviews the variables involved in friction stir welding including residual stresses, effects and defects of friction stir welds, modelling thermal properties, metallurgy and weld performance

AMST 05 Advanced Manufacturing Systems and Technology

AMST 05 Advanced Manufacturing Systems and Technology
Author: Elso Kuljanic
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 792
Release: 2007-03-23
ISBN 10: 3211380531
ISBN 13: 9783211380536
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

AMST 05 Advanced Manufacturing Systems and Technology Book Review:

Manufacturing a product is not difficult, the difficulty consists in manufacturing a product of high quality, at a low cost and rapidly. Drastic technological advances are changing global markets very rapidly. In such conditions the ability to compete successfully must be based on innovative ideas and new products which has to be of high quality yet low in price. One way to achieve these objecti ves would be through massive investments in research of computer based technology and by applying the approaches presented in this book. The First International Conference on Advanced Manufacturing Systems and Technology AMST87 was held in Opatija (Croatia) in October 1987. The Second International Conference on Advanced Manufacturing Systems and Technology AMSV90 was held in Trento (Italy) in lune 1990. The Third, Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Conferences on Advanced Manufacturing Systems and Technology were all held in Udine (Italy) as follows: AMST93 in April 1993, AMST96 in September 1996, AMST99 in June 1999 and AMST02 in June 2002.

Methods to Increase the Fatigue Life of Friction Stir Lap Welds in No load Transfer Coupons Using a Retractable Pin Tool

Methods to Increase the Fatigue Life of Friction Stir Lap Welds in No load Transfer Coupons Using a Retractable Pin Tool
Author: Farzad Baratzadeh,Christian A. Widener,Hamid M. Lankarani,Dwight A. Burford
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 16
Release: 2012
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:1251672304
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Methods to Increase the Fatigue Life of Friction Stir Lap Welds in No load Transfer Coupons Using a Retractable Pin Tool Book Review:

The purpose of this study was to obtain a better understanding of crack initiation at friction stir weld exit holes in no-load transfer coupons as a first-order approximation of the potential performance of friction stir welding (FSW) joints employed for aircraft fuselage applications. In order to meet this goal, the effects of weld exit location on fatigue life in discontinuous friction stir lap-welded panels were documented. Sheets of aluminum alloys 7075-T6 and 2024-T3 were chosen for the FSW lap welds. Constant amplitude fatigue tests were carried out in order to determine the effect of various welding scenarios on fatigue crack initiation. A number of weld exit strategies were investigated, as well as another FSW tool design called a retractable pin tool (RPT). This tool was shown to eliminate the exit hole and reduce the stress concentration around the weld exit location. Prior to this work, none of the attempted exit strategies was found to delay or eliminate the initiation of fatigue cracks at the exit holes of discontinuous FSW lap welds. Only by using the RPT, which is able to eliminate the exit hole completely, was it possible to produce fatigue life results in coupons with a tool extraction zone that were comparable to those in baseline coupons containing no extraction zone.

Mechanical Metallurgical and Fatigue Properties of Friction Stir Welded and Tungsten Inert Gas Welded AA6061 T6 Aluminium Alloys

Mechanical  Metallurgical and Fatigue Properties of Friction Stir Welded and Tungsten Inert Gas Welded AA6061 T6 Aluminium Alloys
Author: Akshansh Mishra,A Razal Rose,Saravanan .M,Anand Singh
Publsiher: GRIN Verlag
Total Pages: 11
Release: 2017-09-11
ISBN 10: 3668521638
ISBN 13: 9783668521636
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Mechanical Metallurgical and Fatigue Properties of Friction Stir Welded and Tungsten Inert Gas Welded AA6061 T6 Aluminium Alloys Book Review:

Project Report from the year 2017 in the subject Engineering - Mechanical Engineering, grade: 8.9, SRM University, language: English, abstract: This paper deals with the mechanical, microstructural and fatigue analysis of welded joints. In the study, 6061-T6 aluminium alloy plates in 4mm thickness, that are particularly used for aerospace and in automotive industries, were welded using Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding and Friction Stir Welding (FSW) methods as similar joints with one side pass and parameters of varying tool rotation, weld speed and 2.3 degree tool tilt angle. The weld zones cross sections were analysed with light optical microscopy (LOM). During recent years several investigations have been made of fatigue properties of friction stir welded joints. The great majority of available data from the fatigue analysis of friction stir welded joints are concerned with uniaxial loading conditions for a simple geometry. In uniaxial loading nominal stress is normally used as reference stress and it is easy to determine. However, fatigue failure is a highly localized phenomenon in engineering components and determining the nominal stress is not always possible due to the complexity of structures and presence of stress concentrators such as notches and cracks in which many approaches based on local parameters.

Friction Stir Welding and Processing VII

Friction Stir Welding and Processing VII
Author: Rajiv Mishra,Murray Mahoney,Yutaka Sato,Yuri Hovanski,Ravi Verma
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 362
Release: 2016-12-01
ISBN 10: 3319481088
ISBN 13: 9783319481081
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Friction Stir Welding and Processing VII Book Review:

This collection focuses on all aspects of science and technology related to friction stir welding and processing.

Friction Stir Welding of High Strength 7XXX Aluminum Alloys

Friction Stir Welding of High Strength 7XXX Aluminum Alloys
Author: Rajiv S. Mishra,Mageshwari Komarasamy
Publsiher: Butterworth-Heinemann
Total Pages: 120
Release: 2016-06-08
ISBN 10: 0128094605
ISBN 13: 9780128094600
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Friction Stir Welding of High Strength 7XXX Aluminum Alloys Book Review:

Friction Stir Welding of High Strength 7XXX Aluminum Alloys is the latest edition in the Friction Stir series and summarizes the research and application of friction stir welding to high strength 7XXX series alloys, exploring the past and current developments in the field. Friction stir welding has demonstrated significant benefits in terms of its potential to reduce cost and increase manufacturing efficiency of industrial products in transportation, particularly the aerospace sector. The 7XXX series aluminum alloys are the premium aluminum alloys used in aerospace. These alloys are typically not weldable by fusion techniques and considerable effort has been expended to develop friction stir welding parameters. Research in this area has shown significant benefit in terms of joint efficiency and fatigue performance as a result of friction stir welding. The book summarizes those results and includes discussion of the potential future directions for further optimization. Offers comprehensive coverage of friction stir welding of 7XXX series alloys Discusses the physical metallurgy of the alloys Includes physical metallurgy based guidelines for obtaining high joint efficiency Summarizes the research and application of friction stir welding to high strength 7XXX series alloys, exploring the past and current developments in the field

Advanced Joining Processes

Advanced Joining Processes
Author: Lucas F. M. da Silva,Mohamad S. El-Zein,Paulo Martins
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 400
Release: 2020-10-31
ISBN 10: 0128208872
ISBN 13: 9780128208878
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Joining Processes Book Review:

Advanced Joining Processes: Welding, Plastic Deformation, and Adhesion brings together a range of advanced thermal, mechanical, and chemical methods of joining, offering an up-to-date resource for those looking to understand and utilize the very latest techniques. Efficient joining techniques are critical to a range of innovative applications, with technology in constant development. The first section of the book provides in-depth information on advanced welding techniques, including friction stir, explosive, ultrasonic, laser, electron beam, and computational weld analysis and fatigue of structures. The second section highlights key developments in joining by plastic deformation, adhesive bonding, and hybrid joining. The coverage of each technique is supported by practical guidance, detailed analysis, and finite element simulations. This is an essential reference for researchers and advanced students in joining, welding, adhesion, materials processing, mechanical engineering, plastics engineering, manufacturing, civil engineering, and automotive/aerospace engineering, as well as engineers, scientists, and R&D professionals, using joining, welding, and adhesion methods, across a range of industries. Presents the latest research findings and developments across welding, joining by plastic deformation, and adhesion Includes state-of-the-art methods, such as laser, ultrasonic and electron beam welding, hybrid joining, and the use of electromagnetic pulses Offers practical guidance, detailed analysis, and finite element simulations, for all techniques covered

Residual Stresses in Friction Stir Welding

Residual Stresses in Friction Stir Welding
Author: Nilesh Kumar,Rajiv S. Mishra,John A. Baumann
Publsiher: Butterworth-Heinemann
Total Pages: 60
Release: 2013-11-20
ISBN 10: 012800732X
ISBN 13: 9780128007327
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Residual Stresses in Friction Stir Welding Book Review:

This book describes the fundamentals of residual stresses in friction stir welding and reviews the data reported for various materials. Residual stresses produced during manufacturing processes lead to distortion of structures. It is critical to understand and mitigate residual stresses. From the onset of friction stir welding, claims have been made about the lower magnitude of residual stresses. The lower residual stresses are partly due to lower peak temperature and shorter time at temperature during friction stir welding. A review of residual stresses that result from the friction stir process and strategies to mitigate it have been presented. Friction stir welding can be combined with additional in-situ and ex-situ manufacturing steps to lower the final residual stresses. Modeling of residual stresses highlights the relationship between clamping constraint and development of distortion. For many applications, management of residual stresses can be critical for qualification of component/structure. Reviews magnitude of residual stresses in various metals and alloys Discusses mitigation strategies for residual stresses during friction stir welding Covers fundamental origin of residual stresses and distortion

Current Trends in Friction Stir Welding FSW and Friction Stir Spot Welding FSSW

Current Trends in Friction Stir Welding  FSW  and Friction Stir Spot Welding  FSSW
Author: Mukuna Patrick Mubiayi,Esther Titilayo Akinlabi,Mamookho Elizabeth Makhatha
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 206
Release: 2018-06-14
ISBN 10: 3319927507
ISBN 13: 9783319927503
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Current Trends in Friction Stir Welding FSW and Friction Stir Spot Welding FSSW Book Review:

This book provides an overview of friction stir welding and friction stir spot welding with a focus on aluminium to aluminium and aluminium to copper. It also discusses experimental results for friction stir spot welding between aluminium and copper, offering a good foundation for researchers wishing to conduct more investigations on FSSW Al/Cu. Presenting full methodologies for manufacturing and case studies on FSSW Al/Cu, which can be duplicated and used for industrial purposes, it also provides a starting point for researchers and experts in the field to investigate the FSSW process in detail. A variant of the friction stir welding process (FSW), friction stir spot welding (FSSW) is a relatively new joining technique and has been used in a variety of sectors, such as the automotive and aerospace industries. The book describes the microstructural evolution, chemical and mechanical properties of FSW and FSSW, including a number of case studies.

