Fatigue and Tribological Properties of Plastics and Elastomers

Fatigue and Tribological Properties of Plastics and Elastomers
Author: PDL Staff
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 531
Release: 2013-10-22
ISBN 10: 0815517122
ISBN 13: 9780815517122
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fatigue and Tribological Properties of Plastics and Elastomers Book Review:

For all practical purposes, the useful life of a plastic component is equal to its fatigue life under conditions of cyclic loading such as those that occur in vibration. Equally important to materials engineers and designers are abrasion, friction and wearùtribological properties. Over 80 generic families are covered including thermoplastics, thermosets, thermoplastic elastomers and rubbers. Neat resins, blends and alloys, plastics with various combinations of fillers, additives and more are covered. Also covers plastics mated to plastics and metals.

Fatigue and tribological properties of plastics and elastomers

Fatigue and tribological properties of plastics and elastomers
Author: Laurence W. McKeen
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2010
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:430842997
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fatigue and tribological properties of plastics and elastomers Book Review:

Part of a series of core databooks within the William Andrew 'Plastics Design Library', Fatigue and Tribological Properties of Plastics and Elastomers provides a comprehensive collection of graphical multipoint data and tabular data covering fatigue and tribology. The concept of fatigue is very straightforward: if an object is subjected to a stress or deformation, and it is repeated, the object becomes weaker; this weakening of plastic material is called fatigue. Tribology is the science and technology of surfaces in contact with each other and therefore covers friction, lubrication and wear. The reduction of wear and fatigue, and improvement of lubrication are key bottom-line issues for engineers and scientists involved in the plastics industry and product design with plastics. Fatigue and Tribological Properties of Plastics and Elastomers, 2nd Edition is an update of all that has changed in the world of plastics since the 1st edition appeared nearly 15 years ago, and has been reorganized from a polymer chemistry point of view. A hard-working reference tool: part of the daily workflow of engineers and scientists involved in the plastics industry and product design with plastics The reduction of wear and fatigue, and improvement of lubrication are key bottom-line issues. The data in this book provides engineers with the tools they need to design for low failure rates.

Fatigue and Tribological Properties of Plastics and Elastomers

Fatigue and Tribological Properties of Plastics and Elastomers
Author: Laurence W. McKeen
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 370
Release: 2016-03-31
ISBN 10: 0323442056
ISBN 13: 9780323442053
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fatigue and Tribological Properties of Plastics and Elastomers Book Review:

Part of a series of data-rich handbooks within the Plastics Design Library, Fatigue and Tribological Properties of Plastics and Elastomers provides a comprehensive collection of graphical multipoint data and tabular data covering the fatigue and tribological performance of plastics. The handbook is structured by grouping together plastics of similar polymer types into ten chapters. Each of these chapters is split into two sections: Fatigue Properties and Tribological Properties, and together they provide a compendium of several hundred graphs and charts, supplying the core data needed by engineers and scientists on a day-to-day basis. The data for this third edition has been updated to cover upwards of five years since the previous edition was published, and also includes an entirely new chapter covering sustainable and biodegradable polymers. The book also includes an extensive introductory section covering fatigue, what it is and how it is measured; the fundamentals of tribology; polymer chemistry and plastics composition. These chapters also provide readers with a full understanding of the data section, and how to put it to use as a hard-working information tool.

Fatigue and Tribological Properties of Plastics and Elastomers Second Edition

Fatigue and Tribological Properties of Plastics and Elastomers  Second Edition
Author: Laurence W. McKeen
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2010
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:1136888644
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fatigue and Tribological Properties of Plastics and Elastomers Second Edition Book Review:

Film Properties of Plastics and Elastomers

Film Properties of Plastics and Elastomers
Author: Laurence W. McKeen
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 408
Release: 2012-04-25
ISBN 10: 1455728012
ISBN 13: 9781455728015
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Film Properties of Plastics and Elastomers Book Review:

Now in its 3e, Film Properties of Plastics and Elastomers, has been extensively revised. This is the only data handbook available on the engineering properties of commercial polymeric films. It details many physical, mechanical, optical, electrical, and permeation properties within the context of specific test parameters, providing a ready reference for comparing materials in the same family as well as materials in different families. Data is presented on the characteristics of 47 major plastic and elastomer packaging materials. New to this edition, the resin chapters each contain textual summary information including category, general description, processing methods, applications, and other facts as appropriate, such as reliability, weatherability, and regulatory approval considerations for use in food and medical packaging. Extensive references are provided. Essential data and practical guidance for engineers and scientists working with polymer films 3e expanded by nearly 50% to include new data sections and additional explanatory chapters to help readers utilize the data and work successfully with plastic films Written for engineers working across the key market sectors for polymer film applications: semiconductor, chemicals, food, beverage and pharmaceutical packaging, energy, medical devices, etc.

Fabrication and Design of Resonant Microdevices

Fabrication and Design of Resonant Microdevices
Author: Behraad Bahreyni
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 250
Release: 2008-10-20
ISBN 10: 9780815519713
ISBN 13: 0815519710
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fabrication and Design of Resonant Microdevices Book Review:

This book discusses the main issues of fabrication and design, and applications of micromachined resonant devices, including techniques commonly used for processing the output signal of resonant micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). Concepts of resonance are introduced, with an overview of fabrication techniques for micromachined devices – important to understand as design options will depend on how the device will be fabricated. Also explained: excitation and signal detection methods; an analytic model of device behavior (a valuable design tool); numerical simulation techniques; issues of damping and noise for resonant MEMS; electronic interfacing; packaging issues; and numerous examples of resonant MEMS from academia and industry. Offers numerous academic and industrial examples of resonant MEMS Provides an analytic model of device behaviour Explains two-port systems in detail Devotes ample space to excitation and signal detection methods Covers issues of damping and noise for resonant MEMS, two topics of particular importance for high-Q devices

The Effect of Sterilization on Plastics and Elastomers

The Effect of Sterilization on Plastics and Elastomers
Author: Laurence W. McKeen
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 468
Release: 2018-02-22
ISBN 10: 0128145129
ISBN 13: 9780128145128
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Effect of Sterilization on Plastics and Elastomers Book Review:

The Effect of Sterilization Methods on Plastics and Elastomers, Fourth Edition brings together a wide range of essential data on the sterilization of plastics and elastomers, thus enabling engineers to make optimal material choices and design decisions. The data tables in this book enable engineers and scientists to select the right materials and sterilization method for a given product or application. The book is a unique and essential reference for anybody working with plastic materials that are likely to be exposed to sterilization methods, be it in medical device or packaging development, food packaging or other applications. Presents essential data and practical guidance for engineers and scientists working with plastics in applications that require sterile packaging and equipment Updated edition removes obsolete data, updates manufacturers, verifies data accuracy, and adds new plastics materials for comparison Provides essential information and guidance for FDA submissions required for new medical devices

The Effect of UV Light and Weather on Plastics and Elastomers

The Effect of UV Light and Weather on Plastics and Elastomers
Author: Laurence W. McKeen
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 464
Release: 2019-03-22
ISBN 10: 0128172711
ISBN 13: 9780128172711
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Effect of UV Light and Weather on Plastics and Elastomers Book Review:

The Effect of UV Light and Weather on Plastics and Elastomers, Fourth Edition, provides critical data on the effect of UV light and weathering on plastics and elastomers, enabling engineers, designers and R&D professionals to select the right materials when developing plastics products for a range of industries and applications. This information will also support academic researchers and scientists in developing polymeric materials for advanced applications. Provides vital data on the effects of weather and UV light exposure on plastics and elastomers Offers practical guidance for engineers and scientists working with plastics for outdoor applications Expanded revision includes the latest data, polymer classes and newly available materials, including bio-based polymers and plastics for 3D printing

