Changing Climate and Resource use Efficiency in Plants

Changing Climate and Resource use Efficiency in Plants
Author: Amitav Bhattacharya
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 324
Release: 2018-11-01
ISBN 10: 0128168374
ISBN 13: 9780128168370
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Changing Climate and Resource use Efficiency in Plants Book Review:

Changing Climate and Resource Use Efficiency in Plants reviews the efficiencies for resource use by crop plants under different climatic conditions. This book focuses on the challenges and potential remediation methods for a variety of resource factors. Chapters deal with the effects of different climatic conditions on agriculture, radiation use efficiency under various climatic conditions, the efficiency of water and its impact on harvest production under restricted soil moisture conditions, nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiency, nitrogen use efficiency in different environmental conditions under the influence of climate change, and various aspects of improving phosphorus use efficiency. The book provides guidance for researchers engaged in plant science studies, particularly Plant/Crop Physiology, Agronomy, Plant Breeding and Molecular Breeding. In addition, it provides valuable insights for policymakers, administrators, plant-based companies and agribusiness companies. Explores climatic effects on agriculture through radiation, water, nitrogen, and phosphorus-use efficiency Guides the planning and research of, and recommendations for, fertilizer application for different crops under various climatic conditions Discusses efficiency improvements for plant and molecular breeders seeking to maximize resource use

Plant Macronutrient Use Efficiency

Plant Macronutrient Use Efficiency
Author: Mohammad Anwar Hossain,Takehiro Kamiya,David Burritt,Lam-Son Phan Tran,Toru Fujiwara
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 418
Release: 2017-07-27
ISBN 10: 0128112948
ISBN 13: 9780128112946
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Plant Macronutrient Use Efficiency Book Review:

Plant Macronutrient Use Efficiency presents an up-to-date overview of the latest research on the molecular and genetic basis of macro-nutrient use efficiency (NUE) in plants, and strategies that can be used to improve NUE and nutrient-associated stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant NUE is a measure of how efficiently plants use available nutrients and an understanding of plant NUE has the potential to help improve the use of limited natural resources and to help achieve global food security. This book presents information important for the development of crop plants with improved macro-NUE, a prerequisite to reducing production costs, expanding crop production into noncompetitive marginal lands with low nutrient resources, and for helping to prevent environmental contamination. Plant Macronutrient Use Efficiency provides a comprehensive overview of the complex mechanisms regulating macro-NUE in crop plants, which is required if plant breeders are to develop modern crop varieties that are more resilient to nutrient-associated stress. Identification of genes responsible for macro-NUE and nutrient-related stress tolerance in crop plants will help us to understand the molecular mechanisms associated with the responses of crop plants to nutrient stress. This volume contains both fundamental and advanced information, and critical commentaries useful for those in all fields of plant science research. Provides details of molecular and genetic aspects of NUE in crop plants and model plant systems Presents information on major macronutrients, nutrient sensing and signaling, and the molecular and genomic issues associated with primary and secondary macronutrients Delivers information on how molecular genetic information associated with NUE can be used to develop plant breeding programs Includes contributions from world-leading plant nutrition research groups

Resources Use Efficiency in Agriculture

Resources Use Efficiency in Agriculture
Author: Sandeep Kumar,Ram Swaroop Meena,Manoj Kumar Jhariya
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 760
Release: 2020-09-18
ISBN 10: 9811569533
ISBN 13: 9789811569531
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Resources Use Efficiency in Agriculture Book Review:

Achieving zero hunger and food security is a top priority in the United Nations Development Goals (UNDGs). In an era characterized by high population growth and increasing pressure on agricultural systems, efficiency in the use of natural resources has become central to sustainable agricultural practices. Fundamentally speaking, eco-efficiency is about maximizing agricultural outputs, in terms of quantity and quality, using less land, water, nutrients, energy, labor, or capital. The concept of eco-efficiency involves both the ecological and economic aspects of sustainable agriculture. It is therefore essential to understand the interaction of ecosystem constituents within the extensive agricultural landscape, as well as farmers’ economic needs. This book examines the latest eco-efficient practices used in agro-systems. Drawing upon research and examples from around the world, it offers an up-to-date overview, together with insights into directly applicable approaches for poly-cropping systems and landscape-scale management to improve the stability of agricultural production systems, helping achieve food security. The book will be of interest to educators, researchers, climate change scientists, capacity builders and policymakers alike. It can also be used as additional reading material for undergraduate and graduate courses on agriculture, forestry, soil science, and the environmental sciences.

Understanding Climate Change Impacts on Crop Productivity and Water Balance

Understanding Climate Change Impacts on Crop Productivity and Water Balance
Author: S. K. Jalota,B. B. Vashisht,Sandeep Sharma,Samanpreet Kaur
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 234
Release: 2018-02-19
ISBN 10: 0128097213
ISBN 13: 9780128097212
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Understanding Climate Change Impacts on Crop Productivity and Water Balance Book Review:

Understanding Climate Change Impacts on Crop Productivity and Water examines the greenhouse gas emissions and their warming effect, climate change projections, crop productivity and water. The book explores the most important greenhouse gases that influence the climate system, technical terms associated with climate projections, and the different mechanisms impacting crop productivity and water balance. Adaptive and mitigative strategies are proposed to cope with negative effects of climate change in particular domains. This book will help researchers interested in climate change impacts on the atmosphere, soil and plants. Uncovers links between climate change and its impact on crop and water outputs Integrates information on greenhouse gas cycles and mathematical equations into climate/crop models for analysis and seasonal prediction systems Provides strategies for efficient resource management and sustainable crop production in future Helps researchers interested in climate change impacts on the atmosphere, soil and plants

Climate Change and Crop Stress

Climate Change and Crop Stress
Author: Arun K.Shanker,Chitra Shanker,Anjali Anand,Maheswari M.
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 598
Release: 2021-11-19
ISBN 10: 0128165359
ISBN 13: 9780128165355
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Climate Change and Crop Stress Book Review:

Climate Change and Crop Stress: Molecules to Ecosystems expounds on the transitional period where science has progressed to ‘post-genomics’ and the gene editing era, putting field performance of crops to the forefront and challenging the production of practical applicability vs. theoretical possibility. Researchers have concentrated efforts on the effects of environmental stress conditions such as drought, heat, salinity, cold, or pathogen infection which can have a devastating impact on plant growth and yield. Designed to deliver information to combat stress both in isolation and through simultaneous crop stresses, this edited compilation provides a comprehensive view on the challenges and impacts of simultaneous stresses. Presents a multidisciplinary view of crop stresses, empowering readers to quickly align their individual experience and perspective with the broader context Combines the mechanistic aspects of stresses with the strategic aspects Presents both abiotic and biotic stresses in a single volume

Plant Perspectives to Global Climate Changes

Plant Perspectives to Global Climate Changes
Author: Tariq Aftab,Aryadeep Roychoudhury
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 556
Release: 2021-09-30
ISBN 10: 0323885888
ISBN 13: 9780323885881
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Plant Perspectives to Global Climate Changes Book Review:

Plant Perspectives to Global Climate Changes: Developing Climate-Resilient Plants reviews and integrates currently available information on the impact of the environment on functional and adaptive features of plants from the molecular, biochemical and physiological perspectives to the whole plant level. The book also provides a direction towards implementation of programs and practices that will enable sustainable production of crops resilient to climatic alterations. This book will be beneficial to academics and researchers working on stress physiology, stress proteins, genomics, proteomics, genetic engineering, and other fields of plant physiology. Advancing ecophysiological understanding and approaches to enhance plant responses to new environmental conditions is critical to developing meaningful high-throughput phenotyping tools and maintaining humankind’s supply of goods and services as global climate change intensifies. Illustrates the central role for plant ecophysiology in applying basic research to address current and future challenges for humans Brings together global leaders working in the area of plant-environment interactions and shares research findings Presents current scenarios and future plans of action for the management of stresses through various approaches

Food Security and Climate Change

Food Security and Climate Change
Author: Shyam Singh Yadav,Robert J. Redden,Jerry L. Hatfield,Andreas W. Ebert,Danny Hunter
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 568
Release: 2018-12-14
ISBN 10: 1119180651
ISBN 13: 9781119180654
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Food Security and Climate Change Book Review:

This book looks at the current state of food security and climate change, discusses the issues that are affecting them, and the actions required to ensure there will be enough food for the future. By casting a much wider net than most previously published books—to include select novel approaches, techniques, genes from crop diverse genetic resources or relatives—it shows how agriculture may still be able to triumph over the very real threat of climate change. Food Security and Climate Change integrates various challenges posed by changing climate, increasing population, sustainability in crop productivity, demand for food grains to sustain food security, and the anticipated future need for nutritious quality foods. It looks at individual factors resulting from climate change, including rising carbon emission levels, increasing temperature, disruptions in rainfall patterns, drought, and their combined impact on planting environments, crop adaptation, production, and management. The role of plant genetic resources, breeding technologies of crops, biotechnologies, and integrated farm management and agronomic good practices are included, and demonstrate the significance of food grain production in achieving food security during climate change. Food Security and Climate Change is an excellent book for researchers, scientists, students, and policy makers involved in agricultural science and technology, as well as those concerned with the effects of climate change on our environment and the food industry.

Climate Change and Soil Interactions

Climate Change and Soil Interactions
Author: Majeti Narasimha Vara Prasad,Marcin Pietrzykowski
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 838
Release: 2020-03-06
ISBN 10: 0128180331
ISBN 13: 9780128180334
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Climate Change and Soil Interactions Book Review:

Climate Change and Soil Interactions examines soil system interactions and conservation strategies regarding the effects of climate change. It presents cutting-edge research in soil carbonization, soil biodiversity, and vegetation. As a resource for strategies in maintaining various interactions for eco-sustainability, topical chapters address microbial response and soil health in relation to climate change, as well as soil improvement practices. Understanding soil systems, including their various physical, chemical, and biological interactions, is imperative for regaining the vitality of soil system under changing climatic conditions. This book will address the impact of changing climatic conditions on various beneficial interactions operational in soil systems and recommend suitable strategies for maintaining such interactions. Climate Change and Soil Interactions enables agricultural, ecological, and environmental researchers to obtain up-to-date, state-of-the-art, and authoritative information regarding the impact of changing climatic conditions on various soil interactions and presents information vital to understanding the growing fields of biodiversity, sustainability, and climate change. Addresses several sustainable development goals proposed by the UN as part of the 2030 agenda for sustainable development Presents a wide variety of relevant information in a unique style corroborated with factual cases, colour images, and case studies from across the globe Recommends suitable strategies for maintaining soil system interactions under changing climatic conditions

Climate Change and Agricultural Ecosystems

Climate Change and Agricultural Ecosystems
Author: Krishna Kumar Choudhary,Ajay Kumar,Amit Kishore Singh
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 482
Release: 2019-05-04
ISBN 10: 0128175222
ISBN 13: 9780128175224
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Climate Change and Agricultural Ecosystems Book Review:

Climate Change and Agricultural Ecosystems explains the causative factors of climate change related to agriculture, soil and plants, and discusses the relevant resulting mitigation process. Agricultural ecosystems include factors from the surrounding areas where agriculture experiences direct or indirect interaction with the plants, animals, and microbes present. Changes in climatic conditions influence all the factors of agricultural ecosystems, which can potentially adversely affect their productivity. This book summarizes the different aspects of vulnerability, adaptation, and amelioration of climate change in respect to plants, crops, soil, and microbes for the sustainability of the agricultural sector and, ultimately, food security for the future. It also focuses on the utilization of information technology for the sustainability of the agricultural sector along with the capacity and adaptability of agricultural societies under climate change. Climate Change and Agricultural Ecosystems incorporates both theoretical and practical aspects, and serves as base line information for future research. This book is a valuable resource for those working in environmental sciences, soil sciences, agricultural microbiology, plant pathology, and agronomy. Covers the role of chemicals fertilizers, environmental deposition, and xenobiotics in climate change Discusses the impact of climate change on plants, soil, microflora, and agricultural ecosystems Explores the mitigation of climate change by sustainable methods Presents the role of computational modelling in climate change mitigation

Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change

Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change
Author: Chris Stokes,Mark Howden
Publsiher: CSIRO PUBLISHING
Total Pages: 296
Release: 2010-02-15
ISBN 10: 0643102051
ISBN 13: 9780643102057
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change Book Review:

Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change is a fundamental resource for primary industry professionals, land managers, policy makers, researchers and students involved in preparing Australia’s primary industries for the challenges and opportunities of climate change. More than 30 authors have contributed to this book, which moves beyond describing the causes and consequences of climate change to providing options for people to work towards adaptation action. Climate change implications and adaptation options are given for the key Australian primary industries of horticulture, forestry, grains, rice, sugarcane, cotton, viticulture, broadacre grazing, intensive livestock industries, marine fisheries, and aquaculture and water resources. Case studies demonstrate the options for each industry. Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change summarises updated climate change scenarios for Australia with the latest climate science. It includes chapters on socio-economic and institutional considerations for adapting to climate change, greenhouse gas emissions sources and sinks, as well as risks and priorities for the future.

Soil Water Deficit and Physiological Issues in Plants

Soil Water Deficit and Physiological Issues in Plants
Author: Amitav Bhattacharya
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 702
Release: 2021-02-25
ISBN 10: 9813362766
ISBN 13: 9789813362765
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Soil Water Deficit and Physiological Issues in Plants Book Review:

This book explores the impact of soil water deficiency on various aspects of physiological processes in plants. The book explains the effects under soil water deficit condition such as lowering of plant water content, disturbance in carbon metabolism such in photosynthesis, photorespiration and respiration as well as effects of soil water deficit on nitrogen metabolism. The book also educates the readers about, mineral nutrition under soil water deficit condition and roles of different nutrient to overcome water deficit. Changes in growth and development pattern of plant under soil water deficit condition and effects on growth and development are elaborated. This book is of interest to teachers, researchers, scientists in botany and agriculture. Also the book serves as additional reading material for undergraduate and graduate students of agriculture, forestry, ecology, soil science, and environmental sciences. National and international agricultural scientists, policy makers will also find this to be a useful read. The in depth description of the major physiological issues in plants under soil water deficit that are presented in this book will help breeders tailoring crops for desirable physiological survival traits in the face of increasing soil water deficit. This book is an impactful addition to the library of any faculty members, researchers, agricultural policy planner, post graduate or student studying in plant physiology, biochemistry, microbiology and other subjects related to crop husbandry.

Advances in Legumes for Sustainable Intensification

Advances in Legumes for Sustainable Intensification
Author: Ram Swaroop Meena,Sandeep Kumar
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 728
Release: 2022-07-15
ISBN 10: 0323886000
ISBN 13: 9780323886000
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Legumes for Sustainable Intensification Book Review:

Advances in Legume-based Agroecoystem for Sustainable Intensification explores current research and future strategies for ensuring capacity growth and socioeconomic improvement through the utilization of legume crop cultivation and production in the achievement of sustainability development goals (SDGs). Sections cover the role of legumes in addressing issues of food security, improving nitrogen in the environment, environmental sustainability, economic-environmentally optimized systems, the importance and impact of nitrogen, organic production, and biomass potential, legume production, biology, breeding improvement, cropping systems, and the use of legumes for eco-friendly weed management. This book is an important resource for scientists, researchers and advanced students interested in championing the effective utilization of legumes for agronomic and ecological benefit. Focuses on opportunities for agricultural impact and sustainability Presents insights into both agricultural sustainability and eco-intensification Includes the impact of legume production on societal impacts such as health and wealth management

Field guide to improve water use efficiency in small scale agriculture

Field guide to improve water use efficiency in small scale agriculture
Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Publsiher: Food & Agriculture Org.
Total Pages: 80
Release: 2019-09-24
ISBN 10: 9251317607
ISBN 13: 9789251317600
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Field guide to improve water use efficiency in small scale agriculture Book Review:

The role of irrigation in gearing agriculture development towards a broader economic growth is undeniable. Accordingly, irrigation is growing into key operational strategy for governments and their agencies to increase agricultural productivity, thus combatting food insecurity and boosting overall growth. While agriculture absorbs rural workforce, generates income and increases food security, it has become the most important driver in freshwater exploitation. The rapid expansion of water demand leads to the generalized phenomena of imbalance between water supply and water demand. This increasing pressure on water resources urges enhancing Water Use Efficiency. Enhancing Water Use Efficiency requires actions at all levels, from agricultural practitioners to scheme managers, and up to the policy-makers. The objective of this Field Guide is to show practical measures to improve Water Use Efficiency in small-scale agriculture based on case studies from Burkina Faso, Morocco and Uganda. The Book not only presents applicable Water Use Efficiency measures, but also guide the readers through their real-term implementation. While the Guide provides complete set of instructions to improve Water Use Efficiency in order to reach optimal irrigation practices, the successful outcome still depends on the farmers’ willingness to embrace and adopt the recommended measures. The Guide holds in evidence that farmers are often constrained by available resources to improve their practices in terms of budget, inputs or labour. In order to take these issues into account, the recommendations are limited on practical measures, which can be followed by farmers without requiring additional resources.

Climate Change and Global Crop Productivity

Climate Change and Global Crop Productivity
Author: K. R. Reddy,H. F. Hodges
Publsiher: CABI
Total Pages: 488
Release: 2000-04-25
ISBN 10: 9780851997094
ISBN 13: 0851997090
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Climate Change and Global Crop Productivity Book Review:

Annotation. Worldwide climatic changes have been raising concerns about potential changes to crop yields and production systems. Such concerns include the ability to accommodate these uncertain effects in order to ensure an adequate food supply for an increasing population. Written by leadinginternational experts, this book is the first comprehensive examination of the potential effects climate change, particularly green house gases, will have on agroecosystems. It also reviews the effects such systems have on climate change itself.

Microbiome Under Changing Climate

Microbiome Under Changing Climate
Author: Ajay Kumar,Joginder Singh,Luiz Fernando Romanholo Ferreira
Publsiher: Woodhead Publishing
Total Pages: 574
Release: 2022-01-28
ISBN 10: 0323906974
ISBN 13: 9780323906975
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Microbiome Under Changing Climate Book Review:

Microbiome Under Changing Climate: Implications and Solutions presents the latest biotechnological interventions for the judicious use of microbes to ensure optimal agricultural yield. Summarizing aspects of vulnerability, adaptation and amelioration of climate impact, this book provides an important resource for understanding microbes, plants and soil in pursuit of sustainable agriculture and improved food security. It emphasizes the interaction between climate and soil microbes and their potential role in promoting advanced sustainable agricultural solutions, focusing on current research designed to use beneficial microbes such as plant growth promoting microorganisms, fungi, endophytic microbes, and more. Changes in climatic conditions influence all factors of the agricultural ecosystem, including adversely impacting yield both in terms of quantity and nutritional quality. In order to develop resilience against climatic changes, it is increasingly important to understand the effect on the native micro-flora, including the distribution of methanogens and methanotrophs, nutrient content and microbial biomass, among others. Demonstrates the impact of climate change on secondary metabolites of plants and potential responses Incorporates insights on microflora of inhabitant soil Explores mitigation processes and their modulation by sustainable methods Highlights the role of microbial technologies in agricultural sustainability

Climate Change and Food Security with Emphasis on Wheat

Climate Change and Food Security with Emphasis on Wheat
Author: Munir Ozturk,Alvina Gul
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 384
Release: 2020-04-03
ISBN 10: 0128195673
ISBN 13: 9780128195673
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Climate Change and Food Security with Emphasis on Wheat Book Review:

Climate Change and Food Security with Emphasis on Wheat is the first book to present the full scope of research in wheat improvement, revealing the correlations to global issues including climate change and global warming which contribute to food security issues. Wheat plays a key role in the health of the global economy. As the world population continuously increases, economies modernize, and incomes rise, wheat production will have to increase dramatically to secure it as a reliable and sustainable food source. Since covering more land area with wheat crops is not a sustainable option, future wheat crops must have consistently higher yields and be able to resist and/or tolerate biotic and abiotic stresses that result from climate change. Addressing the biophysical and socioeconomic constraints of producing high-yielding, disease-resistant, and good quality wheat, this book will aid in research efforts to increase and stabilize wheat production worldwide. Written by an international team of experts, Climate Change and Food Security with Emphasis on Wheat is an excellent resource for academics, researchers, and students interested in wheat and grain research, especially as it is relevant to food security. Covers a wide range of disciplines, including plant breeding, genetics, agronomy, physiology, pathology, quantitative genetics and genomics, biotechnology and gene editing Explores the effect of climate change on biotic stresses (stripe rust, stem rust, leaf rust, Karnal bunt, spot blotch) on wheat production and utilization of biotechnology Focuses on whole genome sequencing and next-generation sequencing technologies to improve wheat quality and address the issue of malnutrition in developing world

Plant Breeding in the Omics Era

Plant Breeding in the Omics Era
Author: Rodomiro Ortiz Ríos
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 249
Release: 2015-09-16
ISBN 10: 3319205323
ISBN 13: 9783319205328
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Plant Breeding in the Omics Era Book Review:

​The field of plant breeding has grown rapidly in the last decade with breakthrough research in genetics and genomics, inbred development, population improvement, hybrids, clones, self-pollinated crops, polyploidy, transgenic breeding and more. This book discusses the latest developments in all these areas but explores the next generation of needs and discoveries including omics beyond genomics, cultivar seeds and intellectual and property rights. This book is a leading-edge publication of the latest results and forecasts important areas of future needs and applications.​

Climate Change and Crop Production

Climate Change and Crop Production
Author: Matthew P. Reynolds
Publsiher: CABI
Total Pages: 292
Release: 2010
ISBN 10: 1845936345
ISBN 13: 9781845936341
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Climate Change and Crop Production Book Review:

Trends in population growth suggest that global food production is unlikely to satisfy future demand under predicted climate change scenarios unless rates of crop improvement are accelerated. This book provides an overview of the essential disciplines required for sustainable crop production in unpredictable environments.

Plant Soil Interactions under Changing Climate

Plant Soil Interactions under Changing Climate
Author: Sanna Sevanto,Charlotte Grossiord,Sasha C. Reed,Tamir Klein
Publsiher: Frontiers Media SA
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2021-02-04
ISBN 10: 2889664554
ISBN 13: 9782889664559
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Plant Soil Interactions under Changing Climate Book Review:

Stomata Regulation and Water Use Efficiency in Plants under Saline Soil Conditions

Stomata Regulation and Water Use Efficiency in Plants under Saline Soil Conditions
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 284
Release: 2022-07-01
ISBN 10: 0323914748
ISBN 13: 9780323914741
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Stomata Regulation and Water Use Efficiency in Plants under Saline Soil Conditions Book Review:

Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 103 provides a timely and comprehensive update on the current knowledge of stomata development and operation in salt-grown plants. The range of topics covered includes evolution of stomata for adaptation to saline conditions, comparative analysis of proteomic, transcriptomic and metabolomic profiles of stomata guard cells between halophytes and glycophyte species and their reprogramming under salt stress, the molecular nature of the signals that control stomata aperture and their integration at the cellular and whole-plant level, and ecophysiological aspects of stomata operation in crop and halophytes species. Written by leading international experts in the field Provides a comprehensive update on several hot topics in one volume Integrates information at various levels of plant functional organization, from molecular to whole-plant level