Durability and Reliability of Polymers and Other Materials in Photovoltaic Modules

Durability and Reliability of Polymers and Other Materials in Photovoltaic Modules
Author: Hsinjin Edwin Yang,Roger French,Laura Bruckman
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 356
Release: 2019-06-13
ISBN 10: 0128115467
ISBN 13: 9780128115466
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Durability and Reliability of Polymers and Other Materials in Photovoltaic Modules Book Review:

Durability and Reliability of Polymers and Other Materials in Photovoltaic Modules describes the durability and reliability behavior of polymers used in Si-photovoltaic modules and systems, particularly in terms of physical aging and degradation process/mechanisms, characterization methods, accelerated exposure chamber and testing, module level testing, and service life prediction. The book compares polymeric materials to traditional materials used in solar applications, explaining the degradation pathways of the different elements of a photovoltaic module, including encapsulant, front sheet, back sheet, wires and connectors, adhesives, sealants, and more. In addition, users will find sections on the tests needed for the evaluation of polymer degradation and aging, as well as accelerated tests to aid in materials selection. As demand for photovoltaics continues to grow globally, with polymer photovoltaics offering significantly lower production costs compared to earlier approaches, this book will serve as a welcome resource on new avenues. Provides comprehensive coverage of photovoltaic polymers, from fundamental degradation mechanisms, to specific case studies of durability and materials failure Offers practical, actionable information in relation to service life prediction of photovoltaic modules and accelerated testing for materials selection Includes up-to-date information and interpretation of safety regulations and testing of photovoltaic modules and materials

Polymers for Vibration Damping Applications

Polymers for Vibration Damping Applications
Author: Bikash C. Chakraborty,Debdatta Ratna
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 348
Release: 2020-01-22
ISBN 10: 0128192534
ISBN 13: 9780128192535
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Polymers for Vibration Damping Applications Book Review:

Polymers for Vibration Damping Applications is a detailed guide on the use of polymers and polymer composites for vibration and shock damping. The book begins with two chapters that introduce the fundamentals of both vibration and shock damping. The next part of the book presents in-depth coverage of polymeric materials for vibration damping, including viscoelastic properties, design of polymer systems, and modes and applications. Finally, measurement techniques are discussed in detail. Throughout the book, the different perspectives of materials and engineering are considered, and both mathematical and conceptual approaches are used. This is an essential resource for all those looking to understand the application of polymers for vibration damping, including researchers, scientists and advanced students in polymer science, plastics engineering, materials science and mechanical engineering, as well as engineers and R&D personnel in the automotive, marine, defense and construction industries. Equips the reader with a complete, fundamental understanding of vibration and shock damping Explains the viscoelastic properties, design and applications of polymeric materials for vibration damping applications Includes cutting-edge research on the use of polymers for advanced civil and defense applications

Applications of Polymers and Plastics in Medical Devices

Applications of Polymers and Plastics in Medical Devices
Author: Syed Ali Ashter
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 304
Release: 2022-03-21
ISBN 10: 0128217383
ISBN 13: 9780128217382
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Applications of Polymers and Plastics in Medical Devices Book Review:

Applications of Polymers and Plastics in Medical Devices: Design, Manufacture, and Performance is a comprehensive guide to plastic materials for medical devices, covering fundamentals, materials, applications and regulatory requirements. Sections cover the role of plastics in medical devices, socioeconomic factors, the classification of medical devices. The performance of, medical grades and suppliers of polymer materials, which are categorized by performance level are also explored, along with manufacturing processes for device components, including extrusion, casting, injection molding and assembly processes. The book then covers applications in detail, examining each device and the role that polymers and plastics play in its construction and function. This is an essential resource for engineers, R&D, and other professionals working on plastics for medical devices and those in the plastics industry, medical device manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, packaging and biotechnology. In an academic setting, this book is of interest to researchers and advanced students in medical plastics, plastics engineering, polymer science, mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, biomedical engineering and materials science. Offers systematic coverage of the major classes of polymers used in medical devices, including properties, characteristics, performance, medical grades and suppliers Reviews regulatory requirements of the FDA and other global agencies, as well as considering quality control and socioeconomic factors Includes the latest advances in plastics for medical devices, such as novel applications, use of bio-based polymers, and processing of reusable medical devices

