Comprehensive Overview of Modern Surgical Approaches to Intrinsic Brain Tumors

Comprehensive Overview of Modern Surgical Approaches to Intrinsic Brain Tumors
Author: Kaisorn Chaichana,Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, MD, FAANS, FACS
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 508
Release: 2019-03-15
ISBN 10: 0128117834
ISBN 13: 9780128117835
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Comprehensive Overview of Modern Surgical Approaches to Intrinsic Brain Tumors Book Review:

Comprehensive Overview of Modern Surgical Approaches to Intrinsic Brain Tumors addresses limitations in the scientific literature by focusing primarily on surgical approaches to various intrinsic neoplasms using diagrams and step-by-step instructions. It provides the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches, controversies, and technical considerations and discusses topics such as anatomy, pathology and animal models, imaging, open brain tumor approaches and minimally invasive approaches. Additionally, it discusses controversial treatments and the pros and cons of each. This book is a valuable source for medical students, neurosurgeons and any healthcare provider who has an interest in brain tumors and techniques to treat them. Provides a comprehensive review of different approaches, explaining them step-by- step Includes diagrams that show surgical approaches Presents the advantages and disadvantages of each approach to aid in decision-making

Comprehensive Overview of Modern Surgical Approaches to Intrinsic Brain Tumors

Comprehensive Overview of Modern Surgical Approaches to Intrinsic Brain Tumors
Author: Kaisorn Chaichana,Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 506
Release: 2019-02-28
ISBN 10: 0128117842
ISBN 13: 9780128117842
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Comprehensive Overview of Modern Surgical Approaches to Intrinsic Brain Tumors Book Review:

Comprehensive Overview of Modern Surgical Approaches to Intrinsic Brain Tumors addresses limitations in the scientific literature by focusing primarily on surgical approaches to various intrinsic neoplasms using diagrams and step-by-step instructions. It provides the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches, controversies, and technical considerations and discusses topics such as anatomy, pathology and animal models, imaging, open brain tumor approaches and minimally invasive approaches. Additionally, it discusses controversial treatments and the pros and cons of each. This book is a valuable source for medical students, neurosurgeons and any healthcare provider who has an interest in brain tumors and techniques to treat them. Provides a comprehensive review of different approaches, explaining them step-by- step Includes diagrams that show surgical approaches Presents the advantages and disadvantages of each approach to aid in decision-making

Nanocarriers for Drug Targeting Brain Tumors

Nanocarriers for Drug Targeting Brain Tumors
Author: Lalit Kumar,Yashwant Pathak
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 856
Release: 2022-06-21
ISBN 10: 0323914713
ISBN 13: 9780323914710
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nanocarriers for Drug Targeting Brain Tumors Book Review:

Nanocarriers for Drug-Targeting Brain Tumors covers different types of nanocarriers and their design and development for targeting drugs to the brain. The book also presents case studies and the mechanism of action of nanocarriers in drug targeting to a specific site. This helps researchers and clinicians understand the design, development and mechanism of action of nanocarriers. As brain tumors continue to be a significant health problem globally, and very complex for targeting drugs, conventional dosage forms are not very effective and side-effects are a major concern. Functionalized nanocarriers can address these problems. Furthermore, the targeting of nanocarriers is preferred for reducing toxicity and improving the effectiveness of the drugs. However, there is a need for understanding the design and development of formulation with the mechanism of action of nanocarriers for brain targeting. Provides information on the design and development of nanocarriers for targeting brain tumors Outlines the working principles of different nanocarriers for targeting brain tumors Includes case studies of different nanocarriers for targeting brain tumors

Epidemiology of Brain and Spinal Tumors

Epidemiology of Brain and Spinal Tumors
Author: Jahangir Moini,Nicholas Avgeropoulos,Mohtashem Samsam
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 552
Release: 2021-04-16
ISBN 10: 0128217553
ISBN 13: 9780128217559
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Epidemiology of Brain and Spinal Tumors Book Review:

Epidemiology of Brain and Spinal Tumors provides a single volume resource on imaging methods and neuroepidemiology of both brain and spinal tumors. The book covers a variety of imaging techniques, including computed tomography (CT), MRI, positron emission tomography (PET), and other laboratory tests used in diagnosis and treatment. Detailed epidemiology, various imaging methods, and clinical considerations of tumors of the CNS make this an ideal reference for users who will also find diverse information about structures and functions, cytology, epidemiology (including molecular epidemiology), diagnosis and treatment. This book is appropriate for neuroscience researchers, medical professionals and anyone interested in a complete guide to visualizing and understanding CNS tumors. Provides the most up-to-date information surrounding the epidemiology, biology and imaging techniques for brain and spinal tumors, including CT, MRI, PET, and others Includes full color figures, photos, tables, graphs and radioimaging Contains information that will be valuable to anyone interested in the field of neurooncology and the treatment of patients with brain and spinal tumors Serves as a source of background information for basic scientists and pharmaceutical researchers who have an interest in imaging and treatment

Neuroimaging Anatomy Part 1 Brain and Skull An Issue of Neuroimaging Clinics of North America E Book

Neuroimaging Anatomy  Part 1  Brain and Skull  An Issue of Neuroimaging Clinics of North America  E Book
Author: Tarik F. Massoud
Publsiher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Total Pages: 273
Release: 2022-07-19
ISBN 10: 0323849989
ISBN 13: 9780323849982
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Neuroimaging Anatomy Part 1 Brain and Skull An Issue of Neuroimaging Clinics of North America E Book Book Review:

In this issue of Neuroimaging Clinics, guest editor Dr. Tarik F. Massoud brings his considerable expertise to the topic of Neuroimaging Anatomy, Part 1: Brain and Skull. Anatomical knowledge is critical to reducing both overdiagnosis and misdiagnosis in neuroimaging. This issue is part one of a two-part series on neuroimaging anatomy that focuses on the brain, with each article addressing a specific area. The issue also includes an article on Brain Connectomics: the study of the brain’s structural and functional connections between cells. Contains 13 relevant, practice-oriented topics including anatomy of cerebral cortex, lobes, and the cerebellum; brainstem anatomy; cranial nerves anatomy; brain functional imaging anatomy; imaging of normal brain aging; and more. Provides in-depth clinical reviews on neuroimaging anatomy of the brain and skull, offering actionable insights for clinical practice. Presents the latest information on this timely, focused topic under the leadership of experienced editors in the field. Authors synthesize and distill the latest research and practice guidelines to create clinically significant, topic-based reviews.

Epilepsy Surgery and Intrinsic Brain Tumor Surgery

Epilepsy Surgery and Intrinsic Brain Tumor Surgery
Author: Konstantinos Fountas,Eftychia Z. Kapsalaki
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 301
Release: 2019-01-08
ISBN 10: 9783030071158
ISBN 13: 3030071154
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Epilepsy Surgery and Intrinsic Brain Tumor Surgery Book Review:

This book provides a comprehensive and practical guide for the safe and efficient management of patients with intrinsic brain tumors and medically intractable epilepsy. It presents in an easily understandable way the preoperative evaluation of these patients, starting from the clinical interpretation of conventional anatomical MR imaging and analyses the clinical significance of newer MR based imaging techniques such as diffusion and perfusion imaging. It demonstrates with clarity the role of MR spectroscopy and fractional anisotropy and diffusion tensor imaging in the preoperative assessment of these patients and how this data can be incorporated into the surgical planning. This book is aimed at neurosurgeons, neuroradiologists, neurologists, and epileptologists, and may also be of interest to neuropsychologists, neurophysiologists, radiation oncologists, and medical physicists.

Intrinsic and Skull Base Tumors E Book

Intrinsic and Skull Base Tumors   E Book
Author: Kaisorn Chaichana,Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa
Publsiher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Total Pages: 464
Release: 2020-12-11
ISBN 10: 0323696430
ISBN 13: 9780323696432
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Intrinsic and Skull Base Tumors E Book Book Review:

Unique in the field, Intrinsic and Skull Base Tumors presents commonly encountered skull base and intrinsic neoplasm cases with side-by-side, case-by-case comparisons that clearly show how various experts would handle the same case. This inaugural volume in the Neurosurgery: Case Comparison Series offers multiple opinions from international experts in neurosurgery who provide various approaches and management styles for the same case. This format allows for quick and helpful comparisons of different ways to approach a lesion, advantages and disadvantages of each approach, and what each expert is looking for in how they would manage a particular case. Offers 3 to 4 expert opinions on each case in a templated format designed to help you quickly make side-by-side comparisons—an ideal learning tool for both trainees and practicing neurosurgeons for board review and case preparation. Helps you easily grasp different approaches to brain tumor management with different expert approaches to the same case and summaries from the editors on the advantages and disadvantages to each approach. Features a wide variety of management decisions, from preoperative studies to surgical approach, surgical adjuncts, and postoperative care, from experts in the field who specialize in different aspects of neurosurgery. Covers low and high grade gliomas, metastatic brain cancers, meningiomas, sellar and parasellar lesions, skull base lesions, and other brain lesions such as colloid cyst, cavernoma, hemangioblastoma, brain abscess, and more.

Pediatric Neuro oncology

Pediatric Neuro oncology
Author: Katrin Scheinemann,Eric Bouffet
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 318
Release: 2015-03-26
ISBN 10: 149391541X
ISBN 13: 9781493915415
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Pediatric Neuro oncology Book Review:

“The editors...have done an outstanding job of presenting...complex information in a lucid manner – this book is a must-read for the global community of aspiring students and neuro-oncology practitioners.” Amar Gajjar, MD in the Foreword This is a succinct introduction to pediatric neuro-oncology. It summarizes the key advances in molecular biology that have helped transform this rapidly evolving field and provides up-to-date coverage of major and emerging treatment modalities as well as supportive care. Separate chapters present each kind of pediatric brain cancer and its diagnosis and treatment. As more children survive brain cancer, the importance of quality of life issues and helping survivors to cope with the neuropsychological impact and long-term effects of current therapies has come into sharper focus; these topics are also addressed in the book, as are palliative care and pediatric neuro-oncology in countries with limited resources. The book is aimed at trainees and practitioners who seek an up-to-date text in pediatric neuro-oncology that is both comprehensive and concise.

Oxford Textbook of Neurological Surgery

Oxford Textbook of Neurological Surgery
Author: Ramez Kirollos,Peter Hutchinson,Adel Helmy,Simon Thomson
Publsiher: Oxford University Press, USA
Total Pages: 1177
Release: 2019-09-05
ISBN 10: 0198746709
ISBN 13: 9780198746706
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Oxford Textbook of Neurological Surgery Book Review:

Neurosurgery is a rapidly developing and technically demanding branch of surgery that requires a detailed knowledge of the basic neuro-sciences and a thorough clinical approach. The Oxford Textbook of Neurological Surgery is an up-to-date, objective and readable text that covers the full scope of neurosurgical practice. It is part of the Oxford Textbooks in Surgery series, edited by Professor Sir Peter Morris. The book is split into 20 overarching sections (Principles of Neurosurgery, Neuro-oncology of Intrinsic Tumours; Extra-axial Tumours and Skull Lesions; Cerebro-Pontine Angle Tumours; Sellar and Supra-Sellar Tumours; Posterior Fossa Tumours; Pineal tumours; Uncommon Tumours and Tumour Syndromes; Neurotrauma and Intensive Care; Vascular Neurosurgery; Principles of Spinal Surgery; Spinal Pathology; Spinal Trauma; Peripheral Nerve Surgery; Functional Neurosurgery; Epilepsy; Paediatric Neurosurgery; Neurosurgery for Cerebrospinal Fluid Disorders and Neurosurgical Infection). Each section takes a dual approach with, 'Generic Surgical Management' chapters that focus on specific clinical problems facing the neurosurgeon (e.g. sellar/supra-sellar tumour, Intradural Spina Tumours etc.) and 'Pathology-Specific' chapters (e.g. Glioma, Meningeal Tumours, Scoliosis and Spinal Deformity, Aneurysm etc.). Where appropriate, this division provides the reader with easily accessible information for both clinical problems which present in a regional fashion and specific pathologies. The generic chapters cover aspects such as operative approaches, neuroanatomy and nuances. Specifically each chapter in the book incorporates several strands. Firstly the fundamental neuroscience (anatomy, pathology, genetics etc.) that underlies the clinical practice. Secondly, a review of the requisite clinical investigations (e.g. angiography, electrodiagnostics, radiology). Thirdly, a thorough evidence based review of clinical practice. Following this a consideration of the key debates and controversies in the field with 'pro-' and 'con-' sections (e.g. minimally invasive spine surgery, microsurgical treatment of aneurysms) is provided. A summary of the key papers and clinical scales relevant to neurosurgery form the concluding part. The book is a 'one-stop' text for trainees and consultants in neurosurgery, residents, those preparing for sub-specialty exams and other professionals allied to surgery who need to gain an understanding of the field. It acts as both a point of reference to provide a focussed refresher for the experienced neurosurgeon as well as a trusted training resource.

Comparative Management of Spine Pathology E Book

Comparative Management of Spine Pathology   E Book
Author: Kaisorn Chaichana,Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa
Publsiher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Total Pages: 448
Release: 2022-05-17
ISBN 10: 0323825591
ISBN 13: 9780323825597
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Comparative Management of Spine Pathology E Book Book Review:

Unique in the field, Comparative Management of Spine Pathology presents commonly encountered spinal cases with side-by-side, case-by-case comparisons that clearly show how various experts would handle the same case. This second volume in the Neurosurgery: Case Management Comparison Series offers multiple opinions from international experts in both neurosurgery and orthopaedics, each of whom explains their preferred approach and management style for the same case. This format allows for quick and helpful comparisons of different ways to approach a lesion, advantages and disadvantages of each approach, and what each expert is looking for in how they would manage a particular case. Offers 4 expert opinions on each case in a templated format designed to help you quickly make side-by-side comparisons—an ideal learning tool for both trainee and practicing neurosurgeons and orthopaedic surgeons for board review and case preparation. Helps you easily grasp different approaches to spine management with different expert approaches to the same case and summaries from the editors on the advantages and disadvantages to each approach. Features a wide variety of management decisions, from preoperative studies to surgical approach, surgical adjuncts, and postoperative care, from experts in the field who specialize in different aspects of spine surgery. Presents 70 cases in the areas of degenerative spine, traumatic spine, spinal deformity, spinal oncology, and miscellaneous topics such as epidural abscess, osteomyelitis, and post-instrumentation infection.

Textbook of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery

Textbook of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
Author: Andres M. Lozano,Philip L. Gildenberg,Ronald R. Tasker
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 3287
Release: 2009-06-22
ISBN 10: 3540699597
ISBN 13: 9783540699590
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Textbook of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery Book Review:

This book covers stereotactic principles as well as functional stereotaxis, covering the history and uses of the techniques, treatments for specific conditions, and future developments. Includes a DVD demonstrating surgical procedures.

Brain Tumors

Brain Tumors
Author: Amit Agrawal,Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar
Publsiher: BoD – Books on Demand
Total Pages: 248
Release: 2018-08-22
ISBN 10: 1789235561
ISBN 13: 9781789235562
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Brain Tumors Book Review:

We all know that the field of neuro-oncology is heterogeneous and under continuous development with the addition of new knowledge and information on a regular basis. The present book "Brain Tumor - An Update" is an attempt to share the personal experiences of experts who are involved in neuro-oncology-related research. Through this book, the authors share their experiences and provide details about the pathophysiology, neuroimaging approaches, and management options, and how to go about decision-making in patients with brain tumors. We hope that the valuable contributions from the authors shall facilitate understanding about brain tumors. I am grateful to all the authors who have contributed their tremendous expertise, and I would like to acknowledge the outstanding support of Ms. Danijela Sakic, Author Service Manager, IntechOpen Science, who collaborated tirelessly in crafting this book.

Becoming Dr Q

Becoming Dr  Q
Author: Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa
Publsiher: Univ of California Press
Total Pages: 328
Release: 2011-10-01
ISBN 10: 0520949609
ISBN 13: 9780520949607
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Becoming Dr Q Book Review:

Today he is known as Dr. Q, an internationally renowned neurosurgeon and neuroscientist who leads cutting-edge research to cure brain cancer. But not too long ago, he was Freddy, a nineteen-year-old undocumented migrant worker toiling in the tomato fields of central California. In this gripping memoir, Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa tells his amazing life story—from his impoverished childhood in the tiny village of Palaco, Mexico, to his harrowing border crossing and his transformation from illegal immigrant to American citizen and gifted student at the University of California at Berkeley and at Harvard Medical School. Packed with adventure and adversity—including a few terrifying brushes with death—Becoming Dr. Q is a testament to persistence, hard work, the power of hope and imagination, and the pursuit of excellence. It’s also a story about the importance of family, of mentors, and of giving people a chance.

New Techniques for Management of Inoperable Gliomas

New Techniques for Management of    Inoperable    Gliomas
Author: Michael E. Sughrue,Isaac Yang
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 256
Release: 2019-08-03
ISBN 10: 0128136340
ISBN 13: 9780128136348
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

New Techniques for Management of Inoperable Gliomas Book Review:

New Techniques for Management of 'Inoperable' Gliomas radically challenges the assumption that certain gliomas cannot be removed with modern techniques, contesting stereotypical thinking and establishing new paradigms in the field. Gliomas are primary brain tumors which are often fatal. Recent data has demonstrated that despite the fact that surgery cannot cure gliomas, patient survival is substantially improved by removing as much of the tumor as possible. This fact has raised the imperative that neurologists try to improve techniques to bring surgical resection to as many patients as possible. This book brings new insights and technologies to the forefront, giving hope to patients. Provides the first comprehensive book to discuss techniques for removing gliomas that are traditionally deemed ‘inoperable’ Presents a great reference tool that challenges stereotypical thinking by offering techniques by innovative surgeons Includes chapters that are organized by different glioma types and surgery/techniques

Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Neurosurgery

Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Neurosurgery
Author: Sandro M. Krieg
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 299
Release: 2017-07-03
ISBN 10: 3319549189
ISBN 13: 9783319549187
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Neurosurgery Book Review:

This book is the first comprehensive work summarizing the advances that have been made in the neurosurgical use of navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) over the past ten years. Having increasingly gained acceptance as a presurgical mapping modality in neurosurgery, today it is widely used for preoperative mapping of cortical motor and language function, risk stratification and improving the accuracy of subcortical fiber bundle visualization. This unique work will provide neurosurgeons and neuroscientists who are starting their nTMS program essential and detailed information on the technique and protocols, as well as the current clinical evidence on and limitations of the various applications of nTMS. At the same time, more experienced nTMS users looking for deeper insights into nTMS mapping and treatment in neurosurgery will find clearly structured, accessible information. The book was prepared by an international mix of authors, each of which was chosen for their status as a respected expert on the respective subtopic, as evinced by their landmark publications on nTMS.

Skull Base Surgery of the Posterior Fossa

Skull Base Surgery of the Posterior Fossa
Author: William T. Couldwell
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 228
Release: 2017-11-10
ISBN 10: 3319670387
ISBN 13: 9783319670386
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Skull Base Surgery of the Posterior Fossa Book Review:

This text provides a comprehensive and contemporary overview of surgical approaches to lesions of the posterior fossa. It will serve as a resource for neurosurgeons and otologists who treat patients with tumors and vascular diseases of the posterior fossa. It provides a concise review of surgical strategies that address the most important pathologies affecting the posterior fossa. It is richly illustrated with photographs and illustrations of the surgical strategies covered. All chapters are written by experts with world-wide recognition for their contributions in their respective subspecialty. Skull Base Surgery of the Posterior Fossa will be of great utility to Neurosurgeons, Otolaryngologists, and Radiation Therapists with an interest in diseases that affect the posterior fossa, as well as Senior Residents in Neurosurgery and Otolaryngology, and Fellows of Skull Base Surgery and Otology.

Brain Tumors in Children

Brain Tumors in Children
Author: Amar Gajjar,Gregory H. Reaman,Judy M. Racadio,Franklin O. Smith
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 426
Release: 2018-09-29
ISBN 10: 3319432052
ISBN 13: 9783319432052
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Brain Tumors in Children Book Review:

This book is a comprehensive and up-to-date compendium of all aspects of brain tumors in children. After introductory chapters on the epidemiology of brain tumors, the book will provide readers with state-of-the art chapters on the principals of radiation therapy, neurosurgery and neuroimaging. Subsequent chapters discuss the biology and treatment of specific types of brain tumors. The concluding chapters present critical information relevant to survivorship, neurocognitive and other late effects, and the global challenges to better diagnosis and treatment of brain tumors in children. This book is co-authored by experts in the treatment of pediatric brain tumors. All of the authors are internationally recognized authorities and they offer an evidence-based consensus on the biology and treatment of brain tumors. This handbook has far-reaching applicability to the clinical diagnosis and management of brain tumors in children and will prove valuable to specialists, generalists and trainees alike.

Niedermeyer s Electroencephalography

Niedermeyer s Electroencephalography
Author: Donald L. Schomer,Fernando Lopes da Silva
Publsiher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Total Pages: 1296
Release: 2012-10-18
ISBN 10: 1451153155
ISBN 13: 9781451153156
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Niedermeyer s Electroencephalography Book Review:

The leading reference on electroencephalography since 1982, Niedermeyer's Electroencephalography is now in its thoroughly updated Sixth Edition. An international group of experts provides comprehensive coverage of the neurophysiologic and technical aspects of EEG, evoked potentials, and magnetoencephalography, as well as the clinical applications of these studies in neonates, infants, children, adults, and older adults. This edition's new lead editor, Donald Schomer, MD, has updated the technical information and added a major new chapter on artifacts. Other highlights include complete coverage of EEG in the intensive care unit and new chapters on integrating other recording devices with EEG; transcranial electrical and magnetic stimulation; EEG/TMS in evaluation of cognitive and mood disorders; and sleep in premature infants, children and adolescents, and the elderly. A companion website includes fully searchable text and image bank.

Diffuse Low Grade Gliomas in Adults

Diffuse Low Grade Gliomas in Adults
Author: Hugues Duffau
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 502
Release: 2013-03-19
ISBN 10: 1447122135
ISBN 13: 9781447122135
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Diffuse Low Grade Gliomas in Adults Book Review:

This book presents the latest research pertaining to the diagnosis, therapy and management of diffuse low-grade gliomas (DLGG) in adults, with a particular focus on the path towards individualised therapy for this kind of tumour. Recent research on the natural history of DLGGs and their interaction with the brain has led to new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies which increase survival and quality of life of the patient, and these methods are described in this book.

The Duke Glioma Handbook

The Duke Glioma Handbook
Author: Allan H. Friedman
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 237
Release: 2016-03-31
ISBN 10: 1107065976
ISBN 13: 9781107065970
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Duke Glioma Handbook Book Review:

Provides a summary of glioma biology, genetics and management, based on the world-leading Duke University Preston Robert Tisch Brain Tumor Center program.