An Investigation Into Methods to Increase the Fatigue Life of Friction Stir Lap Welds

An Investigation Into Methods to Increase the Fatigue Life of Friction Stir Lap Welds
Author: Farzad Baratzadeh
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 84
Release: 2010
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:697538553
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

An Investigation Into Methods to Increase the Fatigue Life of Friction Stir Lap Welds Book Review:

Recent advancements in friction stir welding (FSW) technology have potential for applications in aerospace structures. Friction stir spot welds have been found to be much stronger than rivets in the same material thickness, while maintaining the discontinuous crack growth path preferred by aircraft designers. In this study, the test coupons have been investigated in fatigue with the weld aligned with the loading direction. The purpose of this study was to better understand crack initiation at friction stir weld exit holes in no-load transfer coupons representative of aircraft fuselage applications. The goal was to document the effects of weld exit location on fatigue life in discontinuous friction stir welded panels and to determine possible solutions in order to reduce the stress concentration around the exit hole location, thereby increasing the panel's fatigue life. Aluminum alloys 7075-T6 and 2024-T3, which are commonly used in conventional airframe construction, were chosen for the FSW lap welds in this thesis. The methodology of this research was to weld the coupons with discontinuous friction stir lap welding using different exit hole configurations. The weld parameters such as rotation speed, travel speed, lead angle and load force had already been evaluated prior to this investigation in an earlier study during the first year of this project by Josh Merry. Once all of the coupons were welded, the next step was to fatigue test them with constant amplitude in order to determine the number of fatigue cycles and then compare all the different coupon results with the baseline coupon result that were determined in the previous study. This project investigated a number of weld exit strategies with conventional one-piece weld tools. This study also included welds produced with a two-piece weld tool called Retractable Pin Tool (RPT) in which the length of the tool probe can be adjusted during welding. The RPT weld tool was used to eliminate the exit hole of the weld in order to reduce or eliminate viii the stress concentration around the weld exit. The ultimate goal of this research was to achieve equivalent or better fatigue life in discontinuous FSW joints as compared to riveted coupons.

Handbook of Aluminum

Handbook of Aluminum
Author: George E. Totten,D. Scott MacKenzie
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 744
Release: 2003-04-25
ISBN 10: 9780203912607
ISBN 13: 0203912608
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Aluminum Book Review:

This reference provides thorough and in-depth coverage of the latest production and processing technologies encountered in the aluminum alloy industry, discussing current analytical methods for aluminum alloy characterization as well as extractive metallurgy, smelting, master alloy formation, and recycling. The Handbook of Aluminum: Volume 2 examin

Trends in Welding Research 2012 Proceedings of the 9th International Conference

Trends in Welding Research 2012  Proceedings of the 9th International Conference
Author: Tarasankar DebRoy, Stan A. David, John N. DuPont, Toshihiko Koseki, Harry K. Bhadeshia
Publsiher: ASM International
Total Pages: 1116
Release: 2013-03-01
ISBN 10: 1627089985
ISBN 13: 9781627089982
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Trends in Welding Research 2012 Proceedings of the 9th International Conference Book Review:

The Trends conference attracts the world's leading welding researchers. Topics covered in this volume include friction stir welding, sensing, control and automation, microstructure and properties, welding processes, procedures and consumables, weldability, modeling, phase transformations, residual stress and distortion, physical processes in welding, and properties and structural integrity of weldments.

Friction Stir Welding and Processing X

Friction Stir Welding and Processing X
Author: Yuri Hovanski,Rajiv Mishra,Yutaka Sato,Piyush Upadhyay,David Yan
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 283
Release: 2019-02-11
ISBN 10: 3030057526
ISBN 13: 9783030057527
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Friction Stir Welding and Processing X Book Review:

This book is a compilation of the recent progress on friction stir technologies including high-temperature applications, industrial applications, dissimilar alloy/materials, lightweight alloys, simulation, control, characterization, and derivative technologies. The volume offers a current look at friction stir welding technology from application to characterization and from modeling to R&D. Contributions document advances in application, controls, and simulation of the friction stir process to aid researchers in seeing the current state-of-the-art.

Fracture of Nano and Engineering Materials and Structures

Fracture of Nano and Engineering Materials and Structures
Author: E.E. Gdoutos
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 1416
Release: 2008-01-08
ISBN 10: 1402049722
ISBN 13: 9781402049729
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fracture of Nano and Engineering Materials and Structures Book Review:

The 16th European Conference of Fracture (ECF16) was held in Greece, July, 2006. It focused on all aspects of structural integrity with the objective of improving the safety and performance of engineering structures, components, systems and their associated materials. Emphasis was given to the failure of nanostructured materials and nanostructures including micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS).