Cognitive Biases in Health and Psychiatric Disorders

Cognitive Biases in Health and Psychiatric Disorders
Author: Tatjana Aue,Hadas Okon-Singer
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 306
Release: 2020-02-23
ISBN 10: 0128166614
ISBN 13: 9780128166611
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cognitive Biases in Health and Psychiatric Disorders Book Review:

Cognitive Biases in Health and Psychiatric Disorders: Neurophysiological Foundations focuses on the neurophysiological basis of biases in attention, interpretation, expectancy and memory. Each chapter includes a review of each specific bias, including both positive and negative information in both healthy individuals and psychiatric populations. This book provides readers with major theories, methods used in investigating biases, brain regions associated with the related bias, and autonomic responses to specific biases. Its end goal is to provide a comprehensive overview of the neural, autonomic and cognitive mechanisms related to processing biases. Outlines neurophysiological research on diverse types of information processing bias, including attention bias, expectancy bias, interpretation bias, and memory bias Discusses both normal and pathological forms of each cognitive biases Provides specific examples on how to translate research on cognitive biases to clinical applications

Analyzing the Role of Cognitive Biases in the Decision Making Process

Analyzing the Role of Cognitive Biases in the Decision Making Process
Author: Juárez Ramos, Verónica
Publsiher: IGI Global
Total Pages: 262
Release: 2018-11-16
ISBN 10: 1522529799
ISBN 13: 9781522529798
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Analyzing the Role of Cognitive Biases in the Decision Making Process Book Review:

Decision making or making judgments is an essential function in the ordinary life of any individual. Decisions can often be made easily, but sometimes, it can be difficult due to conflict, uncertainty, or ambiguity of the variables required to make the decision. As human beings, we constantly have to decide between different activities such as occupational, recreational, political, economic, etc. These decisions can be transcendental or inconsequential. Analyzing the Role of Cognitive Biases in the Decision-Making Process presents comprehensive research focusing on cognitive shortcuts in the decision-making process. While highlighting topics including jumping to conclusion bias, personality traits, and theoretical models, this book is ideally designed for mental health professionals, psychologists, sociologists, managers, academicians, researchers, and upper-level students seeking current research on cognitive biases that affect individual decision making in daily life.

Global Catastrophic Risks

Global Catastrophic Risks
Author: Nick Bostrom,Milan M. Cirkovic
Publsiher: Oxford University Press
Total Pages: 554
Release: 2011-09-29
ISBN 10: 0199606501
ISBN 13: 9780199606504
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Global Catastrophic Risks Book Review:

A Global Catastrophic Risk is one that has the potential to inflict serious damage to human well-being on a global scale. This book focuses on such risks arising from natural catastrophes (Earth-based or beyond), nuclear war, terrorism, biological weapons, totalitarianism, advanced nanotechnology, artificial intelligence and social collapse.

Noise

Noise
Author: Daniel Kahneman,Olivier Sibony,Cass R. Sunstein
Publsiher: Little, Brown
Total Pages: 464
Release: 2021-05-18
ISBN 10: 031645138X
ISBN 13: 9780316451383
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Noise Book Review:

From the Nobel Prize-winning author of Thinking, Fast and Slow and the coauthor of Nudge, a revolutionary exploration of why people make bad judgments and how to make better ones—"a tour de force” (New York Times). Imagine that two doctors in the same city give different diagnoses to identical patients—or that two judges in the same courthouse give markedly different sentences to people who have committed the same crime. Suppose that different interviewers at the same firm make different decisions about indistinguishable job applicants—or that when a company is handling customer complaints, the resolution depends on who happens to answer the phone. Now imagine that the same doctor, the same judge, the same interviewer, or the same customer service agent makes different decisions depending on whether it is morning or afternoon, or Monday rather than Wednesday. These are examples of noise: variability in judgments that should be identical. In Noise, Daniel Kahneman, Olivier Sibony, and Cass R. Sunstein show the detrimental effects of noise in many fields, including medicine, law, economic forecasting, forensic science, bail, child protection, strategy, performance reviews, and personnel selection. Wherever there is judgment, there is noise. Yet, most of the time, individuals and organizations alike are unaware of it. They neglect noise. With a few simple remedies, people can reduce both noise and bias, and so make far better decisions. Packed with original ideas, and offering the same kinds of research-based insights that made Thinking, Fast and Slow and Nudge groundbreaking New York Times bestsellers, Noise explains how and why humans are so susceptible to noise in judgment—and what we can do about it.