Service Life Prediction of Polymers and Coatings

Service Life Prediction of Polymers and Coatings
Author: Christopher White,Mark Nichols,James Pickett
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 320
Release: 2020-04-28
ISBN 10: 0128183683
ISBN 13: 9780128183687
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Service Life Prediction of Polymers and Coatings Book Review:

Service Life Prediction of Polymers and Coatings: Enhanced Methods focuses on the cutting-edge science behind how plastic and polymer materials are modified by the effects of weathering, offering the latest advances in service life prediction methods. The chapters have been developed by experts based on their contributions as part of the 7th Service Life Prediction Meeting. The volume begins with the premise that it is possible to produce and design life predictions, also looking at how these predictions can be used. Subsequent chapters present new developments in service life prediction, examining the most important considerations in SLP design, timescales, and other major issues. The book also considers the current state of the field in terms of both accomplishments and areas that require significant research going forward. This is a highly valuable reference for engineers, designers, technicians, scientists and R&D professionals who are looking to develop materials, components or products for outdoor applications across a range of industries. The book also supports academic researchers, scientists and advanced students with an interest in service life, the effects of weathering, material degradation, failure analysis, or sustainability across the fields of plastics engineering, polymer science and materials science. Presents novel prediction techniques for plastics and polymers exposed to outdoor weathering Provides a consensus roadmap on the scientific barriers related to a validated, predictive model for the response of polymer and plastics to outdoor exposure Enables the reader to assess and compare different methods and approaches to service life prediction

Introduction to Fluoropolymers

Introduction to Fluoropolymers
Author: Sina Ebnesajjad
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 418
Release: 2020-12-08
ISBN 10: 0128192992
ISBN 13: 9780128192993
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Introduction to Fluoropolymers Book Review:

Introduction to Fluoropolymers, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive overview of the history, principles, properties, processing and applications of fluoropolymers, supporting their development and utilization in high-performance applications, components, and products. This second edition has been updated and expanded to include new in-depth chapters on manufacturing and applications of PTFE and melt processible fluoropolymers. The book begins by demonstrating the role of fluoropolymers in everyday life, before introducing the history and basic principles of fluoropolymers. This is followed by detailed coverage of the main fluoropolymer types. Properties and applications are illustrated by real-world examples as diverse as waterproof clothing, vascular grafts and coatings for aircraft interiors. The different applications of fluoropolymers show the benefits of a group of materials that are highly water-repellant and flame-retardant, with unrivalled lubrication properties and a high level of biocompatibility. Health and safety and environmental aspects are also covered throughout the book, with a final chapter examining safety, disposal, and recycling in detail. This book is an essential resource for anyone looking to understand or use fluoropolymer materials in their products. This includes engineers, product designers, manufacturers, scientists, researchers, and other professionals, across industries such as automotive, aerospace, medical devices, food and beverages, high performance apparel, oil and gas, renewable energy, solar photovoltaics, electronics and semiconductors, pharmaceuticals, and chemical processing. This is also a valuable introductory guide for academic researchers and advanced students in plastics engineering, polymer science, and materials science. Introduces and demystifies fluoropolymers for a wide audience of engineers, designers, professionals, and researchers, across industries and disciplines Covers a broad range of materials, including polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyvinyl fluoride (PVF), vinylidene fluoride polymers, fluoroelastomers, and more Focuses on properties, processing methods and advanced industrial applications of fluoropolymers

The Effect of Radiation on Properties of Polymers

The Effect of Radiation on Properties of Polymers
Author: Laurence W. McKeen
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 430
Release: 2020-08-20
ISBN 10: 0128225998
ISBN 13: 9780128225998
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Effect of Radiation on Properties of Polymers Book Review:

The Effect of Radiation on Properties of Polymers examines the effects of radiation on plastics and elastomers. Polymers are required in products or parts for a range of cutting-edge applications that are exposed to radiation, in areas such as space, medicine, and radiation processing. This book focuses on the effects of radiation exposure within that environment, providing in-depth data coverage organized by category of polymer. Aspects such as radiation impact on mechanical and thermal properties, including glass transition and heat deflection temperatures, are described, demonstrating how changes in these properties affect the performance of plastic or elastomer parts. The effect of radiation on electrical properties is also included. Supporting introductory chapters explain the key concepts of radiation, including the physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of plastics and elastomers. This is a vital resource for plastics engineers, product designers, and R&D professionals, working on products or parts for radioactive environments, as well as engineers and scientists in the medical, nuclear, and radiation processing industries. The book also supports researchers and scientists in plastics engineering, polymer processing and properties, polymer and coatings chemistry, materials science, and radiation. Brings together highly valuable data on the effect of radiation on the properties of polymers and elastomers Enables the reader to compare properties and to select the best possible materials for specific applications Supported by detailed explanations and analysis, ensuring that the reader understands how to interpret and utilize the data

Applications of Polyurethanes in Medical Devices

Applications of Polyurethanes in Medical Devices
Author: Ajay Padsalgikar
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 282
Release: 2022-06-01
ISBN 10: 0128231688
ISBN 13: 9780128231685
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Applications of Polyurethanes in Medical Devices Book Review:

Applications of Polyurethanes in Medical Devices provides detailed coverage of polyurethane (PU) chemistry, processing and preparation for performant medical devices. Polyurethanes have found many uses in medical applications, due to their biocompatibility, biostability, physical properties, surface polarity, and the ability to suit the field of application. This book enables the reader to understand polyurethane and how this valuable material can be used in medical devices. Sections cover the chemistry, structure, and properties of polyurethane, with in-depth sections examining raw materials, reaction chemistry, synthesis techniques, reaction kinetics, material microstructure, and structure-property relationships. Subsequent chapters demonstrate how polyurethane can be utilized in medical device applications, examining biological properties, rheology and processing before methodical coverage explains how polyurethane may be used for each category of medical device. Finally, future directions, and safety and environmental aspects, are covered. Bridges the gap between polyurethane chemistry, processing and preparation for cutting-edge medical device applications Includes in-depth coverage of polyurethane, covering raw materials, chemistry, synthesis techniques, reaction kinetics, properties and microstructural analysis Takes a valuable and practical approach, addressing manufacturing issues and using testing and modeling to solve problems encountered in processing

Plastics in Medical Devices

Plastics in Medical Devices
Author: Vinny R. Sastri
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 524
Release: 2021-10-01
ISBN 10: 0323851274
ISBN 13: 9780323851275
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Plastics in Medical Devices Book Review:

Plastics in Medical Devices: Properties, Requirements, and Applications, Third Edition provides a comprehensive overview on the main types of plastics used in medical device applications. The book focuses on the applications and properties that are most important in medical device design, such as chemical resistance, sterilization capability and biocompatibility. The roles of additives, stabilizers and fillers as well as the synthesis and production of polymers are covered and backed up with a wealth of data tables. The book also covers other key aspects in detail, including regulations, compliance, purchasing controls and supplier controls, and process validation. This updated edition has been thoroughly revised with regard to new plastic materials, applications and requirements. This is a valuable resource for engineers, scientists and managers involved in the design and manufacture of medical devices. Presents detailed coverage of commercially available plastics used in medical device applications, organized by polymer type and supported by data Includes up-to-date regulatory requirements and practical information on purchasing and supplier controls, process validation and risk management Supports the development, marketing and commercialization of medical devices and materials for use in medical devices

Handbook of Thermoset Plastics

Handbook of Thermoset Plastics
Author: Hanna Dodiuk
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 1116
Release: 2021-10-25
ISBN 10: 0323899943
ISBN 13: 9780323899949
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Thermoset Plastics Book Review:

Handbook of Thermoset Plastics, Fourth Edition provides complete coverage of the chemical processes, manufacturing techniques and design properties of each polymer, along with its applications. This new edition has been expanded to include the latest developments in the field, with new chapters on radiation curing, biological adhesives, vitrimers, and 3D printing. This detailed handbook considers the practical implications of using thermoset plastics and the relationships between processing, properties and applications, as well as analyzing the strengths and weakness of different methods and applications. The aim of the book is to help the reader to make the right decision and take the correct action on the basis of informed analysis – avoiding the pitfalls the authors’ experience has uncovered. In industry, the book supports engineers, scientists, manufacturers and R&D professionals working with plastics. The information included will also be of interest to researchers and advanced students in plastics engineering, polymer chemistry, adhesives and coatings. Offers a systematic approach, guiding the reader through chemistry, processing methods, properties and applications of thermosetting polymers Includes thorough updates that discuss current practice and the new developments on biopolymers, nanotechnology, 3D printing, radiation curing and biological adhesives Uses case studies to demonstrate how particular properties make different polymers suitable for different applications Covers end-use and safety considerations

A Practical Guide to Plastics Sustainability

A Practical Guide to Plastics Sustainability
Author: Michel Biron
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 690
Release: 2020-04-18
ISBN 10: 0128215402
ISBN 13: 9780128215401
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

A Practical Guide to Plastics Sustainability Book Review:

A Practical Guide to Plastics Sustainability: Concept, Solutions, and Implementation is a groundbreaking reference work offering a broad, detailed and highly practical vision of the complex concept of sustainability in plastics. The book's aim is to present a range of potential pathways towards more sustainable plastics parts and products, enabling the reader to further integrate the idea of sustainability into their design process. It begins by introducing the context and concept of sustainability, discussing perceptions, drivers of change, key factors, and environmental issues, before presenting a detailed outline of the current situation with types of plastics, processing, and opportunities for improved sustainability. Subsequent chapters focus on the different possibilities for improved sustainability, offering a step-by-step technical approach to areas including design, properties, renewable plastics, and recycling and re-use. Each of these pillars are supported by data, examples, analysis and best practice guidance. Finally, the latest developments and future possibilities are considered. Approaches the idea of sustainability from numerous angles, offering practical solutions to improve sustainability in the development of plastic components and products Explains how sustainability can be applied across plastics design, materials selection, processing, and end of life, all set alongside socioeconomic factors Considers key areas of innovation, such as eco-design, novel opportunities for recycling or re-use, bio-based polymers and new technologies

Applications of Fluoropolymer Films

Applications of Fluoropolymer Films
Author: Jiri George Drobny
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 314
Release: 2020-01-24
ISBN 10: 012816302X
ISBN 13: 9780128163023
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Applications of Fluoropolymer Films Book Review:

Applications of Fluoropolymer Films: Properties, Processing, and Products presents an overview of fluoropolymer films, manufacturing methods, typical properties, and commercial grades for each type of fluoropolymer film. The second part of the book is uniquely focused on the applications of fluoropolymer films, with detailed information on their use in cutting-edge items across major industries, including aerospace and automotive, architectural, chemical processing, construction, consumer products, electronics, food packaging, pharmaceuticals and solar energy. Presents a focused approach on the practical applications of fluoropolymer films, supporting their use in state-of-the-art products across a range of industries Contains detailed coverage of manufacturing methods, properties and commercial grades for fluoropolymer films Unlocks the potential of the advanced properties offered by fluoropolymer films

Service Life Prediction of Polymers and Plastics Exposed to Outdoor Weathering

Service Life Prediction of Polymers and Plastics Exposed to Outdoor Weathering
Author: Christopher C. White,Kenneth M. White,James E. Pickett
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 342
Release: 2017-10-13
ISBN 10: 0323497772
ISBN 13: 9780323497770
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Service Life Prediction of Polymers and Plastics Exposed to Outdoor Weathering Book Review:

Service Life Prediction of Polymers and Plastics Exposed to Outdoor Weathering discusses plastics and polymers and their unique applications, from sealants used in construction, to polymer composites used in planes. While these materials are important enablers for advanced technologies, exposure to weather changes the very properties of plastics that make them so useful. This book reviews current research needs and provides a consensus roadmap of the scientific barriers to validated predictive models for the response of polymers and plastics to outdoor exposure. Despite extensive efforts over the past 20-30 years, testing of polymeric materials in accelerated or natural weathering conditions and the interpretation of the weathering results still require substantial improvements. This book represents the state-of-the-art in the prediction techniques available and in development. Engineers and materials scientists working in this field will be able to use the content of this book to assess the strengths and challenges of a range of different methods and approaches. Enables engineers and scientists in a range of industries to more successfully predict the durability of polymers, paints and coatings when exposed to weather Provides the latest information to help determine the sustainability of polymeric materials Reviews the current state-of-the-art in this area and identifies research needs that are followed by more detailed discussions of specific polymers and applications

Photovoltaic Modules

Photovoltaic Modules
Author: Karl-Anders Weiß
Publsiher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Total Pages: 193
Release: 2021-05-25
ISBN 10: 3110685728
ISBN 13: 9783110685725
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Photovoltaic Modules Book Review:

Photovoltaic modules have developed into mass products sold in billions and applied all over the world enabling a renewable energy supply. Reliability and sustainability are key factors for the success of Photovoltaics in all climate zones. The second edition of this interdisciplinary book provides insight into relevant environmental aspects (climates), material and module testing equipment and approaches, service life prediction modelling and standardisation of wafer-based photovoltaic modules. The book also addresses recent research and developments on the sustainability assessment of photovoltaic modules including end of life measures and legislation.

Handbook of Concentrator Photovoltaic Technology

Handbook of Concentrator Photovoltaic Technology
Author: Carlos Algora,Ignacio Rey-Stolle
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 808
Release: 2016-04-25
ISBN 10: 1118755642
ISBN 13: 9781118755648
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Concentrator Photovoltaic Technology Book Review:

Concentrator Photovoltaics (CPV) is one of the most promising technologies to produce solar electricity at competitive prices. High performing CPV systems with efficiencies well over 30% and multi-megawatt CPV plants are now a reality. As a result of these achievements, the global CPV market is expected to grow dramatically over the next few years reaching cumulative installed capacity of 12.5 GW by 2020. In this context, both new and consolidated players are moving fast to gain a strategic advantage in this emerging market. Written with clear, brief and self-contained technical explanations, Handbook of Concentrator Photovoltaic Technology provides a complete overview of CPV covering: the fundamentals of solar radiation, solar cells, concentrator optics, modules and trackers; all aspects of characterization and reliability; case studies based on the description of actual systems and plants in the field; environmental impact, market potential and cost analysis. CPV technology is at a key point of expansion. This timely handbook aims to provide a comprehensive assessment of all CPV scientific, technological and engineering background with a view to equipping engineers and industry professionals with all of the vital information they need to help them sustain the impetus of this encouraging technology. Key features: Uniquely combines an explanation of the fundamentals of CPV systems and components with an overview of the market place and their real-life applications. Each chapter is written by well-known industry specialists with extensive expertise in each particular field of CPV technology. Reviews the basic concepts of multi-junction solar cells and new concepts for CPV cells, highlighting the key differences between them. Demonstrates the state of the art of several CPV centres and companies. Facilitates future cost calculation models for CPV. Features extensive case studies in each chapter, including coverage of CPV modules and systems.

Reliability and Ecological Aspects of Photovoltaic Modules

Reliability and Ecological Aspects of Photovoltaic Modules
Author: Abdulkerim Gok
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 170
Release: 2020-01-08
ISBN 10: 1789848229
ISBN 13: 9781789848229
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Reliability and Ecological Aspects of Photovoltaic Modules Book Review:

Photovoltaic (PV) solar energy is expected to be the world's largest source of electricity in the future. To enhance the long-term reliability of PV modules, a thorough understanding of failure mechanisms is of vital importance. In addition, it is important to address the potential downsides to this technology. These include the hazardous chemicals needed for manufacturing solar cells, especially for thin-film technologies, and the large number of PV modules disposed of at the end of their lifecycles. This book discusses the reliability and environmental aspects of PV modules.

Electricity from Photovoltaic Solar Cells Module encapsulation

Electricity from Photovoltaic Solar Cells  Module encapsulation
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 1986
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: PSU:000013044152
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Electricity from Photovoltaic Solar Cells Module encapsulation Book Review:

Solar Module Packaging

Solar Module Packaging
Author: Michelle Poliskie
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 244
Release: 2016-04-19
ISBN 10: 1000218805
ISBN 13: 9781000218800
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Solar Module Packaging Book Review:

Exploring current and future opportunities in PV polymeric packaging, this work offers an insider's perspective on the manufacturing processes and needs of the solar industry and reveals opportunities for future material development and processing. Suitable for nonspecialists in polymer science, it provides a basic understanding of polymeric concepts, fundamental properties, and processing techniques commonly used in solar module packaging. The book also presents guidelines for using polymers in commercial PV modules as well as the tests required to establish confidence in the selection process.

Durability Testing of Nonmetallic Materials

Durability Testing of Nonmetallic Materials
Author: Robert J. Herling
Publsiher: ASTM International
Total Pages: 234
Release: 1996
ISBN 10: 0803124074
ISBN 13: 9780803124073
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Durability Testing of Nonmetallic Materials Book Review:

Photovoltaic Module Reliability

Photovoltaic Module Reliability
Author: John H Wohlgemuth
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 264
Release: 2020-03-16
ISBN 10: 1119458994
ISBN 13: 9781119458999
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Photovoltaic Module Reliability Book Review:

Provides practical guidance on the latest quality assurance and accelerated stress test methods for improved long-term performance prediction of PV modules This book has been written from a historical perspective to guide readers through how the PV industry learned what the failure and degradation modes of PV modules were, how accelerated tests were developed to cause the same failures and degradations in the laboratory, and then how these tests were used as tools to guide the design and fabrication of reliable and long-life modules. Photovoltaic Module Reliability starts with a brief history of photovoltaics, discussing some of the different types of materials and devices used for commercial solar cells. It then goes on to offer chapters on: Module Failure Modes; Development of Accelerated Stress Tests; Qualification Testing; and Failure Analysis Tools. Next, it examines the use of quality management systems to manufacture PV modules. Subsequent chapters cover the PVQAT Effort; the Conformity Assessment and IECRE; and Predicting PV Module Service Life. The book finishes with a look at what the future holds for PV. A comprehensive treatment of current photovoltaic (PV) technology reliability and necessary improvement to become a significant part of the electric utility supply system Well documented with experimental and practical cases throughout, enhancing relevance to both scientific community and industry Timely contribution to the harmonization of methodological aspects of PV reliability evaluation with test procedures implemented to certify PV module quality Written by a leading international authority in PV module reliability Photovoltaic Module Reliability is an excellent book for anyone interested in PV module reliability, including those working directly on PV module and system reliability and preparing to purchase modules for deployment.

Research Opportunities in Reliability of Photovoltaic Modules

Research Opportunities in Reliability of Photovoltaic Modules
Author: Peter Hacke
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2010
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:727264785
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Research Opportunities in Reliability of Photovoltaic Modules Book Review:

The motivation for an increased scope and a more proactive effort in reliability research of photovoltaic modules and systems includes reducing the levelized cost of energy and gaining better confidence in the energy and financial payback for photovoltaic systems. This increased reliability and confidence will lead to greater penetration of photovoltaics in the energy portfolio and greater employment in photovoltaics and related industries. Present research needs include the fundamental degradation mechanisms of polymers, connectors and other module components, mapping of failure mechanisms observed in the field to those in accelerated lifetime tests, determining the acceleration factors, and improving standards for modules such that tests can appropriately be assigned to evaluate their long term durability. Specific mechanisms discussed are corrosion in module components, metastability in thin-film active layers, delamination and loss of elastic properties in module polymeric materials, and inverter failure. Presently, there is hiring of reliability scientists and engineers at many levels of the value chain for photovoltaics.