Cleanup of Chemical and Explosive Munitions

Cleanup of Chemical and Explosive Munitions
Author: Richard Albright
Publsiher: William Andrew
Total Pages: 328
Release: 2011-12-02
ISBN 10: 1437734782
ISBN 13: 9781437734782
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cleanup of Chemical and Explosive Munitions Book Review:

Unexploded military ordnance and toxic chemicals, some dating back to the two World Wars, are a global concern, especially when former military bases are redeveloped for housing or other civilian uses. Internationally, there are the added challenges of cleanup of battlegrounds and minefields. Experts estimate that the United States alone could spend between $50–250 billion to clean up these sites, many of which are in areas of high population density, where the demand for land for development is high. This book is unique in providing detailed guidance for cleaning up military ordnance sites – listing explosives, chemical warfare materials and breakdown products which can contaminate soil and groundwater and the tests needed to detect them, as well as cleanup techniques. Also included are remote sensing techniques, geophysical techniques, safety issues, the particular challenges of chemical weapons, etc. The author illustrates these techniques with case studies, including former battlegrounds in Europe and Asia, storage and waste disposal sites in Russia and former Soviet territories, and an extended study of the remediation of the large and complex Spring Valley site in the District of Columbia,. The second edition has been fully revised and updated, and also includes new and expanded sections on: geophysical techniques for discovering buried ordnance underwater sites and remediation techniques use of robotics, including remotely operated vehicles compliance and regulatory issues guidance documents from US Department of Defense and other sources The focus on test procedures, environmental remediation techniques, and learning from past case studies, makes Albright’s book the most comprehensive and practical guide on the market for a topic of international importance. The only book available with clear and complete guidance for the cleanup of military ordnance sites and battlefields. The author illustrates his recommendations with real world cases including Spring Valley, DC, former battlegrounds in Europe and Asia, and storage and waste disposal sites in Russia and other former Soviet states. An essential reference for the test and environmental remediation procedures required to put former military sites back in to civilian use (e.g. housing). 30% revision, with key updates concerning regulatory changes, US Dept of Defense guidance documents, use of robotic vehicles, underwater sites and discovery of buried ordnance.

Cleanup of Chemical and Explosive Munitions

Cleanup of Chemical and Explosive Munitions
Author: Richard D. Albright
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2012
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: OCLC:1105898421
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Cleanup of Chemical and Explosive Munitions Book Review:

Chemical Weapons Destruction and Explosive Waste

Chemical Weapons Destruction and Explosive Waste
Author: Robert Noyes
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 250
Release: 1996-12-31
ISBN 10: 081551641X
ISBN 13: 9780815516415
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Chemical Weapons Destruction and Explosive Waste Book Review:

Some of the more difficult environmental problems facing the Department of Defense (DOD) include (1) chemical weapons destruction, (2) explosive waste remediation, and (3) unexploded ordnance clearance and extraction. It is conceivable that $50 to $100 billion will be spent by DOD for these three programs, offering unusual opportunities for environmental engineering and related firms. Military installations are similar to small cities in terms of population, industrial activities, and some types of contaminated sites. However, some cover an area larger than a small state. DOD has operated industrial facilities on its installations for several decades that have generated, stored, recycled, or disposed of hazardous wastes. Many of these activities have contaminated the nearby soil and groundwater. To study and clean up contaminated sites, DOD established the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) in 1975. In 1984, the IRP was made part of the Defense Environmental Restoration Program. The Secretary of Defense delegated cleanup responsibility to the Army, Navy, the Air Force, and the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA). Cleanup actions are usually accomplished under contract with private firms, which are monitored by the services. Most cleanup actions are funded through the Defense Environmental Restoration Account (DERA) and the Base Realignment and Closure Account. Congress established DERA in 1984 to fund the cleanup of inactive contaminated sites on DOD installations. The technology to clean up the conventional hazardous wastes on DOD sites are the same as those utilized for industrial sites, and well-documented by this publisher. However, there are three DOD programs that require the utilization of somewhat unusual or different technologies that have not been as well documented. These three programs are: 1. Chemical weapons destruction 2. Remediation of explosives contaminated soils and lagoons 3. Unexploded ordnance detection, clearance, and extraction This book discusses the current and potential treatment technologies involved in these three programs.

Death of the Chesapeake

Death of the Chesapeake
Author: Richard Albright
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 232
Release: 2013-05-29
ISBN 10: 1118756665
ISBN 13: 9781118756669
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Death of the Chesapeake Book Review:

In essence this book deals with an area that contributes significantly to the pollution and degradation of Chesapeake Bay, but has been completely overlooked in many of the efforts to restore the Bay, specifically, the federal military pollution sources. The book also recognizes for the first time, that efforts to restore the Bay have failed because of violation of a fundamental precept of environmental cleanup; that is, to sample the site and see what is there. The Bay itself has never been sampled. Thus this book presents a view of the environmental condition of Chesapeake Bay that is totally unique. It covers a part of the history of the Bay that is not widely known, including how the Bay was formed. It presents a mixture of science, military history, and novel solutions to the Bay's degradation. In so doing, the author examines the military use of the Bay and reveals the extent of munitions dumpsites containing nitrogen and phosphorus as well as chemical warfare material, and how this is effecting the environment. The book concludes with the author's own clean-up plan that, if implemented, would go a long way to restoring health to Bay. The book is supplemented with many photographs and maps.

Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel

Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel
Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Army Science and Technology,Committee on Review of the Conduct of Operations for Remediation of Recovered Chemical Warfare Materiel from Burial Sites
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 139
Release: 2012-08-21
ISBN 10: 030925793X
ISBN 13: 9780309257930
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel Book Review:

As the result of disposal practices from the early to mid-twentieth century, approximately 250 sites in 40 states, the District of Columbia, and 3 territories are known or suspected to have buried chemical warfare materiel (CWM). Much of this CWM is likely to occur in the form of small finds that necessitate the continuation of the Army's capability to transport treatment systems to disposal locations for destruction. Of greatest concern for the future are sites in residential areas and large sites on legacy military installations. The Army mission regarding the remediation of recovered chemical warfare materiel (RCWM) is turning into a program much larger than the existing munition and hazardous substance cleanup programs. The Army asked the Nation Research Council (NRC) to examine this evolving mission in part because this change is significant and becoming even more prominent as the stockpile destruction is nearing completion. One focus in this report is the current and future status of the Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Project (NSCMP), which now plays a central role in the remediation of recovered chemical warfare materiel and which reports to the Chemical Materials Agency. Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel also reviews current supporting technologies for cleanup of CWM sites and surveys organizations involved with remediation of suspected CWM disposal sites to determine current practices and coordination. In this report, potential deficiencies in operational areas based on the review of current supporting technologies for cleanup of CWM sites and develop options for targeted research and development efforts to mitigate potential problem areas are identified.

Review of International Technologies for Destruction of Recovered Chemical Warfare Materiel

Review of International Technologies for Destruction of Recovered Chemical Warfare Materiel
Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Army Science and Technology,Committee on Review and Evaluation of International Technologies for the Destruction of Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 128
Release: 2006-11-02
ISBN 10: 9780309180511
ISBN 13: 0309180511
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Review of International Technologies for Destruction of Recovered Chemical Warfare Materiel Book Review:

The Chemical Weapons Convention requires, among other things, that the signatories to the convention--which includes the United States--destroy by April 29, 2007, or as soon possible thereafter, any chemical warfare materiel that has been recovered from sites where it has been buried once discovered. For several years the United States and several other countries have been developing and using technologies to dispose of this non-stockpile materiel. To determine whether international efforts have resulted in technologies that would benefit the U.S. program, the U.S. Army asked the NRC to evaluate and compare such technologies to those now used by the United States. This book presents a discussion of factors used in the evaluations, summaries of evaluations of several promising international technologies for processing munitions and for agent-only processing, and summaries of other technologies that are less likely to be of benefit to the U.S. program at this time.

Assessment of Explosive Destruction Technologies for Specific Munitions at the Blue Grass and Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plants

Assessment of Explosive Destruction Technologies for Specific Munitions at the Blue Grass and Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plants
Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Army Science and Technology,Committee to Review Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives Program Detonation Technologies
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 134
Release: 2009-05-22
ISBN 10: 0309126835
ISBN 13: 9780309126830
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Assessment of Explosive Destruction Technologies for Specific Munitions at the Blue Grass and Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plants Book Review:

The Army's ability to meet public and congressional demands to destroy expeditiously all of the U.S. declared chemical weapons would be enhanced by the selection and acquisition of appropriate explosive destruction technologies (EDTs) to augment the main technologies to be used to destroy the chemical weapons currently at the Blue Grass Army Depot (BGAD) in Kentucky and the Pueblo Chemical Depot (PCD) in Colorado. The Army is considering four EDTs for the destruction of chemical weapons: three from private sector vendors, and a fourth, Army-developed explosive destruction system (EDS). This book updates earlier evaluations of these technologies, as well as any other viable detonation technologies, based on several considerations including process maturity, process efficacy, process throughput, process safety, public and regulatory acceptability, and secondary waste issues, among others. It also provides detailed information on each of the requirements at BGAD and PCD and rates each of the existing suitable EDTs plus the Army's EDS with respect to how well it satisfies these requirements.

Dew of Death

Dew of Death
Author: Joel A. Vilensky
Publsiher: Indiana University Press
Total Pages: 240
Release: 2005-09-07
ISBN 10: 0253111528
ISBN 13: 9780253111524
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Dew of Death Book Review:

"Dr. Vilensky raises important concerns regarding the threats posed by lewisite and other weapons of mass destruction. As he describes, non-proliferation programs are a vital component in the War on Terror." -- Richard G. Lugar, United States Senator "Joel Vilensky's book is a detailed and immensely useful account of the development and history of one of the major chemical weapons.... We will always know how to make lewisite, the 'Dew of Death,' but that does not mean that we should, or be compelled to accept such weapons in our lives." -- from the Foreword by Richard Butler, former head of UN Special Commission to Disarm Iraq In 1919, when the Great War was over, the New York Times reported on a new chemical weapon with "the fragrance of geranium blossoms," a poison gas that was "the climax of this country's achievements in the lethal arts." The name of this substance was lewisite and this is its story -- the story of an American weapon of mass destruction. Discovered by accident by a graduate student and priest in a chemistry laboratory at the Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C., lewisite was developed into a weapon by Winford Lewis, who became its namesake, working with a team led by James Conant, later president of Harvard and head of government oversight for the U.S.'s atomic bomb program, the Manhattan Project. After a powerful German counterattack in the spring of 1918, the government began frantic production of lewisite in hopes of delivering 3,000 tons of the stuff to be ready for use in Europe the following year. The end of war came just as the first shipment was being prepared. It was dumped into the sea, but not forgotten. Joel A. Vilensky tells the intriguing story of the discovery and development of lewisite and its curious history. During World War II, the United States produced more than 20,000 tons of lewisite, testing it on soldiers and secretly dropping it from airplanes. In the end, the substance was abandoned as a weapon because it was too unstable under most combat conditions. But a weapon once discovered never disappears. It was used by Japan in Manchuria and by Iraq in its war with Iran. The Soviet Union was once a major manufacturer. Strangely enough, although it was developed for lethal purposes, lewisite led to an effective treatment for a rare neurological disease.

Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions

Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions
Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems,Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 220
Release: 1994-02-01
ISBN 10: 0309050464
ISBN 13: 9780309050463
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions Book Review:

The U.S. Army's chemical stockpile is aging and gradually deteriorating. Its elimination has public, political, and environmental ramifications. The U.S. Department of Defense has designated the Department of the Army as the executive agent responsible for the safe, timely, and effective elimination of the chemical stockpile. This book provides recommendations on the direction the Army should take in pursuing and completing its Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program.

Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Disposal of Liquid Wastes from the Explosive Destruction System

Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Disposal of Liquid Wastes from the Explosive Destruction System
Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Army Science and Technology,Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 76
Release: 2002-01-20
ISBN 10: 0309082692
ISBN 13: 9780309082693
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Disposal of Liquid Wastes from the Explosive Destruction System Book Review:

Chemical warfare materiel (CWM) encompasses diverse items that were used during 60 years of efforts by the United States to develop a capability for conducting chemical warfare. Non-Stockpile CWM (NSCWM) is materiel not included in the current U.S. inventory of chemical munitions and includes buried materiel, recovered materiel, components of binary chemical weapons, former production facilities, and miscellaneous materiel. Because NSCWM is stored or buried at many locations, the Army is developing transportable treatment systems that can be moved from site to site as needed. Originally, the Army planned to develop three transportable treatment systems for nonstockpile chemical materiel: the rapid response system (RRS), the munitions management device (MMD), and the explosive destruction system (EDS). This report supplements an earlier report that evaluated eight alternative technologies for destruction of the liquid waste streams from two of the U.S. Army’s transportable treatment systems for nonstockpile chemical materiel: the RRS and the MMD. This report evaluates the same technologies for the destruction of liquid waste streams produced by the EDS and discusses the regulatory approval issues and obstacles for the combined use of the EDS and the alternative technologies that treat the EDS secondary waste streams. Although it focuses on the destruction of EDS neutralent, it also takes into consideration the ability of posttreatment technologies to process the more dilute water rinses that are used in the EDS following treatment with a reagent.

Ammunition and Explosives Safety Standards

Ammunition and Explosives Safety Standards
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 89
Release: 1982
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: SRLF:AA0007666449
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Ammunition and Explosives Safety Standards Book Review:

Encyclopedia of Environmental Health

Encyclopedia of Environmental Health
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Newnes
Total Pages: 5016
Release: 2008-09-01
ISBN 10: 0444522727
ISBN 13: 9780444522726
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Encyclopedia of Environmental Health Book Review:

Environmental health has evolved over time into a complex, multidisciplinary field. Many of the key determinants and solutions to environmental health problems lie outside the direct realm of health and are strongly dependent on environmental changes, water and sanitation, industrial development, education, employment, trade, tourism, agriculture, urbanization, energy, housing and national security. Environmental risks, vulnerability and variability manifest themselves in different ways and at different time scales. While there are shared global and transnational problems, each community, country or region faces its own unique environmental health problems, the solution of which depends on circumstances surrounding the resources, customs, institutions, values and environmental vulnerability. This work contains critical reviews and assessments of environmental health practices and research that have worked in places and thus can guide programs and economic development in other countries or regions. The Encyclopedia of Environmental Health seeks to conceptualize the subject more clearly, to describe the best available scientific methods that can be used in characterizing and managing environmental health risks, to extend the field of environmental health through new theoretical perspectives and heightened appreciation of social, economic and political contexts, and to encourage a richer analysis in the field through examples of diverse experiences in dealing with the health-environment interface. The Encyclopedia of Environmental Health contains numerous examples of policy options and environmental health practices that have worked and thus can guide programs in other countries or regions It includes a wide range of tools and strategies that can assist communities and countries in assessing environmental health conditions, monitoring progress of intervention implementation and evaluating outcomes Provides a comprehensive overview of existing knowledge in this emerging field Articles contain summaries and assessments of environmental health practices and research, providing a framework for further research Places environmental health in the broader context of environmental change and related ecological, political, economic, social, and cultural issues

Alternatives for the Demilitarization of Conventional Munitions

Alternatives for the Demilitarization of Conventional Munitions
Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Army Science and Technology,Committee on Alternatives for the Demilitarization of Conventional Munitions
Publsiher: National Academies Press
Total Pages: 132
Release: 2019-01-11
ISBN 10: 0309477352
ISBN 13: 9780309477352
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Alternatives for the Demilitarization of Conventional Munitions Book Review:

The U.S. military has a stockpile of approximately 400,000 tons of excess, obsolete, or unserviceable munitions. About 60,000 tons are added to the stockpile each year. Munitions include projectiles, bombs, rockets, landmines, and missiles. Open burning/open detonation (OB/OD) of these munitions has been a common disposal practice for decades, although it has decreased significantly since 2011. OB/OD is relatively quick, procedurally straightforward, and inexpensive. However, the downside of OB and OD is that they release contaminants from the operation directly into the environment. Over time, a number of technology alternatives to OB/OD have become available and more are in research and development. Alternative technologies generally involve some type of contained destruction of the energetic materials, including contained burning or contained detonation as well as contained methods that forego combustion or detonation. Alternatives for the Demilitarization of Conventional Munitions reviews the current conventional munitions demilitarization stockpile and analyzes existing and emerging disposal, treatment, and reuse technologies. This report identifies and evaluates any barriers to full-scale deployment of alternatives to OB/OD or non-closed loop incineration/combustion, and provides recommendations to overcome such barriers.

Emergency Response Guidebook

Emergency Response Guidebook
Author: U.S. Department of Transportation
Publsiher: Simon and Schuster
Total Pages: 400
Release: 2013-06-03
ISBN 10: 1626363765
ISBN 13: 9781626363762
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Emergency Response Guidebook Book Review:

Does the identification number 60 indicate a toxic substance or a flammable solid, in the molten state at an elevated temperature? Does the identification number 1035 indicate ethane or butane? What is the difference between natural gas transmission pipelines and natural gas distribution pipelines? If you came upon an overturned truck on the highway that was leaking, would you be able to identify if it was hazardous and know what steps to take? Questions like these and more are answered in the Emergency Response Guidebook. Learn how to identify symbols for and vehicles carrying toxic, flammable, explosive, radioactive, or otherwise harmful substances and how to respond once an incident involving those substances has been identified. Always be prepared in situations that are unfamiliar and dangerous and know how to rectify them. Keeping this guide around at all times will ensure that, if you were to come upon a transportation situation involving hazardous substances or dangerous goods, you will be able to help keep others and yourself out of danger. With color-coded pages for quick and easy reference, this is the official manual used by first responders in the United States and Canada for transportation incidents involving dangerous goods or hazardous materials.

One Hundred Years of Chemical Warfare Research Deployment Consequences

One Hundred Years of Chemical Warfare  Research  Deployment  Consequences
Author: Bretislav Friedrich,Dieter Hoffmann,Jürgen Renn,Florian Schmaltz,Martin Wolf
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 408
Release: 2017-11-26
ISBN 10: 3319516647
ISBN 13: 9783319516646
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

One Hundred Years of Chemical Warfare Research Deployment Consequences Book Review:

This book is open access under a CC BY-NC 2.5 license. On April 22, 1915, the German military released 150 tons of chlorine gas at Ypres, Belgium. Carried by a long-awaited wind, the chlorine cloud passed within a few minutes through the British and French trenches, leaving behind at least 1,000 dead and 4,000 injured. This chemical attack, which amounted to the first use of a weapon of mass destruction, marks a turning point in world history. The preparation as well as the execution of the gas attack was orchestrated by Fritz Haber, the director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry in Berlin-Dahlem. During World War I, Haber transformed his research institute into a center for the development of chemical weapons (and of the means of protection against them). Bretislav Friedrich and Martin Wolf (Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, the successor institution of Haber’s institute) together with Dieter Hoffmann, Jürgen Renn, and Florian Schmaltz (Max Planck Institute for the History of Science) organized an international symposium to commemorate the centenary of the infamous chemical attack. The symposium examined crucial facets of chemical warfare from the first research on and deployment of chemical weapons in WWI to the development and use of chemical warfare during the century hence. The focus was on scientific, ethical, legal, and political issues of chemical weapons research and deployment — including the issue of dual use — as well as the ongoing effort to control the possession of chemical weapons and to ultimately achieve their elimination. The volume consists of papers presented at the symposium and supplemented by additional articles that together cover key aspects of chemical warfare from 22 April 1915 until the summer of 2015.

Basic and Clinical Toxicology of Mustard Compounds

Basic and Clinical Toxicology of Mustard Compounds
Author: Mahdi Balali-Mood,Mohammad Abdollahi
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 408
Release: 2015-12-01
ISBN 10: 3319238744
ISBN 13: 9783319238746
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Basic and Clinical Toxicology of Mustard Compounds Book Review:

This book offers a practical guide to the clinical management of sulphur and nitrogen mustard exposure including information on the history, pharmacology and toxicology of mustard compounds (MC). Basic and Clinical Toxicology of Mustard Compounds details the many resulting complications of sulphur mustard (SM) poisoning such as respiratory, Dermatological, Ophthalmological and Psychiatric. This volume is a key resource for clinical toxicologists, military and emergency physicians who are involved in the teaching and research of MC and for all medical and health professions who are responsible for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of MC poisonings.

Phyto

Phyto
Author: Kate Kennen,Niall Kirkwood
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 346
Release: 2015-05-01
ISBN 10: 1317599004
ISBN 13: 9781317599005
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Phyto Book Review:

Winner of the 2017 CBHL Literature Award of Excellence in Landscape Design and Architecture Phyto presents the concepts of phytoremediation and phytotechnology in one comprehensive guide, illustrating when plants can be considered for the uptake, removal or mitigation of on-site pollutants. Current scientific case studies are covered, highlighting the advantages and limitations of plant-based cleanup. Typical contaminant groups found in the built environment are explained, and plant lists for mitigation of specific contaminants are included where applicable. This is the first book to address the benefits of phytotechnologies from a design point of view, taking complex scientific terms and translating the research into an easy-to-understand reference book for those involved in creating planting solutions. Typically, phytotechnology planting techniques are currently employed post-site contamination to help clean up already contaminated soil by taking advantage of the positive effects that plants can have upon harmful toxins and chemicals. This book presents a new concept to create projective planting designs with preventative phytotechnology abilities, ‘phytobuffering’ where future pollution may be expected for particular site programs. Filled with tables, photographs and detailed drawings, Kennen and Kirkwood's text guides the reader through the process of selecting plants for their aesthetic and environmental qualities, combined with their contaminant-removal benefits.