Ecological Rationality

Ecological Rationality
Author: Peter M. Todd,Gerd Gigerenzer
Publsiher: OUP USA
Total Pages: 590
Release: 2012-04-10
ISBN 10: 0195315448
ISBN 13: 9780195315448
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Ecological Rationality Book Review:

"More information is always better, and full information is best. More computation is always better, and optimization is best." More-is-better ideals such as these have long shaped our vision of rationality. Yet humans and other animals typically rely on simple heuristics to solve adaptive problems, focusing on one or a few important cues and ignoring the rest, and shortcutting computation rather than striving for as much as possible. In this book, we argue that in an uncertain world, more information and computation are not always better, and we ask when, and why, less can be more. The answers to these questions constitute the idea of ecological rationality: how we are able to achieve intelligence in the world by using simple heuristics matched to the environments we face, exploiting the structures inherent in our physical, biological, social, and cultural surroundings.

Ending Discrimination Against People with Mental and Substance Use Disorders

Ending Discrimination Against People with Mental and Substance Use Disorders
Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences,Committee on the Science of Changing Behavioral Health Social Norms
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 170
Release: 2016-09-03
ISBN 10: 0309439124
ISBN 13: 9780309439121
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Ending Discrimination Against People with Mental and Substance Use Disorders Book Review:

Estimates indicate that as many as 1 in 4 Americans will experience a mental health problem or will misuse alcohol or drugs in their lifetimes. These disorders are among the most highly stigmatized health conditions in the United States, and they remain barriers to full participation in society in areas as basic as education, housing, and employment. Improving the lives of people with mental health and substance abuse disorders has been a priority in the United States for more than 50 years. The Community Mental Health Act of 1963 is considered a major turning point in America's efforts to improve behavioral healthcare. It ushered in an era of optimism and hope and laid the groundwork for the consumer movement and new models of recovery. The consumer movement gave voice to people with mental and substance use disorders and brought their perspectives and experience into national discussions about mental health. However over the same 50-year period, positive change in American public attitudes and beliefs about mental and substance use disorders has lagged behind these advances. Stigma is a complex social phenomenon based on a relationship between an attribute and a stereotype that assigns undesirable labels, qualities, and behaviors to a person with that attribute. Labeled individuals are then socially devalued, which leads to inequality and discrimination. This report contributes to national efforts to understand and change attitudes, beliefs and behaviors that can lead to stigma and discrimination. Changing stigma in a lasting way will require coordinated efforts, which are based on the best possible evidence, supported at the national level with multiyear funding, and planned and implemented by an effective coalition of representative stakeholders. Ending Discrimination Against People with Mental and Substance Use Disorders: The Evidence for Stigma Change explores stigma and discrimination faced by individuals with mental or substance use disorders and recommends effective strategies for reducing stigma and encouraging people to seek treatment and other supportive services. It offers a set of conclusions and recommendations about successful stigma change strategies and the research needed to inform and evaluate these efforts in the United States.

Insights in Social Cognition 2021

Insights in Social Cognition  2021
Author: Sören Krach,Frieder Michel Paulus
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2022-07-07
ISBN 10: 2889765210
ISBN 13: 9782889765218
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Insights in Social Cognition 2021 Book Review:

The Relationship between Cognitive Biases and Psychosis Searching for Mechanisms

The Relationship between Cognitive Biases and Psychosis  Searching for Mechanisms
Author: Łukasz Gawęda,Steffen Moritz,Susana Ochoa,Suzanne Ho-wai So
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2021-11-02
ISBN 10: 2889715795
ISBN 13: 9782889715794
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Relationship between Cognitive Biases and Psychosis Searching for Mechanisms Book Review:

Heuristics and Biases

Heuristics and Biases
Author: Thomas Gilovich,Dale Griffin,Daniel Kahneman,Cambridge University Press
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 857
Release: 2002-07-08
ISBN 10: 9780521796798
ISBN 13: 0521796792
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Heuristics and Biases Book Review:

This book, first published in 2002, compiles psychologists' best attempts to answer important questions about intuitive judgment.

Digital Phenotyping Digital Biomarkers to Monitor Psychiatric Disorders

Digital Phenotyping Digital Biomarkers to Monitor Psychiatric Disorders
Author: Jennifer H. Barnett,Qiang Luo,Martin J. Sliwinski,Raz Gross
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 200
Release: 2022-08-29
ISBN 10: 288976852X
ISBN 13: 9782889768523
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Digital Phenotyping Digital Biomarkers to Monitor Psychiatric Disorders Book Review:

Risk and Reasoning in Clinical Diagnosis

Risk and Reasoning in Clinical Diagnosis
Author: Cym Anthony Ryle
Publsiher: Oxford University Press, USA
Total Pages: 208
Release: 2019-07-12
ISBN 10: 0190944005
ISBN 13: 9780190944001
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Risk and Reasoning in Clinical Diagnosis Book Review:

Accurate diagnosis is the foundation of medical practice, but at the start of the diagnostic process, uncertainty is inevitable. The clinician's skills and cognitive attributes determine the quality of the initial differential diagnosis and thus the crucial first phases of investigation and treatment; mistakes are often self-propagating. Diagnostic error is a major cause of avoidable morbidity and mortality, and is the commonest reason for successful litigation. Risk and Reasoning in Clinical Diagnosis is an accessible and readable look at the diagnostic process. Dr. Cym Ryle presents the insights and concepts developed in cognitive psychology which have led to the consensus that in all domains human reasoning is primarily driven by unconscious, intuitive mechanisms; the contribution of structured, analytical thinking is variable and inconsistent. He notes that the risk of error is inseparable from these mechanisms. Dr. Ryle then develops a description of the diagnostic process which encompasses its form, strengths and fallibility, and illustrates this description with examples from his work as a general practitioner. He argues that improving diagnostic accuracy should be a priority, and that there is sufficient evidence to guide changes in medical training, in clinical practice, and in the culture and organisation of our institutions. He identifies specific, practical steps that can be taken by individual clinicians and by clinical teams, suggests priorities for action in our institutions, and considers the obstacles to progress.

The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines for the Psychiatric Evaluation of Adults Third Edition

The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines for the Psychiatric Evaluation of Adults  Third Edition
Author: American Psychiatric Association
Publsiher: American Psychiatric Pub
Total Pages: 170
Release: 2015-07-29
ISBN 10: 0890424659
ISBN 13: 9780890424650
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines for the Psychiatric Evaluation of Adults Third Edition Book Review:

Since the publication of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) report Clinical Practice Guidelines We Can Trust in 2011, there has been an increasing emphasis on assuring that clinical practice guidelines are trustworthy, developed in a transparent fashion, and based on a systematic review of the available research evidence. To align with the IOM recommendations and to meet the new requirements for inclusion of a guideline in the National Guidelines Clearinghouse of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), American Psychiatric Association (APA) has adopted a new process for practice guideline development. Under this new process APA's practice guidelines also seek to provide better clinical utility and usability. Rather than a broad overview of treatment for a disorder, new practice guidelines focus on a set of discrete clinical questions of relevance to an overarching subject area. A systematic review of evidence is conducted to address these clinical questions and involves a detailed assessment of individual studies. The quality of the overall body of evidence is also rated and is summarized in the practice guideline. With the new process, recommendations are determined by weighing potential benefits and harms of an intervention in a specific clinical context. Clear, concise, and actionable recommendation statements help clinicians to incorporate recommendations into clinical practice, with the goal of improving quality of care. The new practice guideline format is also designed to be more user friendly by dividing information into modules on specific clinical questions. Each module has a consistent organization, which will assist users in finding clinically useful and relevant information quickly and easily. This new edition of the practice guidelines on psychiatric evaluation for adults is the first set of the APA's guidelines developed under the new guideline development process. These guidelines address the following nine topics, in the context of an initial psychiatric evaluation: review of psychiatric symptoms, trauma history, and treatment history; substance use assessment; assessment of suicide risk; assessment for risk of aggressive behaviors; assessment of cultural factors; assessment of medical health; quantitative assessment; involvement of the patient in treatment decision making; and documentation of the psychiatric evaluation. Each guideline recommends or suggests topics to include during an initial psychiatric evaluation. Findings from an expert opinion survey have also been taken into consideration in making recommendations or suggestions. In addition to reviewing the available evidence on psychiatry evaluation, each guideline also provides guidance to clinicians on implementing these recommendations to enhance patient care.

An Introduction to Applied Cognitive Psychology

An Introduction to Applied Cognitive Psychology
Author: David Groome,Michael Eysenck
Publsiher: Psychology Press
Total Pages: 422
Release: 2016-04-14
ISBN 10: 1317556526
ISBN 13: 9781317556527
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

An Introduction to Applied Cognitive Psychology Book Review:

An Introduction to Applied Cognitive Psychology offers an accessible review of recent research in the application of cognitive methods, theories, and models. Using real-world scenarios and engaging everyday examples this book offers clear explanations of how the findings of cognitive psychologists have been put to use. The book explores all of the major areas of cognitive psychology, including attention, perception, memory, thinking and decision making, as well as some of the factors that affect cognitive processes, such as drugs and biological cycles. Now in full colour, this new edition has been thoroughly updated to include cutting-edge research and theories. There are also new chapters on perceptual errors and accidents, the influence of emotion, and the role of cognitive factors in music and sport. Written by well-respected experts in the field, this textbook will appeal to all undergraduate students of cognitive psychology, as well as professionals working in the areas covered in the book, such as education, police work, sport, and music.

Thinking Fast and Slow

Thinking  Fast and Slow
Author: Daniel Kahneman
Publsiher: Doubleday Canada
Total Pages: 512
Release: 2011-11-01
ISBN 10: 0385676522
ISBN 13: 9780385676526
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Thinking Fast and Slow Book Review:

NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER The guru to the gurus at last shares his knowledge with the rest of us. Nobel laureate Daniel Kahneman's seminal studies in behavioral psychology, behavioral economics, and happiness studies have influenced numerous other authors, including Steven Pinker and Malcolm Gladwell. In Thinking, Fast and Slow, Kahneman at last offers his own, first book for the general public. It is a lucid and enlightening summary of his life's work. It will change the way you think about thinking. Two systems drive the way we think and make choices, Kahneman explains: System One is fast, intuitive, and emotional; System Two is slower, more deliberative, and more logical. Examining how both systems function within the mind, Kahneman exposes the extraordinary capabilities as well as the biases of fast thinking and the pervasive influence of intuitive impressions on our thoughts and our choices. Engaging the reader in a lively conversation about how we think, he shows where we can trust our intuitions and how we can tap into the benefits of slow thinking, contrasting the two-system view of the mind with the standard model of the rational economic agent. Kahneman's singularly influential work has transformed cognitive psychology and launched the new fields of behavioral economics and happiness studies. In this path-breaking book, Kahneman shows how the mind works, and offers practical and enlightening insights into how choices are made in both our business and personal lives--and how we can guard against the mental glitches that often get us into trouble.

Judgment Under Uncertainty

Judgment Under Uncertainty
Author: Daniel Kahneman,Stewart Paul Slovic,Paul Slovic,Amos Tversky,Cambridge University Press
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 555
Release: 1982-04-30
ISBN 10: 9780521284141
ISBN 13: 0521284147
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Judgment Under Uncertainty Book Review:

Thirty-five chapters describe various judgmental heuristics and the biases they produce, not only in laboratory experiments, but in important social, medical, and political situations as well. Most review multiple studies or entire subareas rather than describing single experimental studies.

