# Backstepping Control Of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems

Download and Read online **Backstepping Control Of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems** ebooks in PDF, epub, Tuebl Mobi, Kindle Book. Get Free **Backstepping Control Of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems** Textbook and unlimited access to our library by created an account. Fast Download speed and ads Free!

## Backstepping Control of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems

Author | : Sundarapandian Vaidyanathan,Ahmad Taher Azar |

Publsiher | : Academic Press |

Total Pages | : 532 |

Release | : 2020-08-15 |

ISBN 10 | : 0128175834 |

ISBN 13 | : 9780128175835 |

Language | : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL |

**Backstepping Control of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems Book Review:**

Backstepping Control of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems addresses both the fundamentals of backstepping control and advances in the field. The latest techniques explored include ‘active backstepping control’, ‘adaptive backstepping control’, ‘fuzzy backstepping control’ and ‘adaptive fuzzy backstepping control’. The reference book provides numerous simulations using MATLAB and circuit design. These illustrate the main results of theory and applications of backstepping control of nonlinear control systems. Backstepping control encompasses varied aspects of mechanical engineering and has many different applications within the field. For example, the book covers aspects related to robot manipulators, aircraft flight control systems, power systems, mechanical systems, biological systems and chaotic systems. This multifaceted view of subject areas means that this useful reference resource will be ideal for a large cross section of the mechanical engineering community. Details the real-world applications of backstepping control Gives an up-to-date insight into the theory, uses and application of backstepping control Bridges the gaps for different fields of engineering, including mechanical engineering, aeronautical engineering, electrical engineering, communications engineering, robotics and biomedical instrumentation

## Adaptive Backstepping Control of Uncertain Systems

Author | : Jing Zhou,Changyun Wen |

Publsiher | : Springer Science & Business Media |

Total Pages | : 242 |

Release | : 2008-02-07 |

ISBN 10 | : 3540778063 |

ISBN 13 | : 9783540778066 |

Language | : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL |

**Adaptive Backstepping Control of Uncertain Systems Book Review:**

This book employs the powerful and popular adaptive backstepping control technology to design controllers for dynamic uncertain systems with non-smooth nonlinearities. Various cases including systems with time-varying parameters, multi-inputs and multi-outputs, backlash, dead-zone, hysteresis and saturation are considered in design and analysis. For multi-inputs and multi-outputs systems, both centralized and decentralized controls are addressed. This book not only presents recent research results including theoretical success and practical development such as the proof of system stability and the improvement of system tracking and transient performance, but also gives self-contained coverage of fundamentals on the backstepping approach illustrated with simple examples. Detail description of methodologies for the construction of adaptive laws, feedback control laws and associated Lyapunov functions is systematically provided in each case. Approaches used for the analysis of system stability and tracking and transient performances are elaborated. Two case studies are presented to show how the presented theories are applied.

## Renewable Energy Systems

Author | : Ahmad Taher Azar,Nashwa Ahmad Kamal |

Publsiher | : Academic Press |

Total Pages | : 732 |

Release | : 2021-09-09 |

ISBN 10 | : 0128203986 |

ISBN 13 | : 9780128203989 |

Language | : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL |

**Renewable Energy Systems Book Review:**

Renewable Energy Systems: Modelling, Optimization and Control aims to cross-pollinate recent advances in the study of renewable energy control systems by bringing together diverse scientific breakthroughs on the modeling, control and optimization of renewable energy systems by leading researchers. The book brings together the most comprehensive collection of modeling, control theorems and optimization techniques to help solve many scientific issues for researchers in renewable energy and control engineering. Many multidisciplinary applications are discussed, including new fundamentals, modeling, analysis, design, realization and experimental results. The book also covers new circuits and systems to help researchers solve many nonlinear problems. This book fills the gaps between different interdisciplinary applications, ranging from mathematical concepts, modeling, and analysis, up to the realization and experimental work. Covers modeling, control theorems and optimization techniques which will solve many scientific issues for researchers in renewable energy Discusses many multidisciplinary applications with new fundamentals, modeling, analysis, design, realization and experimental results Includes new circuits and systems, helping researchers solve many nonlinear problems

## Adaptive Backstepping Control of Uncertain Systems

Author | : Jing Zhou,Changyun Wen |

Publsiher | : Springer |

Total Pages | : 242 |

Release | : 2008-01-08 |

ISBN 10 | : 3540778071 |

ISBN 13 | : 9783540778073 |

Language | : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL |

**Adaptive Backstepping Control of Uncertain Systems Book Review:**

This book employs the powerful and popular adaptive backstepping control technology to design controllers for dynamic uncertain systems with non-smooth nonlinearities. Various cases including systems with time-varying parameters, multi-inputs and multi-outputs, backlash, dead-zone, hysteresis and saturation are considered in design and analysis. For multi-inputs and multi-outputs systems, both centralized and decentralized controls are addressed. This book not only presents recent research results including theoretical success and practical development such as the proof of system stability and the improvement of system tracking and transient performance, but also gives self-contained coverage of fundamentals on the backstepping approach illustrated with simple examples. Detail description of methodologies for the construction of adaptive laws, feedback control laws and associated Lyapunov functions is systematically provided in each case. Approaches used for the analysis of system stability and tracking and transient performances are elaborated. Two case studies are presented to show how the presented theories are applied.

## Adaptive Control of Dynamic Systems with Uncertainty and Quantization

Author | : Jing Zhou,Lantao Xing,Changyun Wen |

Publsiher | : CRC Press |

Total Pages | : 256 |

Release | : 2021-12-15 |

ISBN 10 | : 1000487768 |

ISBN 13 | : 9781000487763 |

Language | : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL |

**Adaptive Control of Dynamic Systems with Uncertainty and Quantization Book Review:**

This book presents a series of innovative technologies and research results on adaptive control of dynamic systems with quantization, uncertainty, and nonlinearity, including the theoretical success and practical development such as the approaches for stability analysis, the compensation of quantization, the treatment of subsystem interactions, and the improvement of system tracking and transient performance. Novel solutions by adopting backstepping design tools to a number of hotspots and challenging problems in the area of adaptive control are provided. In the first three chapters, the general design procedures and stability analysis of backstepping controllers and the basic descriptions and properties of quantizers are introduced as preliminary knowledge for this book. In the remainder of this book, adaptive control schemes are introduced to compensate for the effects of input quantization, state quantization, both input and state/output quantization for uncertain nonlinear systems and are applied to helicopter systems and DC Microgrid. Discussion remarks are provided in each chapter highlighting new approaches and contributions to emphasize the novelty of the presented design and analysis methods. Simulation results are also given in each chapter to show the effectiveness of these methods. This book is helpful to learn and understand the fundamental backstepping schemes for state feedback control and output feedback control. It can be used as a reference book or a textbook on adaptive quantized control for students with some background in feedback control systems. Researchers, graduate students, and engineers in the fields of control, information, and communication, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, computer science, and others will benefit from this book.

## Mathematical Treatment of Nanomaterials and Neural Networks

Author | : Jia-Bao Liu,Muhammad Javaid,Shaohui Wang,Jinde Cao |

Publsiher | : Frontiers Media SA |

Total Pages | : 135 |

Release | : 2021-12-03 |

ISBN 10 | : 2889717976 |

ISBN 13 | : 9782889717972 |

Language | : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL |

**Mathematical Treatment of Nanomaterials and Neural Networks Book Review:**

## Intelligent Backstepping Control for the Alternating Current Drive Systems

Author | : Jinpeng Yu,Peng Shi,Jiapeng Liu |

Publsiher | : Springer Nature |

Total Pages | : 221 |

Release | : 2021-02-13 |

ISBN 10 | : 3030677230 |

ISBN 13 | : 9783030677237 |

Language | : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL |

**Intelligent Backstepping Control for the Alternating Current Drive Systems Book Review:**

This book focuses on the intelligent control design for both the induction motor (IM) and the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). Compared with traditional control schemes, such as the field-oriented control (FOC) and the direct torque control (DTC), the intelligent controllers designed in this book could overcome the influence of parameter uncertainty and load torque disturbance. This book is a research monograph, which provides valuable reference material for researchers who wish to explore the area of AC motor. In addition, the main contents of the book are also suitable for a one-semester graduate course.

## Advances in Neural Networks ISNN 2013

Author | : Chengan Guo,Zeng-Guang Hou,Zhigang Zeng |

Publsiher | : Springer |

Total Pages | : 653 |

Release | : 2013-07-04 |

ISBN 10 | : 3642390684 |

ISBN 13 | : 9783642390685 |

Language | : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL |

**Advances in Neural Networks ISNN 2013 Book Review:**

The two-volume set LNCS 7951 and 7952 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Neural Networks, ISNN 2013, held in Dalian, China, in July 2013. The 157 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers are organized in following topics: computational neuroscience, cognitive science, neural network models, learning algorithms, stability and convergence analysis, kernel methods, large margin methods and SVM, optimization algorithms, varational methods, control, robotics, bioinformatics and biomedical engineering, brain-like systems and brain-computer interfaces, data mining and knowledge discovery and other applications of neural networks.

## Nonlinear Dynamical Systems and Control

Author | : Wassim M. Haddad,VijaySekhar Chellaboina |

Publsiher | : Princeton University Press |

Total Pages | : 944 |

Release | : 2011-09-19 |

ISBN 10 | : 1400841046 |

ISBN 13 | : 9781400841042 |

Language | : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL |

**Nonlinear Dynamical Systems and Control Book Review:**

Nonlinear Dynamical Systems and Control presents and develops an extensive treatment of stability analysis and control design of nonlinear dynamical systems, with an emphasis on Lyapunov-based methods. Dynamical system theory lies at the heart of mathematical sciences and engineering. The application of dynamical systems has crossed interdisciplinary boundaries from chemistry to biochemistry to chemical kinetics, from medicine to biology to population genetics, from economics to sociology to psychology, and from physics to mechanics to engineering. The increasingly complex nature of engineering systems requiring feedback control to obtain a desired system behavior also gives rise to dynamical systems. Wassim Haddad and VijaySekhar Chellaboina provide an exhaustive treatment of nonlinear systems theory and control using the highest standards of exposition and rigor. This graduate-level textbook goes well beyond standard treatments by developing Lyapunov stability theory, partial stability, boundedness, input-to-state stability, input-output stability, finite-time stability, semistability, stability of sets and periodic orbits, and stability theorems via vector Lyapunov functions. A complete and thorough treatment of dissipativity theory, absolute stability theory, stability of feedback systems, optimal control, disturbance rejection control, and robust control for nonlinear dynamical systems is also given. This book is an indispensable resource for applied mathematicians, dynamical systems theorists, control theorists, and engineers.

## Nonlinear and Adaptive Control Design

Author | : Miroslav Krstic,Ιωάννης Κανελλακόπουλος,Petar V. Kokotovic,Petar V. Kokotović |

Publsiher | : Wiley-Interscience |

Total Pages | : 563 |

Release | : 1995-06-14 |

ISBN 10 | : 1928374650XXX |

ISBN 13 | : UOM:39076001784714 |

Language | : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL |

**Nonlinear and Adaptive Control Design Book Review:**

An introduction to a new design for nonlinear control systems--backstepping--written by its own architects. This innovative book breaks new ground in nonlinear and adaptive control design for systems with uncertainties. Introducing the recursive backstepping methodology, it shows--for the first time--how uncertain systems with severe nonlinearities can be successfully controlled with this new powerful design tool. Communicative and accessible at a level not usually present in research texts, Nonlinear and Adaptive Control Design can be used as either a stand-alone or a supplemental text in courses on nonlinear or adaptive control, as well as in control research and applications. It eases the reader into the subject matter, assuming only standard undergraduate knowledge of control theory, and provides a pedagogical presentation of the material, most of which is completely new and not available in other textbooks. Written by the creators of backstepping, the book: * Introduces the basic design tools and demonstrates their effectiveness through worked examples * Provides detailed proofs and application examples (active suspension, jet engine, induction motor, and many others) * Develops adaptive backstepping, tuning functions, and modular designs with full state feedback * Generalizes the methodology to nonlinear systems with output feedback * Describes the advantages of the new adaptive nonlinear techniques over traditional methods * Offers a systematic methodology for performance improvement * Provides new designs for linear systems which can be used independently from therest of the book * Is self-contained with an extensive summary of stability and passivity prerequisites * Includes sixty illustrations and tables with design algorithms Nonlinear and Adaptive Control Design is an absolute must for researchers and graduate students with an interest in nonlinear systems, adaptive control, stability and differential equations and for anyone who would like to find out about the new and exciting advances in these areas.

## Modeling and Control of Static Converters for Hybrid Storage Systems

Author | : Fekik, Arezki,Benamrouche, Nacereddine |

Publsiher | : IGI Global |

Total Pages | : 355 |

Release | : 2021-09-17 |

ISBN 10 | : 1799874494 |

ISBN 13 | : 9781799874492 |

Language | : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL |

**Modeling and Control of Static Converters for Hybrid Storage Systems Book Review:**

The energy transition initiated in recent years has enabled the growing integration of renewable production into the energy mix. Microgrids make it possible to maximize the efficiency of energy transmission from source to consumer by bringing the latter together geographically and by reducing losses linked to transport. However, the lack of inertia and the micro-grid support system makes it weak, and energy storage is necessary to ensure its proper functioning. Current storage technologies do not make it possible to provide both a large capacity of energy and power at the same time. Hybrid storage is a solution that combines the advantages of several technologies and reduces their disadvantages. Modeling and Control of Static Converters for Hybrid Storage Systems covers the modeling, control theorems, and optimization techniques that solve many scientific problems for researchers in the field of power converter control for renewable energy hybrid storage and places particular emphasis on the modeling and control of static converters for hybrid storage systems. Covering topics ranging from energy storage to power generation, this book is ideal for automation engineers, electrical engineers, mechanical engineers, professionals, scientists, academicians, master's and doctoral students, and researchers in the disciplines of electrical and mechanical engineering.

## Proceedings of 2019 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference

Author | : Yingmin Jia,Junping Du,Weicun Zhang |

Publsiher | : Springer Nature |

Total Pages | : 771 |

Release | : 2019-09-07 |

ISBN 10 | : 9813296828 |

ISBN 13 | : 9789813296824 |

Language | : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL |

**Proceedings of 2019 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference Book Review:**

This book showcases new theoretical findings and techniques in the field of intelligent systems and control. It presents in-depth studies on a number of major topics, including: Multi-Agent Systems, Complex Networks, Intelligent Robots, Complex System Theory and Swarm Behavior, Event-Triggered Control and Data-Driven Control, Robust and Adaptive Control, Big Data and Brain Science, Process Control, Intelligent Sensor and Detection Technology, Deep learning and Learning Control, Guidance, Navigation and Control of Aerial Vehicles, and so on. Given its scope, the book will benefit all researchers, engineers, and graduate students who want to learn about cutting-edge advances in intelligent systems, intelligent control, and artificial intelligence.

## Nonlinear Control Under Nonconstant Delays

Author | : Nikolaos Bekiaris-Liberis,Miroslav Krstic |

Publsiher | : SIAM |

Total Pages | : 302 |

Release | : 2013-09-25 |

ISBN 10 | : 1611973171 |

ISBN 13 | : 9781611973174 |

Language | : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL |

**Nonlinear Control Under Nonconstant Delays Book Review:**

The authors have developed a methodology for control of nonlinear systems in the presence of long delays, with large and rapid variation in the actuation or sensing path, or in the presence of long delays affecting the internal state of a system. In addition to control synthesis, they introduce tools to quantify the performance and the robustness properties of the designs provided in the book. The book is based on the concept of predictor feedback and infinite-dimensional backstepping transformation for linear systems and the authors guide the reader from the basic ideas of the concept?with constant delays only on the input?all the way through to nonlinear systems with state-dependent delays on the input as well as on system states. Readers will find the book useful because the authors provide elegant and systematic treatments of long-standing problems in delay systems, such as systems with state-dependent delays that arise in many applications. In addition, the authors give all control designs by explicit formulae, making the book especially useful for engineers who have faced delay-related challenges and are concerned with actual implementations and they accompany all control designs with Lyapunov-based analysis for establishing stability and performance guarantees.

## Adaptive Sliding Mode Neural Network Control for Nonlinear Systems

Author | : Yang Li,Jianhua Zhang,Wu Qiong |

Publsiher | : Academic Press |

Total Pages | : 186 |

Release | : 2018-11-16 |

ISBN 10 | : 0128154322 |

ISBN 13 | : 9780128154328 |

Language | : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL |

**Adaptive Sliding Mode Neural Network Control for Nonlinear Systems Book Review:**

Adaptive Sliding Mode Neural Network Control for Nonlinear Systems introduces nonlinear systems basic knowledge, analysis and control methods, and applications in various fields. It offers instructive examples and simulations, along with the source codes, and provides the basic architecture of control science and engineering. Introduces nonlinear systems' basic knowledge, analysis and control methods, along with applications in various fields Offers instructive examples and simulations, including source codes Provides the basic architecture of control science and engineering

## Advances in Applied Nonlinear Dynamics Vibration and Control 2021

Author | : Xingjian Jing,Hu Ding,Jiqiang Wang |

Publsiher | : Springer Nature |

Total Pages | : 1198 |

Release | : 2021-09-23 |

ISBN 10 | : 9811659125 |

ISBN 13 | : 9789811659126 |

Language | : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL |

**Advances in Applied Nonlinear Dynamics Vibration and Control 2021 Book Review:**

This book is to provide readers with up-to-date advances in applied and interdisciplinary engineering science and technologies related to nonlinear dynamics, vibration, control, robotics, and their engineering applications, developed in the most recent years. All the contributed chapters come from active scholars in the area, which cover advanced theory & methods, innovative technologies, benchmark experimental validations and engineering practices. Readers would benefit from this state-of-the-art collection of applied nonlinear dynamics, in-depth vibration engineering theory, cutting-edge control methods and technologies, and definitely find stimulating ideas for their on-going R&D work. This book is intended for graduate students, research staff and scholars in academics, and also provides useful hand-up guidance for professional and engineers in practical engineering missions.

## Recent Advances in Intelligent Control Systems

Author | : Wen Yu |

Publsiher | : Springer Science & Business Media |

Total Pages | : 376 |

Release | : 2009-05-27 |

ISBN 10 | : 184882548X |

ISBN 13 | : 9781848825482 |

Language | : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL |

**Recent Advances in Intelligent Control Systems Book Review:**

"Recent Advances in Intelligent Control Systems" gathers contributions from workers around the world and presents them in four categories according to the style of control employed: fuzzy control; neural control; fuzzy neural control; and intelligent control. The contributions illustrate the interdisciplinary antecedents of intelligent control and contrast its results with those of more traditional control methods. A variety of design examples, drawn primarily from robotics and mechatronics but also representing process and production engineering, large civil structures, network flows, and others, provide instances of the application of computational intelligence for control. Presenting state-of-the-art research, this collection will be of benefit to researchers in automatic control, automation, computer science (especially artificial intelligence) and mechatronics while graduate students and practicing control engineers working with intelligent systems will find it a good source of study material.

## Adaptive Backstepping Control of Uncertain Systems with Actuator Failures Subsystem Interactions and Nonsmooth Nonlinearities

Author | : Wei Wang,Changyun Wen,Jing Zhou |

Publsiher | : CRC Press |

Total Pages | : 274 |

Release | : 2017-09-18 |

ISBN 10 | : 1351650890 |

ISBN 13 | : 9781351650892 |

Language | : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL |

**Adaptive Backstepping Control of Uncertain Systems with Actuator Failures Subsystem Interactions and Nonsmooth Nonlinearities Book Review:**

In practice, actuators often undergo failures and various factors influence its effectiveness. Also due to the increasing complexity of large-scale systems, subsystems are often interconnected, whereas the interactions between any two subsystems are difficult to deal with. This book details a series of new methodologies of designing and analyzing adaptive backstepping control systems involving treatment on actuator failures, subsystem interactions and nonsmooth nonlinearities. Moreover, it discusses some interesting open issues in adaptive failure accommodation, decentralized adaptive control and distributed adaptive coordinated control.