Using the Engineering Literature

Using the Engineering Literature
Author: Bonnie A. Osif
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 640
Release: 2006-08-23
ISBN 10: 0203966163
ISBN 13: 9780203966167
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Using the Engineering Literature Book Review:

The field of engineering is becoming increasingly interdisciplinary, and there is an ever-growing need for engineers to investigate engineering and scientific resources outside their own area of expertise. However, studies have shown that quality information-finding skills often tend to be lacking in the engineering profession. Using the Engineerin

The Effect of Radiation on Properties of Polymers

The Effect of Radiation on Properties of Polymers
Author: Laurence W. McKeen
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 430
Release: 2020-08-20
ISBN 10: 0128225998
ISBN 13: 9780128225998
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Effect of Radiation on Properties of Polymers Book Review:

The Effect of Radiation on Properties of Polymers examines the effects of radiation on plastics and elastomers. Polymers are required in products or parts for a range of cutting-edge applications that are exposed to radiation, in areas such as space, medicine, and radiation processing. This book focuses on the effects of radiation exposure within that environment, providing in-depth data coverage organized by category of polymer. Aspects such as radiation impact on mechanical and thermal properties, including glass transition and heat deflection temperatures, are described, demonstrating how changes in these properties affect the performance of plastic or elastomer parts. The effect of radiation on electrical properties is also included. Supporting introductory chapters explain the key concepts of radiation, including the physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of plastics and elastomers. This is a vital resource for plastics engineers, product designers, and R&D professionals, working on products or parts for radioactive environments, as well as engineers and scientists in the medical, nuclear, and radiation processing industries. The book also supports researchers and scientists in plastics engineering, polymer processing and properties, polymer and coatings chemistry, materials science, and radiation. Brings together highly valuable data on the effect of radiation on the properties of polymers and elastomers Enables the reader to compare properties and to select the best possible materials for specific applications Supported by detailed explanations and analysis, ensuring that the reader understands how to interpret and utilize the data

Plastics to Energy

Plastics to Energy
Author: Sultan Al-Salem
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 562
Release: 2018-11-05
ISBN 10: 0128131411
ISBN 13: 9780128131411
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Plastics to Energy Book Review:

Plastics to Energy: Fuel, Chemicals, and Sustainability Implications covers important trends in the science and technology of polymer recovery, such as the thermo-chemical treatment of plastics, the impact of environmental degradation on mechanical recycling, incineration and thermal unit design, and new options in biodegradable plastics. The book also introduces product development opportunities from waste materials and discusses the main processes and pathways of the conversion of polymeric materials to energy, fuel and chemicals. A particular focus is placed on industrial case studies and academic reviews, providing a practical emphasis that enables plastics practitioners involved in end-of-life aspects to employ these processes. Final sections examine lifecycle and cost analysis of different plastic waste management processes, exploring the potential of various techniques in modelling, optimization and simulation of waste management options. Introduces new pathways for the end-of-life treatment of plastics and polymers, including conversion to energy, fuel and other chemicals Compares different options to assist materials scientists, engineers and waste management practitioners to choose the most effective and sustainable option Covers the latest trends in the science and technology of polymer energy recovery

Introduction to Plastics Engineering

Introduction to Plastics Engineering
Author: Anshuman Shrivastava
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 262
Release: 2018-05-15
ISBN 10: 0323396194
ISBN 13: 9780323396196
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Introduction to Plastics Engineering Book Review:

Introduction to Plastics Engineering provides a single reference covering the basics of polymer and plastics materials, and their properties, design, processing and applications in a practical way. The book discusses materials engineering through properties formulation, combining part design and processing to produce final products. This book will be a beneficial guide to materials engineers developing new formulations, processing engineers producing those formulations, and design and product engineers seeking to understand the materials and methods for developing new applications. The book incorporates material properties, engineering, processing, design, applications and sustainable and bio based solutions. Ideal for those just entering the industry, or transitioning between sectors, this is a quick, relevant and informative reference guide to plastics engineering and processing for engineers and plastics practitioners. Provides a single unified reference covering plastics materials, properties, design, processing and applications Offers end-to-end coverage of the industry, from formulation to part design, processing, and the final product Serves as an ideal introductory book for new plastics engineers and students of plastics engineering Provides a convenient reference for more experienced practitioners

Recycling of Flexible Plastic Packaging

Recycling of Flexible Plastic Packaging
Author: Michael Niaounakis
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 466
Release: 2019-12-04
ISBN 10: 0128166037
ISBN 13: 9780128166031
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Recycling of Flexible Plastic Packaging Book Review:

Recycling of Flexible Plastic Packaging presents thorough and detailed information on the management and recycling of flexible plastic packaging, focusing on the latest actual/potential methods and techniques and offering actionable solutions that minimize waste and increase product efficiency and sustainability. Sections cover flexible plastic packaging and its benefits, applications and challenges. This is followed by in-depth coverage of the materials, types and forms of flexible packaging. Other key discussions cover collection and pre-treatment, volume reduction, separation from other materials, chemical recycling, post-processing and reuse, current regulations and policies, economic aspects and immediate trends. This information will be highly valuable to engineers, scientists and R&D professionals across industry. In addition, it will also be of great interest to researchers in academia, those in government, or anyone with an interest in recycling who is looking to further advance and implement recycling methods for flexible plastic packaging. Presents state-of-the-art methods and technologies regarding the processing of flexible plastic packaging waste Addresses the challenges currently associated with both waste management and available recycling methods Opens the door to innovation, supporting improved recycling methods, manufacturing efficiency and industrial sustainability

Fluorinated Coatings and Finishes Handbook

Fluorinated Coatings and Finishes Handbook
Author: Laurence W. McKeen
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 630
Release: 2015-10-11
ISBN 10: 0323374670
ISBN 13: 9780323374675
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fluorinated Coatings and Finishes Handbook Book Review:

Fluorinated Coatings and Finishes Handbook: The Definitive User's Guide, Second Edition, addresses important, frequently posed questions by end-user design engineers, coaters, and coatings suppliers on fluorinated coatings and finishes, thus enabling them to achieve superior product qualities and shorter product and process development times. The book provides broad coverage of these fluorinated polymer coatings, including the best known PTFE, polytetrafluoroethylene, first trademarked as Teflon® and ePTFE (GoreTex®). Their inherent qualities of low surface tension, non-stick, low friction, high melting point, and chemical inertness make fluoropolymer coatings widely desirable across thousands of industrial and consumer applications, but these properties also make it difficult to convert fluoropolymers to coatings that have sufficient adhesion to the substrate to be protected. In this book, readers learn how fluoropolymer coatings are used and made, about their pigments and fillers, binders, dispersion processes, additives, and solvents. The book includes substrate preparation, coating properties, baking and curing processes, performance tests, applications, and health and safety. Provides a practical handbook that covers the theory and practice of fluorinated coatings, including the structure and properties of binders and how to get a non-stick coating to stick to the substrate Covers liquid and power fluorocoatings, their applications methods, curing and baking processes, and their commercial end uses Presents detailed discussions of testing methods related to fluorocoatings, common coating defects, how they form, how to eliminate them, and the health and safety aspects of using and applying fluorocoatings Includes substrate preparation, coating properties, baking and curing processes, performance tests, applications, and health and safety

Thermoplastics and Thermoplastic Composites

Thermoplastics and Thermoplastic Composites
Author: Michel Biron
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 1164
Release: 2018-06-06
ISBN 10: 0081025025
ISBN 13: 9780081025024
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Thermoplastics and Thermoplastic Composites Book Review:

Thermoplastics and Thermoplastic Composites, Third Edition bridges the technology and business aspects of thermoplastics, providing a guide designed to help engineers working in real-world industrial settings. The author explores the criteria for material selection, provides a detailed guide to each family of thermoplastics, and explains the various processing options for each material type. More than 30 families of thermoplastics are described with information on their advantages and drawbacks, special grades, prices, transformation processes, applications, thermal behavior, technological properties (tenacity, friction, dimensional stability), durability (ageing, creep, fatigue), chemical and fire behavior, electrical properties, and joining possibilities. In this third edition, standards and costs have been updated for all materials, and more information on topics such as bioplastics, 3D printing and recycling have been added. In addition, an entirely new chapter on the concept of ‘Industry 4.0’ has been added, with guidance and suggestions on the incorporation of virtualization, connectivity, and automation into the plastics engineering process to reduce materials and processing failure. Includes detailed case studies that illustrate best practices across a wide range of applications and industry sectors Presents a new chapter on the ‘Industry 4.0’ concept Suggests software solutions to assist with design, decision-making and management, along with other forms of automation

Durability and Reliability of Polymers and Other Materials in Photovoltaic Modules

Durability and Reliability of Polymers and Other Materials in Photovoltaic Modules
Author: Hsinjin Edwin Yang,Roger French,Laura Bruckman
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 250
Release: 2019-04-15
ISBN 10: 0128115459
ISBN 13: 9780128115459
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Durability and Reliability of Polymers and Other Materials in Photovoltaic Modules Book Review:

Durability and Reliability of Polymers and Other Materials in Photovoltaic Modules describes the durability and reliability behavior of polymers used in Si-photovoltaic modules and systems, particularly in terms of physical aging and degradation process/mechanisms, characterization methods, accelerated exposure chamber and testing, module level testing, and service life prediction. The book compares polymeric materials to traditional materials used in solar applications, explaining the degradation pathways of the different elements of a photovoltaic module, including encapsulant, front sheet, back sheet, wires and connectors, adhesives, sealants, and more. In addition, users will find sections on the tests needed for the evaluation of polymer degradation and aging, as well as accelerated tests to aid in materials selection. As demand for photovoltaics continues to grow globally, with polymer photovoltaics offering significantly lower production costs compared to earlier approaches, this book will serve as a welcome resource on new avenues. Provides comprehensive coverage of photovoltaic polymers, from fundamental degradation mechanisms, to specific case studies of durability and materials failure Offers practical, actionable information in relation to service life prediction of photovoltaic modules and accelerated testing for materials selection Includes up-to-date information and interpretation of safety regulations and testing of photovoltaic modules and materials

Hydraulic Rubber Dam

Hydraulic Rubber Dam
Author: Sabu Thomas,Ajay Vasudeo Rane,Abitha VK,Krishnan Kanny,Aastha Dutta
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 142
Release: 2018-11-30
ISBN 10: 0128135115
ISBN 13: 9780128135112
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Hydraulic Rubber Dam Book Review:

Hydraulic Rubber Dam: An Effective Water Management Technology is the go-to source for information on the materials, manufacture, mechanics and functional benefit of rubber dams in water management. Readers will find a detailed background on water conservation and coverage, how inflatable rubber dam technology contributes to the picture, and information on the proper manufacture and use of rubber dams to increase water storage for release and delivery during drought. In addition, the book presents tactics on the even distribution of water across populations, how to increase water use efficiency, conservation, and how to prevent flooding. In particular, this book details specialist manufacturing techniques, including the development of rubber compounds and fabric, the bonding and anchoring systems which hold the rubber dam to the underlying concrete structure, and inflation and deflation mechanisms for rubber dams. The book provides a holistic lifecycle assessment of rubber dams to give additional insight to readers looking to deploy rubber dam technology. Demonstrates the proper use of rubber dams in water management, especially in flood prevention and water conservation during drought Includes guidance on the materials engineering of rubber and technical fabrics involved in the construction of dams, bonding and anchoring systems, and inflation and deflation mechanisms Presents thorough coverage of modelling and stress analysis, along with lifecycle assessment of inflatable rubber dams

Handbook of Biopolymers and Biodegradable Plastics

Handbook of Biopolymers and Biodegradable Plastics
Author: Sina Ebnesajjad
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 472
Release: 2012-12-31
ISBN 10: 1455730033
ISBN 13: 9781455730032
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Biopolymers and Biodegradable Plastics Book Review:

Biopolymers and Biodegradable Plastics are a hot issue across the Plastics industry, and for many of the industry sectors that use plastic, from packaging to medical devices and from the construction indusry to the automotive sector. This book brings together a number of key biopolymer and biodegradable plastics topics in one place for a broad audience of engineers and scientists, especially those designing with biopolymers and biodegradable plastics, or evaluating the options for switching from traditional plastics to biopolymers. Topics covered include preparation, fabrication, applications and recycling (including biodegradability and compostability). Applications in key areas such as films, coatings controlled release and tissue engineering are discussed. Dr Ebnesajjad provides readers with an in-depth reference for the plastics industry – material suppliers and processors, bio-polymer producers, bio-polymer processors and fabricators – and for industry sectors utilizing biopolymers – automotive, packaging, construction, wind turbine manufacturers, film manufacturers, adhesive and coating industries, medical device manufacturers, biomedical engineers, and the recycling industry. Essential information and practical guidance for engineers and scientists working with bioplastics, or evaluating a migration to bioplastics. Includes key published material on biopolymers, updated specifically for this Handbook, and new material including coverage of PLA and Tissue Engineering Scaffolds. Coverage of materials and applications together in one handbook enables engineers and scientists to make informed design decisions.

Thermoforming of Single and Multilayer Laminates

Thermoforming of Single and Multilayer Laminates
Author: Syed Ali Ashter
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 352
Release: 2013-11-07
ISBN 10: 1455731862
ISBN 13: 9781455731862
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Thermoforming of Single and Multilayer Laminates Book Review:

Thermoforming of Single and Multilayer Laminates explains the fundamentals of lamination and plastics thermoforming technologies along with current and new developments. It focuses on properties and thermoforming mechanics of plastic films and in particular single and multilayered laminates, including barrier films. For environmental and economic reasons, laminates are becoming increasingly important as a replacement for solid sheets and paint finishes in many industries, including transportation, packaging, and construction. Yet the processes of film formability during the extensive deformation and elevated temperatures experienced in conventional processing technologies, such as thermoforming, are poorly understood by most engineers. This book covers production processes, such as extrusion, calendaring, and casting, as well as mechanical and impact testing methods. It also describes how testing protocols developed for metals can be leveraged for plastic films and laminates, and includes a thorough discussion on methods for performing optical strain analysis. Applications in transportation vehicles and packaging, including packaging for food, medical and electronics applications, sports equipment, and household appliances, are discussed. Safety, recycling and environmental aspects of thermoforming and its products complete the book. First comprehensive source of information and hands-on guide for the thermoforming of multilayered laminates Covers applications across such sectors as automotive, packaging, home goods, and construction Introduces new testing methods leveraging protocols used for metals

Phthalonitrile Resins and Composites

Phthalonitrile Resins and Composites
Author: Mehdi Derradji,Wang Jun,Liu Wenbin
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 404
Release: 2018-04-25
ISBN 10: 0128129670
ISBN 13: 9780128129678
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Phthalonitrile Resins and Composites Book Review:

Phthalonitrile Resins and Composites: Properties and Applications summarizes the latest research on these polymers, providing information that enables materials scientists and engineers to deploy these polymers in the real world. The book gives details on synthesis and preparation techniques for key phthalonitrile monomers. All curing techniques are discussed, along with blends and copolymers of phthalonitrile with other polymeric materials, such as epoxy, benzoxazine and bismaleimide. Fiber and particle based phthalonitrile micro and nanocomposites are also discussed, along with their potential applications in lightweight automobiles, ships, oil rigs, aircraft, wind blades, high temperature bearings, valves, battery and electronic casings, fire resistant textiles, and more. Introduces the subject of phthalonitrile polymers and their composites Provides precise information on the synthesis, preparation and curing techniques for phthalonitrile polymers Discusses developments in key application areas that are intended to facilitate and stimulate real world applications of these materials