Base Nation

Base Nation
Author: David Vine
Publsiher: Metropolitan Books
Total Pages: 384
Release: 2015-08-25
ISBN 10: 1627791701
ISBN 13: 9781627791700
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Base Nation Book Review:

From Italy to the Indian Ocean, from Japan to Honduras, a far-reaching examination of the perils of American military bases overseas American military bases encircle the globe. More than two decades after the end of the Cold War, the U.S. still stations its troops at nearly a thousand locations in foreign lands. These bases are usually taken for granted or overlooked entirely, a little-noticed part of the Pentagon's vast operations. But in an eye-opening account, Base Nation shows that the worldwide network of bases brings with it a panoply of ills—and actually makes the nation less safe in the long run. As David Vine demonstrates, the overseas bases raise geopolitical tensions and provoke widespread antipathy towards the United States. They also undermine American democratic ideals, pushing the U.S. into partnerships with dictators and perpetuating a system of second-class citizenship in territories like Guam. They breed sexual violence, destroy the environment, and damage local economies. And their financial cost is staggering: though the Pentagon underplays the numbers, Vine's accounting proves that the bill approaches $100 billion per year. For many decades, the need for overseas bases has been a quasi-religious dictum of U.S. foreign policy. But in recent years, a bipartisan coalition has finally started to question this conventional wisdom. With the U.S. withdrawing from Afghanistan and ending thirteen years of war, there is no better time to re-examine the tenets of our military strategy. Base Nation is an essential contribution to that debate.

The Environment and International History

The Environment and International History
Author: Scott Kaufman
Publsiher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Total Pages: 224
Release: 2018-12-13
ISBN 10: 1472527038
ISBN 13: 9781472527035
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Environment and International History Book Review:

Studies of the history of international relations traditionally have focused on the decisions made by those at the highest levels of government. In more recent years, scholars have expanded their attention to cover economic, cultural, or social interactions among nations. What has remained largely ignored, however, is the impact of an increasingly-interdependent world upon the environment and, conversely, how environmental concerns have affected the ecology, social relationships, economics, and politics at national, regional, and global levels. The Environment and International History fills this gap, looking at the interrelationship between international politics and the environment. Using a transnational and interdisciplinary approach, this book examines how imperialism, war, and a divergence of interests between the developed and underdeveloped world all have had implications for plants, animals, and humans worldwide.

Advanced Applications in Remote Sensing of Agricultural Crops and Natural Vegetation

Advanced Applications in Remote Sensing of Agricultural Crops and Natural Vegetation
Author: Prasad S. Thenkabail,John G. Lyon,Alfredo Huete
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 385
Release: 2018-12-07
ISBN 10: 0429775156
ISBN 13: 9780429775154
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advanced Applications in Remote Sensing of Agricultural Crops and Natural Vegetation Book Review:

Written by leading global experts, including pioneers in the field, the four-volume set on Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Vegetation, Second Edition, reviews existing state-of-the-art knowledge, highlights advances made in different areas, and provides guidance for the appropriate use of hyperspectral data in the study and management of agricultural crops and natural vegetation. Volume IV, Advanced Applications in Remote Sensing of Agricultural Crops and Natural Vegetation discusses the use of hyperspectral or imaging spectroscopy data in numerous specific and advanced applications, such as forest management, precision farming, managing invasive species, and local to global land cover change detection. It emphasizes the importance of hyperspectral remote sensing tools for studying vegetation processes and functions as well as the appropriate use of hyperspectral data for vegetation management practices. The concluding chapter provides readers with useful guidance on the highlights and essence of Volume IV through the editors’ perspective. Key Features of Volume IV: Guides readers to harness the capabilities of the most recent advances in applying hyperspectral remote sensing technology to the study of terrestrial vegetation. Includes specific applications on agriculture, crop management practices, study of crop stress and diseases, crop characteristics based on inputs (e.g., nitrogen, irrigation), study of vegetation impacted by heavy metals, gross and net primary productivity studies, light use efficiency studies, crop water use and actual evapotranspiration studies, phenology monitoring, land use and land cover studies, global change studies, plant species detection, wetland and forest characterization and mapping, crop productivity and crop water productivity mapping, and modeling. Encompasses hyperspectral or imaging spectroscopy data in narrow wavebands used across visible, red-edge, near-infrared, far-infrared, shortwave infrared, and thermal portions of the spectrum. Explains the implementation of hyperspectral remote sensing data processing mechanisms in a standard, fast, and efficient manner for their applications. Discusses cloud computing to overcome hyperspectral remote sensing massive big data challenges. Provides hyperspectral analysis of rocky surfaces on the earth and other planetary systems.