Cognitive Vulnerability to Emotional Disorders

Cognitive Vulnerability to Emotional Disorders
Author: Lauren B. Alloy,John H. Riskind
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 464
Release: 2006-04-21
ISBN 10: 1135648786
ISBN 13: 9781135648787
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cognitive Vulnerability to Emotional Disorders Book Review:

In this book, which advances clinical science and clinical practice, experts present the broad synthesis of what we have learnt about nature, origins, and clinical ramifications of the general and specific cognitive factors that seem to play a crucial role in creating and maintaining vulnerability across the spectrum of emotional disorders.

Biased Cognitions Social Anxiety Building a Global Framework for Integrating Cognitive Behavioral and Neural Processes

Biased Cognitions   Social Anxiety  Building a Global Framework for Integrating Cognitive  Behavioral  and Neural Processes
Author: Alexandre Heeren,Wolf-Gero Lange,Quincy Wong,Pierre Philippot
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2015-03-05
ISBN 10: 288919423X
ISBN 13: 9782889194230
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biased Cognitions Social Anxiety Building a Global Framework for Integrating Cognitive Behavioral and Neural Processes Book Review:

Social anxiety (SA) is a common and incapacitating disorder that has been associated with seriously impaired career, academic, and general social functioning. Regarding epidemiological data, SA has a lifetime prevalence of 12.1% and is the fourth most common psychopathological disorder (Kessler et al., 2005). At a fundamental point of view, the most prominent cognitive models of SA posit that biased cognitions contribute to the development and maintenance of the disorder (e.g., Clark & Wells, 1995; Rapee & Heimberg, 1997). Over the last decades, a large body of research has provided evidence that individuals suffering from SA exhibit such biased cognitions at the level of visual attention, memory of social encounters, interpretation of social events, and in judgment of social cues. Such biased cognitions in SA has been studied in different ways within cognitive psychology, behavioral psychology, clinical psychology, and cognitive neuroscience over the last few decades, yet, integrative approaches for channeling all information into a unified account of biased cognitions in SA has not been presented so far. The present Research Topic aims to bring together theses different ways, and to highlight findings and methods which can unify research across these areas. In particular, this Research Topic aims to advance the current theoretical models of SA and set the stage for future developments of the field by clarifying and linking theoretical concepts across disciplines.

CBT for Psychosis

CBT for Psychosis
Author: Roger Hagen,Douglas Turkington,Torkil Berge,Rolf W. Gråwe
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 291
Release: 2013-09-05
ISBN 10: 1136837973
ISBN 13: 9781136837975
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

CBT for Psychosis Book Review:

This book offers a new approach to understanding and treating psychotic symptoms using Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT). CBT for Psychosis shows how this approach clears the way for a shift away from a biological understanding and towards a psychological understanding of psychosis. Stressing the important connection between mental illness and mental health, further topics of discussion include: the assessment and formulation of psychotic symptoms how to treat psychotic symptoms using CBT CBT for specific and co-morbid conditions CBT of bipolar disorders. This book brings together international experts from different aspects of this fast developing field and will be of great interest to all mental health professionals working with people suffering from psychotic symptoms.

Improving Wellbeing in Patients With Chronic Conditions Theory Evidence and Opportunities

Improving Wellbeing in Patients With Chronic Conditions  Theory  Evidence  and Opportunities
Author: Andrew Kemp,Jeremy Tree,Fergus Gracey,Zoe Fisher
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2022-04-11
ISBN 10: 2889745953
ISBN 13: 9782889745951
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Improving Wellbeing in Patients With Chronic Conditions Theory Evidence and Opportunities Book Review:

Brain and Somatization Symptoms in Psychiatric Disorders

Brain and Somatization Symptoms in Psychiatric Disorders
Author: Wenbin Guo,Fengyu Zhang,Feng Liu,Chaogan Yan
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2019-07-11
ISBN 10: 2889458865
ISBN 13: 9782889458868
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Brain and Somatization Symptoms in Psychiatric Disorders Book Review: