Deadlock Resolution In Computer Integrated Systems
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Complex computer-integrated systems offer enormous benefits across a wide array of applications, including automated production, transportation, concurrent software, and computer operating systems, computer networks, distributed database systems, and many other automated systems. Yet, as these systems become more complex, automated, distributed, and computing-intensive, the opportunity for deadlock issues rises exponentially. Deadlock modeling, detection, avoidance, and recovery are critical to improving system performance. Deadlock Resolution in Computer-Integrated Systems is the first text to summarize and comprehensively treat this issue in a systematic manner. Consisting of contributions from prominent researchers in the field, this book addresses deadlock-free models and scheduling, detection and recovery methods, the formulation of dynamic control policies, and comparison and industrial benchmark studies that evaluate various approaches. The editors lay the foundation for exploring deadlock issues with a typical example of an automated manufacturing process, illustrating three primary modeling methods (digraphs, Petri nets, and automata) and comparing their respective advantages and disadvantages. Providing all of the important models and resolution approaches, this book is the complete guide for electrical and control engineers and manufacturing, intelligent, and network systems designers to prevent and manage deadlock issues in their systems.
Deadlock problems in flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) have received more and more attention in the last two decades. Petri nets are one of the more promising mathematical tools for tackling deadlocks in various resource allocation systems. In a system modeled with Petri nets, siphons are tied to the occurrence of deadlock states as a structural object. The book systematically introduces the novel theory of siphons, traps, and elementary siphons of Petri nets as well as the deadlock control strategies for FMS developed from it. Deadlock prevention methods are examined comparatively. The many FMS examples presented to demonstrate the concepts and results of this book range from the simple to the complex. Importantly, to inspire and motive the reader’s interest in further research, a number of interesting and open problems in this area are proposed at the end of each chapter.
This monograph presents the state-of-the-art developments in the design of behaviorally and structurally optimal livenessen-forcing Petri net supervisors with computationally tractable approaches. It details optimal supervisory control problems arising in automated production systems and outlines a methodology to achieve the optimality purposes of deadlock prevention via converting a variety of problems under consideration into integer linear programming models. The book includes a reference bibliography at the end of each chapter and a complete index.
"This book addresses the development of reconfigurable embedded control systems and describes various problems in this important research area, which include static and dynamic (manual or automatic) reconfigurations, multi-agent architectures, modeling and verification, component-based approaches, architecture description languages, distributed reconfigurable architectures, real-time and low power scheduling, execution models, and the implementation of such systems"--
Petri nets are widely used in modeling, analysis, and control of discrete event systems arising from manufacturing, transportation, computer and communication networks, and web service systems. However, Petri net models for practical systems can be very large, making it difficult to apply such models to real-life problems. System Modeling and Control with Resource-Oriented Petri Nets introduces a new resource-oriented Petri net (ROPN) model that was developed by the authors. Not only does it successfully reduce model size, but it also offers improvements that facilitate effective modeling, analysis, and control of automated and reconfigurable manufacturing systems. Presenting the latest research in this novel approach, this cutting-edge volume provides proven theories and methodologies for implementing cost and time-saving improvements to contemporary manufacturing systems. It provides effective tools for deadlock avoidance—deadlock-free routing and deadlock-free scheduling. The authors supply simple and complex industrial manufacturing system examples to illustrate time-tested concepts, theories, and approaches for solving real-life application problems. Written in a clear and concise manner, the text covers applications to automated and reconfigurable manufacturing systems, automated guided vehicle (AGV) systems, semiconductor manufacturing systems, and flexible assembly systems. Explaining complex concepts in a manner that is easy to understand, the authors provide the understanding and tools needed for more effective modeling, analysis, performance evaluation, control, and scheduling of engineering processes that will lead to more flexible and efficient manufacturing systems.
The move of manufacturing systems towards automation, integration and flexibility has increased the importance of the design phase in the life cycle of a manufacturing system. Petri Nets are the only set of tools which can support functional specification, modelling and evaluation of the future behaviour of the manufacturing system. This book is dedicated to the use of Petri Nets for specifying, modelling and evaluating the performances of manufacturing systems. The first part of the book presents the theory of Petri Nets, covering most of the recent developments. Applications of Petri Nets to modelling, evaluation and management of manufacturing systems are addressed in the second part. Numerous worked examples and solved exercises are included. Specific algorithms for planning and scheduling are provided. This book will be of great interest to students, factory engineers, managers and designers in both the academic and industrial worlds.
Intelligent systems, or artificial intelligence technologies, are playing an increasing role in areas ranging from medicine to the major manufacturing industries to financial markets. The consequences of flawed artificial intelligence systems are equally wide ranging and can be seen, for example, in the programmed trading-driven stock market crash of October 19, 1987. Intelligent Systems: Technology and Applications, Six Volume Set connects theory with proven practical applications to provide broad, multidisciplinary coverage in a single resource. In these volumes, international experts present case-study examples of successful practical techniques and solutions for diverse applications ranging from robotic systems to speech and signal processing, database management, and manufacturing.
By using this innovative text, students will obtain an understanding of how contemporary operating systems and middleware work, and why they work that way.
This book covers all the steps from identification of operations and resources to the transformation of virtual models into real-world algorithms. The matrix-based approach presented here is a solution to the real-time application of control in discrete event systems and flexible manufacturing systems (FMS), and offers a sound practical basis for the design of controllers for manufacturing systems.
In modern distributed systems, such as the Internet of Things or cloud computing, verifying their correctness is an essential aspect. This requires modeling approaches that reflect the natural characteristics of such systems: the locality of their components, autonomy of their decisions, and their asynchronous communication. However, most of the available verifiers are unrealistic because one or more of these features are not reflected. Accordingly, in this book we present an original formalism: the Integrated Distributed Systems Model (IMDS), which defines a system as two sets (states and messages), and a relation of the "actions" between these sets. The server view and the traveling agent’s view of the system provide communication duality, while general temporal formulas for the IMDS allow automatic verification. The features that the model checks include: partial deadlock and partial termination, communication deadlock and resource deadlock. Automatic verification can support the rapid development of distributed systems. Further, on the basis of the IMDS, the Dedan tool for automatic verification of distributed systems has been developed.
This volume contains a selection of papers that focus on the state-of the-art in real-time scheduling and resource management. Preliminary versions of these papers were presented at a workshop on the foundations of real-time computing sponsored by the Office of Naval Research in October, 1990 in Washington, D.C. A companion volume by the title Foundations of Real-Time Computing: Fonnal Specifications and Methods complements this book by addressing many of the most advanced approaches currently being investigated in the arena of formal specification and verification of real-time systems. Together, these two texts provide a comprehensive snapshot of current insights into the process of designing and building real-time computing systems on a scientific basis. Many of the papers in this book take care to define the notion of real-time system precisely, because it is often easy to misunderstand what is meant by that term. Different communities of researchers variously use the term real-time to refer to either very fast computing, or immediate on-line data acquisition, or deadline-driven computing. This text is concerned with the very difficult problems of scheduling tasks and resource management in computer systems whose performance is inextricably fused with the achievement of deadlines. Such systems have been enabled for a rapidly increasing set of diverse end-uses by the unremitting advances in computing power per constant-dollar cost and per constant-unit-volume of space. End-use applications of deadline-driven real-time computers span a spectrum that includes transportation systems, robotics and manufacturing, aerospace and defense, industrial process control, and telecommunications.
Fierce global competition in manufacturing has made proficient facilities planning a mandatory issue in industrial engineering and technology. From plant layout and materials handling to quality function deployment and design considerations, Manufacturing Facilities: Location, Planning, and Design, Third Edition covers a wide range of topics crucial to the efficiency of a well-planned facility. Proper Planning Thoroughly updated and revised, the third edition of this classic volume provides the information and analytical tools necessary to move from product designs to production plans and then details all of the planning techniques needed to build a manufacturing facility where safety, efficiency, and profit are interdependent. Divided into two parts, the first section describes all the factors involved in setting up a manufacturing plant. It covers product design, the choice of manufacturing processes, and plant layout, as well as production, material-handling, and storage systems. The author also highlights the importance of the selection of labor resources. Proper Location The second part examines subjective aspects, such as how to maximize efficiency and save resources. It discusses how to choose the best location and how to assign customers to each facility to minimize the overall cost of operation. It also reviews the process of selecting sites for proximity to emergency service facilities, and explains how to determine the best layout within a building for tool rooms, materials, machining, shipping, inspection, and other departments. Proper Attitude Wise planning results in efficient allocation of available resources for any project. This comprehensive reference empowers engineers, facility planners, and students in manufacturing programs to effectively develop both the method and the mindset required to create an efficient and integrated production facility.
This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. Technical Systems-of-Systems (SoS) – in the form of networked, independent constituent computing systems temporarily collaborating to achieve a well-defined objective – form the backbone of most of today’s infrastructure. The energy grid, most transportation systems, the global banking industry, the water-supply system, the military equipment, many embedded systems, and a great number more, strongly depend on systems-of-systems. The correct operation and continuous availability of these underlying systems-of-systems are fundamental for the functioning of our modern society. The 8 papers presented in this book document the main insights on Cyber-Physical System of Systems (CPSoSs) that were gained during the work in the FP7-610535 European Research Project AMADEOS (acronym for Architecture for Multi-criticality Agile Dependable Evolutionary Open System-of-Systems). It is the objective of this book to present, in a single consistent body, the foundational concepts and their relationships. These form a conceptual basis for the description and understanding of SoSs and go deeper in what we consider the characterizing and distinguishing elements of SoSs: time, emergence, evolution and dynamicity.
One critical barrier leading to successful implementation of flexible manufacturing and related automated systems is the ever-increasing complexity of their modeling, analysis, simulation, and control. Research and development over the last three decades has provided new theory and graphical tools based on Petri nets and related concepts for the design of such systems. The purpose of this book is to introduce a set of Petri-net-based tools and methods to address a variety of problems associated with the design and implementation of flexible manufacturing systems (FMSs), with several implementation examples.There are three ways this book will directly benefit readers. First, the book will allow engineers and managers who are responsible for the design and implementation of modern manufacturing systems to evaluate Petri nets for applications in their work. Second, it will provide sufficient breadth and depth to allow development of Petri-net-based industrial applications. Third, it will allow the basic Petri net material to be taught to industrial practitioners, students, and academic researchers much more efficiently. This will foster further research and applications of Petri nets in aiding the successful implementation of advanced manufacturing systems.
The challenges of designing, building, and maintaining large-scale, distributed enterprise systems are truly daunting. Written for all IT professionals, The Complete Book of Middleware will aid in resolving new business objectives, new technologies, and vendor disputes. This book focuses on the essential principles and priorities of system design and emphasizes the new requirements brought forward by the rise of e-commerce and distributed integrated systems. This reference highlights the changes to middleware technologies and standards. It offers a concise overview of middleware technology alternatives and distributed systems. Many increasingly complex examples are incorporated throughout and the book concludes with guidelines on the practice of IT architecture. Performance considerations such as caching and monitoring are reviewed and the appendix includes middleware resources and new modeling standards. The scope includes traditional middleware and also next-generation techniques that serve to glue disparate systems in the ever-expanding world of distributed network systems. Provided with concepts, principles, and alternatives discussed in The Complete Book of Middleware, systems architects, systems analysts, systems designers, systems developers, and programmers, can proceed with greater confidence in designing complex enterprise systems.