## Design Analysis and Applications of Renewable Energy Systems

Author | : Ahmad Taher Azar,Nashwa Ahmad Kamal |

Publsiher | : Academic Press |

Total Pages | : 760 |

Release | : 2021-09-09 |

ISBN 10 | : 0323859917 |

ISBN 13 | : 9780323859912 |

Language | : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL |

**Design Analysis and Applications of Renewable Energy Systems Book Review:**

Design, Analysis and Applications of Renewable Energy Systems covers recent advancements in the study of renewable energy control systems by bringing together diverse scientific breakthroughs on the modeling, control and optimization of renewable energy systems as conveyed by leading energy systems engineering researchers. The book focuses on present novel solutions for many problems in the field, covering modeling, control theorems and the optimization techniques that will help solve many scientific issues for researchers. Multidisciplinary applications are also discussed, along with their fundamentals, modeling, analysis, design, realization and experimental results. This book fills the gaps between different interdisciplinary applications, ranging from mathematical concepts, modeling, and analysis, up to the realization and experimental work. Presents some of the latest innovative approaches to renewable energy systems from the point-of-view of dynamic modeling, system analysis, optimization, control and circuit design Focuses on advances related to optimization techniques for renewable energy and forecasting using machine learning methods Includes new circuits and systems, helping researchers solve many nonlinear problems

## Nonlinear Control and Filtering Using Differential Flatness Approaches

Author | : Gerasimos G. Rigatos |

Publsiher | : Springer |

Total Pages | : 736 |

Release | : 2015-06-05 |

ISBN 10 | : 3319164201 |

ISBN 13 | : 9783319164205 |

Language | : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL |

**Nonlinear Control and Filtering Using Differential Flatness Approaches Book Review:**

This monograph presents recent advances in differential flatness theory and analyzes its use for nonlinear control and estimation. It shows how differential flatness theory can provide solutions to complicated control problems, such as those appearing in highly nonlinear multivariable systems and distributed-parameter systems. Furthermore, it shows that differential flatness theory makes it possible to perform filtering and state estimation for a wide class of nonlinear dynamical systems and provides several descriptive test cases. The book focuses on the design of nonlinear adaptive controllers and nonlinear filters, using exact linearization based on differential flatness theory. The adaptive controllers obtained can be applied to a wide class of nonlinear systems with unknown dynamics, and assure reliable functioning of the control loop under uncertainty and varying operating conditions. The filters obtained outperform other nonlinear filters in terms of accuracy of estimation and computation speed. The book presents a series of application examples to confirm the efficiency of the proposed nonlinear filtering and adaptive control schemes for various electromechanical systems. These include: · industrial robots; · mobile robots and autonomous vehicles; · electric power generation; · electric motors and actuators; · power electronics; · internal combustion engines; · distributed-parameter systems; and · communication systems. Differential Flatness Approaches to Nonlinear Control and Filtering will be a useful reference for academic researchers studying advanced problems in nonlinear control and nonlinear dynamics, and for engineers working on control applications in electromechanical systems.

## Advanced Synchronization Control and Bifurcation of Chaotic Fractional Order Systems

Author | : Boulkroune, Abdesselem,Ladaci, Samir |

Publsiher | : IGI Global |

Total Pages | : 539 |

Release | : 2018-05-11 |

ISBN 10 | : 152255419X |

ISBN 13 | : 9781522554196 |

Language | : EN, FR, DE, ES & NL |

**Advanced Synchronization Control and Bifurcation of Chaotic Fractional Order Systems Book Review:**

In the recent years, fractional-order systems have been studied by many researchers in the engineering field. It was found that many systems can be described more accurately by fractional differential equations than by integer-order models. Advanced Synchronization Control and Bifurcation of Chaotic Fractional-Order Systems is a scholarly publication that explores new developments related to novel chaotic fractional-order systems, control schemes, and their applications. Featuring coverage on a wide range of topics including chaos synchronization, nonlinear control, and cryptography, this publication is geared toward engineers, IT professionals, researchers, and upper-level graduate students seeking current research on chaotic fractional-order systems and their applications in engineering and computer science.