Bioenergy a Global Perspective

Bioenergy  a Global Perspective
Author: Nicolae Scarlat,Jean-François Dallemand
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2020-09
ISBN 10: 9780128186251
ISBN 13: 0128186259
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Bioenergy a Global Perspective Book Review:

Bioenergy: A Global Perspective provides an overview of the status and trends of bioenergy at country level through a detailed insight on biomass resources, market and development trends, policy framework, and perspectives for bioenergy development. Written by experts with deep knowledge of their country's bioenergy landscape, each chapter provides an insight into how the bioenergy sector is expected to develop, in terms of local use of biomass, what technology is likely to be deployed and how much biomass could be also available for international trade. They explore the status of national bioenergy deployment and its contribution to energy supply, including biogas and biomethane, biomass resources and trade, and identify the use of biomass in country-relevant small and/or large scale bioenergy projects. Chapters also discuss technology development perspectives and research priorities in relation to national priorities and targets set or planned for bioenergy, local biomass markets and perspectives for biomaterials, biochemicals and bioenergy. Sustainability issues, risks and benefits of bioenergy are also addressed, as well as key challenges and opportunities for bioenergy. Finally, a chapter dedicated to the international status of bioenergy presents a global perspective of all these aspects, along with recommendations for the path forward.By offering a clear, structured view of different cases around the globe, Bioenergy: A Global Perspective allows engineers and researchers involved in all stages of the biomass and bioenergy value chain to directly compare and use them as benchmark for bioenergy solutions being developed and implemented. This is especially useful for those planning or optimizing biomass supply chains. Energy entrepreneurs analysts, consultants and policy-makers can also make use of this resource, in particular its ample coverage of local policy and sustainability experiences.

Bioenergy for Sustainable Development and International Competitiveness

Bioenergy for Sustainable Development and International Competitiveness
Author: Francis X. Johnson,Vikram Seebaluck
Publsiher: Routledge
Total Pages: 472
Release: 2013-07-03
ISBN 10: 1136529551
ISBN 13: 9781136529559
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Bioenergy for Sustainable Development and International Competitiveness Book Review:

Growing concerns about the impacts of climate change and dependence on fossil fuels have intensified interest in bioenergy from sugar cane and other crops, highlighting important links between energy, environment and development goals. Sub-Saharan Africa is characterized by severe poverty; the possibility to exploit a renewable energy resource offers valuable avenues for sustainable development and could support a more dynamic and competitive economy. This book describes how the bioenergy expansion will improve rural livelihoods, reduce costly energy imports, reduce GHG emissions, and offer new development paths. Drawing on international experience, it is shown that harnessing this potential will require significant increases in investment, technology transfer, and international cooperation. Because of its high efficiency, the authors argue that sugar cane should be viewed as a global resource for sustainable development and should command much greater focus and concerted policy action. Through an analysis of the agronomy, land suitability and industrial processing of sugar cane and its co-products, along with an assessment of the energy, economic and environmental implications, this volume demonstrates that sugar cane offers a competitive and environmentally beneficial resource for Africa's economic development and energy security. With forty-four authors representing thirty organisations in sixteen countries, the book offers a truly international and interdisciplinary perspective by combining technical and economic principles with social, political and environmental assessment and policy analysis.

Bioeconomy and Global Inequalities

Bioeconomy and Global Inequalities
Author: Maria Backhouse,Rosa Lehmann,Kristina Lorenzen,Malte Lühmann,Janina Puder,Fabricio Rodríguez,Anne Tittor
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 338
Release: 2021-05-17
ISBN 10: 3030689441
ISBN 13: 9783030689445
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Bioeconomy and Global Inequalities Book Review:

This open access book focuses on the meanings, agendas, as well as the local and global implications of bioeconomy and bioenergy policies in and across South America, Asia and Europe. It explores how a transition away from a fossil and towards a bio-based economic order alters, reinforces and challenges socio-ecological inequalities. The volume presents a historically informed and empirically rich discussion of bioeconomy developments with a particular focus on bio-based energy. A series of conceptual discussions and case studies with a multidisciplinary background in the social sciences illuminate how the deployment of biomass sources from the agricultural and forestry sectors affect societal changes concerning knowledge production, land and labour relations, political participation and international trade. How can a global perspective on socio-ecological inequalities contribute to a complex and critical understanding of bioeconomy? Who participates in the negotiation of specific bioeconomy policies and who does not? Who determines the agenda? To what extent does the bioeconomy affect existing socio-ecological inequalities in rural areas? What are the implications of the bioeconomy for existing relations of extraction and inequalities across regions? The volume is an invitation to reflect upon these questions and more, at a time when the need for an ecological and socially just transition away from a carbon intensive economy is becoming increasingly pressing.

Handbook of Research on Bioenergy and Biomaterials

Handbook of Research on Bioenergy and Biomaterials
Author: Leopoldo Javier Ríos González,Jośe Antonio Rodríguez-De La Garza,Miguel Ángel Medina Morales,Cristóbal Noé Aguilar
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 736
Release: 2021-12-23
ISBN 10: 1000210731
ISBN 13: 9781000210736
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Handbook of Research on Bioenergy and Biomaterials Book Review:

The handbook provides an understanding of consolidated processing and biorefinery systems for the production of bio-based chemicals and value-added bioproducts from renewable sources. The chapters look at a variety of bioenergy technological advances and improvements in the energy and materials sectors that aim to lower our dependence of fossil fuels and consequently reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The volume looks at a selection of processes for the production of energy and biomaterials, including the Fischer–Tropsch process, gasification, pyrolysis, combustion, fermentation from renewable sources (such as, plants, animals and their byproducts), and others. Applications that are explored include transportation fuels, biodiesel production, wastewater treatment, edible packaging, bioplastics, physical rehabilitation, tissue engineering, biomedical applications, thermal insulation, industrial value compounds, and more. All of the topics covered in this publication address consolidated processes that play a pivotal role in the production of bioenergy and biomaterials because these processes require fewer unitary operations needed in the process, leading to a more direct method of production. This type of production system contributes to decreasing negative effects on the environment, lowering costs, saving energy and time, and improving profitability and efficiency. This volume will be valuable for the industrial sector, for researchers and scientists, as well as for faculty and advanced students.

The Future Use of Nordic Forests

The Future Use of Nordic Forests
Author: Erik Westholm,Karin Beland Lindahl,Florian Kraxner
Publsiher: Springer
Total Pages: 169
Release: 2015-02-16
ISBN 10: 3319142186
ISBN 13: 9783319142180
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

The Future Use of Nordic Forests Book Review:

Diverse as they are in their histories and in the organization of their forest sectors, most Nordic countries have this in common: their economies and cultures are substantially based on the utilization of various forest resources. This book explores Nordic forest futures and presents research results that form part of a scientific foundation for considering how to balance the functions of forests. It is particularly concerned with global trends that may affect the future use of boreal forests. Chapters investigate inter-alia the growing world population and the expected economic growth in countries with huge populations, and assess the resulting pressure on all land-based resources. Authors examine the urgent need for solutions to the energy crisis, consider worrying climate scenarios and provide a global outlook on bioenergy futures. Readers will discover how these developments will and must influence long-term strategic decisions on the future use of Nordic forests. The challenges and possible responses for future forest governance and forestry issues emerge, as the chapters go on to consider the multiple pressures in particular on the Swedish Forestry Model, among other themes. “By bringing together a distinguished group of internationally renowned scientists representing a diverse set of disciplines covering political science, geography, rural development, forest economics, history, and geo-sciences, this book constitutes an exceptionally profound and thoughtful futures study.” – Alexander Buck, Executive Director, International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO)

Heat and Power from Biomass

Heat and Power from Biomass
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Unknown
Total Pages: 135
Release: 2019
ISBN 10: 9789276125976
ISBN 13: 9276125973
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Heat and Power from Biomass Book Review:

This Technology Market Report provides an analysis of the market status of bioenergy and an insight into future technology development in the European Union and provides a global perspective at global scale. This report aims to highlights recent technology market trends and developments in the field of heat and power from biomass and to explore the medium and long-term perspective of the global bioenergy technology markets, with a focus on European Union. The report also provides an outlook for future deployment of bioenergy through modelling and analysis of key sensitivities and barriers to market expansion. The report firstly provides an evaluation of the historical technology trends and future prospects for development, exploring in detail the global deployment trends for bioenergy production. Specific attention has been paid on the current status and progress made against the deployment targets in the European Union. The report also discussed the policy context relevant to the development of the sector and the support policies as a key mechanism to facilitate investment in bioenergy, as well as the well trends in R&D investment and patenting activity. This report provides a market overview of the market structure and market shares in the global bioenergy sector. In order to provide an outlook on future developments this chapter also identifies emerging markets, players and trends.

Advances in Bioenergy

Advances in Bioenergy
Author: Peter D. Lund,John A. Byrne,Goeran Berndes,Iacovos Vasalos
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 560
Release: 2015-12-10
ISBN 10: 1118957857
ISBN 13: 9781118957851
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Advances in Bioenergy Book Review:

The increasing deployment of bioenergy frequently raises issues regarding the use of land and raw materials, infrastructure and logistics. In light of these sometimes conflicting interests Advances in Bioenergy provides an objective and wide-ranging overview of the technology, economics and policy of bioenergy. Offering an authoritative multidisciplinary summary of the opportunities and challenges associated with bioenergy utilization, with international researchers give up-to-date and detailed information on key issues for biomass production and conversion to energy. Key features: *Discusses different bioenergy uses such as transportation fuels, electricity and heat production. *Assesses emerging fields such as bio-based chemicals and bio-refineries. *Debates conditions for the mobilization of sustainable bioenergy supply chains and outlines governance systems to support this mobilization. * Dedicated chapters to sustainability governance and emerging tools such as certification systems and standards supporting growth of a sustainable bioenergy industry. *Considers the political, environmental, social and cultural context related to the demand for energy resources, the impact of this demand on the world around us, and the choices and behaviours of consumers. This book will be a vital reference to engineers, researchers and students that need an accessible overview of the bioenergy area. It will also be of high value for politicians, policymakers and industry leaders that need to stay up to date with the state-of-the-art science and technology in this area.

Socio Economic Impacts of Bioenergy Production

Socio Economic Impacts of Bioenergy Production
Author: Dominik Rutz,Rainer Janssen
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 297
Release: 2014-02-23
ISBN 10: 331903829X
ISBN 13: 9783319038292
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Socio Economic Impacts of Bioenergy Production Book Review:

Around the world, many countries are increasing efforts to promote biomass production for industrial uses including biofuels and bio-products such as chemicals and bio-plastic. Against a backdrop of lively public debate on sustainability, bioenergy wields both positive and negative impacts upon a variety of environmental and socio-economic issues. These include property rights, labor conditions, social welfare, economic wealth, poverty reduction and more. This book discusses the issues and impacts of bioenergy, taking into account the local and regional framework under which bioenergy is produced, touching upon educational level, cultural aspects, the history and economies of the producing countries and an array of policies including environmental and social targets. The book surveys and analyzes global bioenergy production from a number of perspectives. The authors illustrate the complexity of interrelated topics in the bioenergy value chain, ranging from agriculture to conversion processes, as well as from social implications to environmental effects. It goes on to offer insight on future challenges associated with the expected boom of a global bio-based economy, which contributes to the paradigm shift from a fossil-based to a biomass and renewable energy-based economy. The expert contributors include researchers, investors, policy makers, representatives from NGOs and other stakeholders, from Europe, Africa, Asia and Latin America. Their contributions build upon the results of the Global-Bio-Pact project on “Global Assessment of Biomass and Bio-product Impacts on Socio-economics and Sustainability,” which was supported by the European Commission in its 7th Framework Program for Research and Technological Development, conducted from February 2010 to January 2013. The book benefits policy makers, scientists and NGO staffers working in the fields of agriculture, forestry, biotechnology and energy.

Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems

Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems
Author: Patricia Thornley,Paul Adams
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 286
Release: 2017-12-07
ISBN 10: 0128094583
ISBN 13: 9780128094587
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy Systems Book Review:

Greenhouse Gases Balance of Bioenergy Systems covers every stage of a bioenergy system, from establishment to energy delivery, presenting a comprehensive, multidisciplinary overview of all the relevant issues and environmental risks. It also provides an understanding of how these can be practically managed to deliver sustainable greenhouse gas reductions. Its expert chapter authors present readers to the methods used to determine the greenhouse gas balance of bioenergy systems, the data required and the significance of the results obtained. It also provides in-depth discussion of key issues and uncertainties, such as soil, agriculture, forestry, fuel conversion and emissions formation. Finally, international case studies examine typical GHG reduction levels for different systems and highlight best practices for bioenergy GHG mitigation. For bringing together into one volume information from several different fields that was up until now scattered throughout many different sources, this book is ideal for researchers, graduate students and professionals coming into the bioenergy field, no matter their previous background. It will be particularly useful for bioenergy researchers seeking to calculate greenhouse gas balances for systems they are studying. I will also be an important resource for policy makers and energy analysts. Uses a multidisciplinary approach to synthesize the diverse information that is required to competently execute GHG balances for bioenergy systems Presents an in-depth understanding of the science underpinning key issues and uncertainty in GHG assessments of bioenergy systems Includes case studies that examine ways to maximize the GHG reductions delivered by different bioenergy systems

Waste to Energy Approaches Towards Zero Waste

Waste to Energy Approaches Towards Zero Waste
Author: Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain,Sunpreet Singh,Lalit Goswami
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 454
Release: 2021-11-09
ISBN 10: 0323853889
ISBN 13: 9780323853880
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Waste to Energy Approaches Towards Zero Waste Book Review:

Waste-to-Energy Approaches Towards Zero Waste: Interdisciplinary Methods of Controlling Waste provides a comprehensive overview of the key technologies and approaches to achieve zero waste from energy. The book emphasizes the importance of an integrated approach to waste-to-energy using fundamental concepts and principles, and presents key methods, their applications, and perspectives on future development. The book provides readers with the tools to make key decisions on waste-to-energy projects from zero-waste principles, while incorporating sustainability and life cycle assessments from financial and environmental perspectives. Waste-to-Energy Approaches Towards Zero Waste: Interdisciplinary Methods of Controlling Waste offers practical guidance on achieving energy with zero waste ideal for researchers and graduate students involved in waste-to-energy and renewable energy, waste remediation, and sustainability. Provides an integrated approach for waste-to-energy using zero waste concepts Offers decision-making guidance on selecting the most appropriate approach for each project Presents the sustainability and life cycle assessment of WTE technologies on financial and environmental grounds

Practices and Perspectives in Sustainable Bioenergy

Practices and Perspectives in Sustainable Bioenergy
Author: Madhumi Mitra,Abhijit Nagchaudhuri
Publsiher: Springer Nature
Total Pages: 283
Release: 2020-01-29
ISBN 10: 8132239652
ISBN 13: 9788132239659
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Practices and Perspectives in Sustainable Bioenergy Book Review:

This book presents a systems approach to bioenergy and provides a means to capture the complexity of bioenergy issues, including both direct and indirect impacts across the energy economy. The book addresses critical topics such as systems thinking; sustainability, biomass; feedstocks of importance and relevance (that are not competing with the food market); anaerobic digestion and biogas; biopower and bioheat; and policies, economy, and rights to access to clean energy. This is a contributed volume with each chapter written by relevant experts in the respective fields of research and teaching. Each chapter includes a review with highlights of the key points, critical-thinking questions, and a glossary.This book can be used as a primary or secondary textbook in courses related to bioenergy and bioproducts and sustainable biofuels. It is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Researchers, professionals, and policy makers will also be able to use this book for current reference materials.

Biomass to Biofuels

Biomass to Biofuels
Author: Alain A. Vertes,Nasib Qureshi,Hideaki Yukawa,Hans P. Blaschek
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 584
Release: 2011-08-24
ISBN 10: 1119965497
ISBN 13: 9781119965497
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biomass to Biofuels Book Review:

Focusing on the key challenges that still impede the realization of the billion-ton renewable fuels vision, this book integrates technological development and business development rationales to highlight the key technological.developments that are necessary to industrialize biofuels on a global scale. Technological issues addressed in this work include fermentation and downstream processing technologies, as compared to current industrial practice and process economics. Business issues that provide the lens through which the technological review is performed span the entire biofuel value chain, from financial mechanisms to fund biotechnology start-ups in the biofuel arena up to large green field manufacturing projects, to raw material farming, collection and transport to the bioconversion plant, manufacturing, product recovery, storage, and transport to the point of sale. Emphasis has been placed throughout the book on providing a global view that takes into account the intrinsic characteristics of various biofuels markets from Brazil, the EU, the US, or Japan, to emerging economies as agricultural development and biofuel development appear undissociably linked.

Bioenergy Resources

Bioenergy Resources
Author: Pradeep Chaturvedi
Publsiher: Concept Publishing Company
Total Pages: 158
Release: 1995
ISBN 10: 9788170225492
ISBN 13: 8170225493
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Bioenergy Resources Book Review:

Sustainable Bioenergy Production An Integrated Approach

Sustainable Bioenergy Production   An Integrated Approach
Author: Hans Ruppert,Martin Kappas,Jens Ibendorf
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 451
Release: 2013-06-19
ISBN 10: 9400766424
ISBN 13: 9789400766426
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Sustainable Bioenergy Production An Integrated Approach Book Review:

This book focuses primarily on the advantages and implications of sustainable bioenergy production in terms of ensuring a more sustainable world despite its growing energy demands. It addresses a new concept that focuses on the interactions between different uses of agricultural land (for example, agriculture for food, forage or energy and nature conservation) and their ecological, economic and societal impacts. This research concept provides new insights into the competition for resources and the synergies between different land uses. This book seeks to improve people’s understanding of bioenergy’s potentials for the future. It will be of interest not only to those involved in sustainable energy, but also to environmental planners, agriculture and soil specialists, and environmental policy-makers.

International Bioenergy Trade

International Bioenergy Trade
Author: Martin Junginger,Chun Sheng Goh,André Faaij
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 233
Release: 2013-10-16
ISBN 10: 9400769822
ISBN 13: 9789400769823
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

International Bioenergy Trade Book Review:

The trade of global bioenergy commodities, such as ethanol, biodiesel and wood pellets has been growing exponentially in the past decade, and have by 2013 reached true “commodity” volumes, i.e. tens of millions of tonnes traded each year, and billions (both in US$/€) of annual turnover. IEA Bioenergy Task 40 was founded in 2004 and is now in its 4th triennium. For the past 9 years, task 40 has monitored the developments in international bioenergy trade, including the organization of about 20 workshops on trade-related topics, and the publication of over 100 studies, country reports, newsletters, etc. The amount of material produced over the years and insights gained in how biomass markets and international trade of biomass and biofuels has developed is impressive. Besides that the group has produced overviews and insights, also a large amount of practical experience has been brought together in what works and what doesn’t. Last but not least, based on all this, there are clear(er) views on how to proceed to build working sustainable international biomass markets in the future. This book compiles those lessons and insights into an easily accessible book publication.

Global Energy Perspectives

Global Energy Perspectives
Author: Nebojsa Nakicenovic,Arnulf Grübler,Alan McDonald
Publsiher: Cambridge University Press
Total Pages: 250
Release: 1998-10-15
ISBN 10: 9780521642002
ISBN 13: 0521642000
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Global Energy Perspectives Book Review:

Global energy needs are expanding substantially as populations grow and economies develop around the world. There is clear evidence that continued use of fossil fuels as the world's dominant energy supply is damaging the environment and causing changes in global climate patterns. People want higher levels of more efficient, cleaner, and less obtrusive energy services. Global Energy Perspectives presents six long-term energy futures that lay out the alternatives among future fuels, technologies, efficiency gains, conservation patterns, and pollution levels, and pinpoints the key choices that are most likely to characterize the twenty-first century. The primary audience will include researchers, educators, policy makers in private and public sectors and other workers in the energy, technology, economics and environmental areas.

Biofuels and Bioenergy

Biofuels and Bioenergy
Author: Baskar Gurunathan,Renganathan Sahadevan
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 838
Release: 2022-06-23
ISBN 10: 032388556X
ISBN 13: 9780323885560
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biofuels and Bioenergy Book Review:

Biofuels and Bioenergy: A Techno-Economic Approach provides an in-depth analysis of the economic aspects of biofuels production from renewable feedstock. Taking a biorefinery approach, the book analyzes a wide range of feedstocks, processes and products, including common biofuels such as bioethanol, biobutanol, biooil and biodiesel, feedstocks such as lignocellulosic biomass, non-edible feedstocks like vegetable oils, algae and microbial lipids, and solid and liquid wastes, performance assessments of biodiesel in diesel engine, and the latest developments in catalytic conversion and microbial electrosynthesis technologies. This book offers valuable insights into the commercial feasibility of biofuels products for researchers and students working in the area of bioenergy and renewable energy, but it is also ideal for practicing engineers in the biorefinery and biofuel industry who are looking to develop commercial products. Focuses on an in-depth, techno-economic analysis of biofuel and bioenergy products, including all important feedstocks, processes and products, all of which are supported by industry case studies Includes environmental impacts and lifecycle assessments of biofuels production alongside techno-economic analyses Provides a critical guide to assessing the commercial viability and feasibility of bioenergy production from renewable sources

Future Bioenergy and Sustainable Land Use

Future Bioenergy and Sustainable Land Use
Author: German Advisory Council on Global Change,Renate Schubert
Publsiher: Earthscan
Total Pages: 393
Release: 2010
ISBN 10: 1849774501
ISBN 13: 9781849774505
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Future Bioenergy and Sustainable Land Use Book Review:

Because of the major opportunities and risks associated with it, and the complexity of the subject, bioenergy policy has in a short time become a challenging political task for regulators and planners - a task that can only be accomplished through worldwide cooperation and the creation of an international framework. This book's central message is that the sustainable potential of bioenergy, which can be tapped all over the world, should be utilized - provided that threats to sustainability are avoided. In particular, the use of bioenergy must not endanger food security or the goals of nature conservation and climate change mitigation.

Proceedings of 5th World Bioenergy Congress and Expo 2017

Proceedings of 5th World Bioenergy Congress and Expo 2017
Author: ConferenceSeries
Publsiher: ConferenceSeries
Total Pages: 112
Release: 2022
ISBN 10: 1928374650XXX
ISBN 13: 9182736450XXX
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Proceedings of 5th World Bioenergy Congress and Expo 2017 Book Review:

June 29-30, 2017 Madrid, Spain Key Topics : Biomass feed stocks for renewable energy generation, Bioenergy Conversion, Bioenergy Transition, Processes for Bioenergy, Bioenergy Applications, Biogas, Biodiesel, Renewable Energy, Biomass, Biofuels, Bioethanol, Biomass Technology, Bioenergy Companies and Market,

Biofuels

Biofuels
Author: Dwight Tomes,Prakash Lakshmanan,David Songstad
Publsiher: Springer Science & Business Media
Total Pages: 361
Release: 2010-11-16
ISBN 10: 1441971459
ISBN 13: 9781441971456
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Biofuels Book Review:

This comprehensive volume developed under the guidance of guest editors Prakash Lakshmanan and David Songstad features broad coverage of the topic of biofuels and its significance to the economy and to agriculture. These chapters were first published by In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology In Vitro Plant in 2009 and consists of 15 chapters from experts who are recognized both for their scientific accomplishments and global perspective in their assigned topics.