Omega 3 Delivery Systems

Omega 3 Delivery Systems
Author: Pedro J. Garcia Moreno,Charlotte Jacobsen,Ann-Dorit Moltke Sørensen,Senbetul Yesiltas
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 256
Release: 2021-06-15
ISBN 10: 9780128213919
ISBN 13: 0128213914
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Omega 3 Delivery Systems Book Review:

Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) present numerous health benefits. Nevertheless, the consumption of natural products rich in omega-3 PUFA (e.g. fish, krill, and algae) is not enough to reach the daily-recommended values. Therefore, food industry is highly interested in producing omega-3 fortified foods. Omega-3 Delivery Systems gives the reader an insight on the most recent updates for developing, characterizing and stabilizing both traditional and novel omega-3 delivery systems, as well as their final incorporation into food matrices and physicochemical changes during digestion. The book brings chapters on novel omega-3 delivery systems (e.g. high-fat emulsions, Pickering emulsions, electrosprayed capsules, solid lipid nanoparticles), the application of advances techniques to evaluate physical and oxidative stabilities (e.g. SAXS, SANS, ESR, super-resolution fluorescence microscopy), and new developments of food enrichment and physicochemical changes during digestion. The book provides a unique multidisciplinary and multisectoral (having authors from industry and academy) approach. Brings a holistic approach of omega-3 delivery systems, bringing scientific understanding on production, physical characterization and oxidative stability Covers key aspects to develop, characterize and use omega-3 delivery systems for food enrichment, considering physicochemical changes occurring during digestion Serves as an interface between lipid oxidation and colloids chemistry, encapsulation techniques, soft matter physics, food development and nutrients bioavailability

Food Enrichment with Omega 3 Fatty Acids

Food Enrichment with Omega 3 Fatty Acids
Author: Charlotte Jacobsen,Nina Skall Nielsen,Anna Frisenfeldt Horn,Ann-Dorit Moltke Sørensen
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 464
Release: 2013-07-31
ISBN 10: 0857098861
ISBN 13: 9780857098863
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Food Enrichment with Omega 3 Fatty Acids Book Review:

Omega-3 fatty acids provide many health benefits, from reducing cardiovascular disease to improving mental health, and consumer interest in foods enriched with omega-3 fatty acids is increasing. Formulating a product enriched with these fatty acids that is stable and has an acceptable flavour is challenging. Food enrichment with omega-3 fatty acids provides an overview of key topics in this area. Part one, an introductory section, reviews sources of omega-3 fatty acids and their health benefits. Chapters in part two explore the stabilisation of both fish oil itself and foods enriched with omega-3 fatty acids. Part three focuses on the fortification of different types of foods and beverages with omega-3 fatty acids, including meat products, by the modification of animal diets and other methods, infant formula and baked goods. Finally, part four highlights new directions in the field and discusses algal oil as a source of omega-3 fatty acids and labelling and claims in foods containing omega-3 fatty acids. Food enrichment with omega-3 fatty acids is a standard reference for professionals in the functional foods industry involved with research, development and quality assessment and for researchers in academia interested in food lipids, oxidation and functional foods. Provides a comprehensive overview of formulating a product enriched with omega-3 fatty acids that is stable, provides many health benefits and has an acceptable flavour Reviews sources of omega-3 fatty acids and their health benefits and explores the stabilisation of fish oil and foods enriched with omega-3 fatty acids Focuses on the fortification of different types of foods and beverages with omega-3 fatty acids and highlights new directions in the field

Encapsulation Technologies and Delivery Systems for Food Ingredients and Nutraceuticals

Encapsulation Technologies and Delivery Systems for Food Ingredients and Nutraceuticals
Author: Nissim Garti,D. Julian McClements
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 640
Release: 2012-10-19
ISBN 10: 0857095900
ISBN 13: 9780857095909
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Encapsulation Technologies and Delivery Systems for Food Ingredients and Nutraceuticals Book Review:

Improved technologies for the encapsulation, protection, release and enhanced bioavailability of food ingredients and nutraceutical components are vital to the development of future foods. Encapsulation technologies and delivery systems for food ingredients and nutraceuticals provides a comprehensive guide to current and emerging techniques. Part one provides an overview of key requirements for food ingredient and nutraceutical delivery systems, discussing challenges in system development and analysis of interaction with the human gastrointestinal tract. Processing technologies for encapsulation and delivery systems are the focus of part two. Spray drying, cooling and chilling are reviewed alongside coextrusion, fluid bed microencapsulation, microencapsulation methods based on biopolymer phase separation, and gelation phenomena in aqueous media. Part three goes on to investigate physicochemical approaches to the production of encapsulation and delivery systems, including the use of micelles and microemulsions, polymeric amphiphiles, liposomes, colloidal emulsions, organogels and hydrogels. Finally, part four reviews characterization and applications of delivery systems, providing industry perspectives on flavour, fish oil, iron micronutrient and probiotic delivery systems. With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Encapsulation technologies and delivery systems for food ingredients and nutraceuticals is an authoritative guide for both industry and academic researchers interested in encapsulation and controlled release systems. Provides a comprehensive guide to current and emerging techniques in encapsulation technologies and delivery systems Chapters in part one provide an overview of key requirements for food ingredient and nutraceutical delivery systems, while part two discusses processing technologies for encapsulation and delivery systems Later sections investigate physicochemical approaches to the production of encapsulation and delivery systems and review characterization and applications of delivery systems

Long chain Omega 3 Specialty Oils

Long chain Omega 3 Specialty Oils
Author: Harald Breivik
Publsiher: Woodhead Pub Limited
Total Pages: 314
Release: 2007
ISBN 10: 9780955251214
ISBN 13: 0955251214
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Long chain Omega 3 Specialty Oils Book Review:

Unlike the many other books on omega-3 fatty acids, Long-Chain Omega-3 Specialty Oils is not concerned with nutrition but instead is aimed primarily at those people working to develop, manufacture and market long-chain omega-3 oils and the food, drink and pharmaceutical products containing them. It concentrates on the long-chain acids (C20 chain length and above), rather than alpha-linolenic acid. Although often thought of as 'fish oils', these omega-3 oils are also available from microbial fermentation and from other marine organisms such as krill. Furthermore, there is increasing interest in the development of higher plants with the ability to synthesise long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, with the ultimate objective of creating crop plants yielding oils containing EPA and DHA. Long-Chain Omega-3 Specialty Oils starts with an overview of omega-3 fatty acids, including a discussion of how they are formed in plants and animals, the physiological and medical effects of omega-3 acids, and the importance of chain length. This is followed by chapters discussing the wide variety of fish oil sources, as well as oils from fermentation of single-cell organisms. Separate chapters give information on state-of-the-art processing of fish oils, methods for making concentrates of omega-3 acids, and enzymatic processing and concentration strategies. The next two chapters cover the stabilization and utilization of omega-3 oils for various applications, followed by a chapter dealing with the challenging aspects of analysis of omega-3 acids and their decomposition products. The next chapter is dedicated to regulatory issues, and the final chapter gives an up-to-date survey of the various markets for long-chain omega-3 acids.

Nanoparticle and Microparticle based Delivery Systems

Nanoparticle  and Microparticle based Delivery Systems
Author: David Julian McClements
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 572
Release: 2014-08-12
ISBN 10: 1482233169
ISBN 13: 9781482233162
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nanoparticle and Microparticle based Delivery Systems Book Review:

Recent developments in nanoparticle and microparticle delivery systems are revolutionizing delivery systems in the food industry. These developments have the potential to solve many of the technical challenges involved in creating encapsulation, protection, and delivery of active ingredients, such as colors, flavors, preservatives, vitamins, minera

Food Hydrocolloids as Encapsulating Agents in Delivery Systems

Food Hydrocolloids as Encapsulating Agents in Delivery Systems
Author: Adil Gani,F.A. Masoodi,Umar Shah,Shah Asima
Publsiher: CRC Press
Total Pages: 220
Release: 2019-06-07
ISBN 10: 0429894171
ISBN 13: 9780429894176
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Food Hydrocolloids as Encapsulating Agents in Delivery Systems Book Review:

This book addresses the use of food hydrocolloids as agents for encapsulating biological active ingredients. It details the challenges of poorly-controlled rate of hydration, thickness, decrease in viscosity upon storage, and susceptibility to microbial contamination. Food Hydrocolloids as Encapsulating Agents in Delivery Systems briefly describes various emerging biomaterials including food gums, starches, beta glucans, and proteins for their potential role as wall material in the development of nutraceutical delivery systems. Further, it describes different techniques of fabrication of nanodelivery systems. Features: Provides an introduction to food hydrocolloids as encapsulating agents Covers starches and their derivatives as delivery systems Includes gum-based delivery systems Discusses the classification, isolation, and purification of protein delivery systems This book would be helpful to food scientists and pharmaceutical scientists working in areas including nanotechnology, polymer chemistry, and nutraceutical delivery, as well as regulators and government researchers in US FDA, USDA, and UK FSA regulatory agencies.

Processing and Nutrition of Fats and Oils

Processing and Nutrition of Fats and Oils
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 276
Release: 2013-07-25
ISBN 10: 1118528786
ISBN 13: 9781118528785
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Processing and Nutrition of Fats and Oils Book Review:

Processing and Nutrition of Fats and Oils reviews current and new practices of fats and oils production. The book examines the different aspects of fats and oils processing, how the nutritional properties are affected, and how fats interact with other components and nutrients in food products. Coverage includes current trends in the consumption of edible fats and oils; properties of fats, oils and bioactive lipids; techniques to process and modify edible oils; nutritional aspects of lipids; and regulatory aspects, labeling and certifications of fats and oils in foods.

Omega 3 Oils

Omega 3 Oils
Author: Ernesto Hernandez,Masashi Hosokawa
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 312
Release: 2015-08-19
ISBN 10: 0128043474
ISBN 13: 9780128043479
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Omega 3 Oils Book Review:

This book addresses new applications of omega-3 fatty acids from both plant and marine sources in food supplements and pharmaceuticals and covers three basic areas: structure and function, production and processing, and health effects. The authors review the latest clinical evidence on the impact of consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on prevalent human diseases such as inflammation-related illnesses in general and cardiovascular illnesses in particular. They also examine technologies to purify marine oils and protect them against oxidation as well as novel techniques for their incorporation into foods. Covers the role omega-3 plays in general health and disease and includes several reviews on the latest clinical evidence Explains different methods to deliver omega-3 to the consumer, through various methods including food fortification, nutritional supplements, and more Considerations for the processing of omega-3 oils to minimize conditions that could destroy the nutrtional properties.

Omega 3 Fatty Acids in Brain and Neurological Health

Omega 3 Fatty Acids in Brain and Neurological Health
Author: Ronald Ross Watson,Fabien De Meester
Publsiher: Elsevier
Total Pages: 496
Release: 2014-06-25
ISBN 10: 0124105475
ISBN 13: 9780124105478
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Omega 3 Fatty Acids in Brain and Neurological Health Book Review:

Research has clearly established a link between omega-3 fatty acids and general health, particularly cardiovascular health. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Brain and Neurological Health is the first book to focus exclusively on the role of omega-3 fatty acids on general brain health. The articles in this collection illustrate omega-3 fatty acids' importance in longevity, cognitive impairment, and structure and function of the brain's neurons. Research has established links between omega-3 fatty acids and the developing brain, aging, dementia, Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. This book encompasses some of the most recent research, including the role of omega-3 fatty acid supplements on hippocampal neurogenesis, substantia nigra modulation, migraine headaches, the developing brain in animals, sleep, and neurodegenerative diseases. This collection helps to push research forward toward a complete understanding of omega-3 fatty acids' relationship to brain and neurological health. The first book-length collection of original research on the connection between omega-3 fatty acids and the brain Provides a comprehensive introduction to the state of research on omega-3 fatty acids and the brain and directions for future research A foundational collection for neuroscience, neurology, and nutrition research

Nutraceutical and Functional Food Processing Technology

Nutraceutical and Functional Food Processing Technology
Author: Joyce I. Boye
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 400
Release: 2014-12-03
ISBN 10: 1118504976
ISBN 13: 9781118504970
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nutraceutical and Functional Food Processing Technology Book Review:

For several years, the food industry has been interested inidentifying components in foods which have health benefits to beused in the development of functional food and nutraceuticalproducts. Examples of these ingredients include fibre,phytosterols, peptides, proteins, isoflavones, saponins, phyticacid, probiotics, prebiotics and functional enzymes. Although muchprogress has been made in the identification, extraction andcharacterisation of these ingredients, there remains a need forready and near-market platform technologies for processing theseingredients into marketable value-added functional food andnutraceutical products. This book looks at how these ingredientscan be effectively incorporated into food systems for market, andprovides practical guidelines on how challenges in specific foodsectors (such as health claims and marketing) can be addressedduring processing. Nutraceutical and Functional Food Processing Technologyis a comprehensive overview of current and emerging trends in theformulation and manufacture of nutraceutical and functional foodproducts. It highlights the distinctions between foods falling intothe nutraceutical and functional food categories. Topics includesustainable and environmentally–friendly approaches to theproduction of health foods, guidelines and regulations, and methodsfor assessing safety and quality of nutraceutical and functionalfood products. Specific applications of nutraceuticals in emulsionand salad dressing food products, beverages and soft drinks, bakedgoods, cereals and extruded products, fermented food products arecovered, as are novel food proteins and peptides, and methods forencapsulated nutraceutical ingredients and packaging. The impact ofprocessing on the bioactivity of nutraceutical ingredients,allergen management and the processing of allergen-free foods,health claims and nutraceutical food product commercialization arealso discussed. Nutraceutical and Functional Food Processing Technologyis a comprehensive source of practical approaches that can be usedto innovate in the nutraceutical and health food sectors. Fullyup-to-date and relevant across various food sectors, the book willbenefit both academia and industry personnel working in the healthfood and food processing sectors.

Fundamentals of Food Biotechnology

Fundamentals of Food Biotechnology
Author: Byong H. Lee
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 544
Release: 2014-12-01
ISBN 10: 1118384911
ISBN 13: 9781118384916
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fundamentals of Food Biotechnology Book Review:

Food biotechnology is the application of modern biotechnologicaltechniques to the manufacture and processing of food, for examplethrough fermentation of food (which is the oldest biotechnologicalprocess) and food additives, as well as plant and animal cellcultures. New developments in fermentation and enzyme technologicalprocesses, molecular thermodynamics, genetic engineering, proteinengineering, metabolic engineering, bioengineering, and processesinvolving monoclonal antibodies, nanobiotechnology and quorumsensing have introduced exciting new dimensions to foodbiotechnology, a burgeoning field that transcends many scientificdisciplines. Fundamentals of Food Biotechnology, 2nd edition is basedon the author’s 25 years of experience teaching on a foodbiotechnology course at McGill University in Canada. The book willappeal to professional food scientists as well as graduate andadvanced undergraduate students by addressing the latest excitingfood biotechnology research in areas such as genetically modifiedfoods (GMOs), bioenergy, bioplastics, functionalfoods/nutraceuticals, nanobiotechnology, quorum sensing andquenching. In addition, cloning techniques for bacterial and yeastenzymes are included in a “New Trends and Tools”section and selected references, questions and answers appear atthe end of each chapter. This new edition has been comprehensively rewritten andrestructured to reflect the new technologies, products and trendsthat have emerged since the original book. Many new aspectshighlight the short and longer term commercial potential of foodbiotechnology.

Conventional and Advanced Food Processing Technologies

Conventional and Advanced Food Processing Technologies
Author: Suvendu Bhattacharya
Publsiher: John Wiley & Sons
Total Pages: 744
Release: 2014-09-26
ISBN 10: 1118406303
ISBN 13: 9781118406304
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Conventional and Advanced Food Processing Technologies Book Review:

Food processing technologies are an essential link in the food chain. These technologies are many and varied, changing in popularity with changing consumption patterns and product popularity. Newer process technologies are also being evolved to provide the added advantages. Conventional and Advanced Food Processing Technologies fuses the practical (application, machinery), theoretical (model, equation) and cutting-edge (recent trends), making it ideal for industrial, academic and reference use. It consists of two sections, one covering conventional or well-established existing processes and the other covering emerging or novel process technologies that are expected to be employed in the near future for the processing of foods in the commercial sector. All are examined in great detail, considering their current and future applications with added examples and the very latest data. Conventional and Advanced Food Processing Technologies is a comprehensive treatment of the current state of knowledge on food processing technology. In its extensive coverage, and the selection of reputed research scientists who have contributed to each topic, this book will be a definitive text in this field for students, food professionals and researchers.

Fish and Fish Oil in Health and Disease Prevention

Fish and Fish Oil in Health and Disease Prevention
Author: Susan Raatz,Douglas Bibus
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 380
Release: 2016-07-21
ISBN 10: 0128028459
ISBN 13: 9780128028452
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Fish and Fish Oil in Health and Disease Prevention Book Review:

Fish and Fish Oil in Health and Disease Prevention provides an authoritative review of the role of fish and fish oil intake in the promotion of human health. This up-to-date volume provides a complete examination of intake patterns as well as research evidence of intake in disease prevention and treatment. Readers will gain knowledge ranging from the current state of fish and fish oil intake, their health promoting effects and influences on individual response, how they influence development and health maintenance through the life cycle, and their role in disease prevention and treatment. This book is an invaluable resource for all researchers working to understand the relationship between fish and human health. It is a valuable reference for nutritionists, dietitians, and health care providers. Imparts a valuable understanding of fish intake patterns around the world and the role of fish and fish oil in human health through the lifecycle Offers an understanding of the role of fish and fish oil in disease risk reduction and treatment Presents the current status of fish intake and recommended intake levels for human health Focuses on research on unique fish and oil sources and potential problems with fish availability

Science of Caring

Science of Caring
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Anonim
Total Pages: 329
Release: 1993
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: UCSF:31378008230693
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Science of Caring Book Review:

Management of Cancer in the Older Patient E Book

Management of Cancer in the Older Patient E Book
Author: Arash Naeim,David Reuben,Patricia Ganz
Publsiher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Total Pages: 312
Release: 2011-08-17
ISBN 10: 1455723134
ISBN 13: 9781455723133
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Management of Cancer in the Older Patient E Book Book Review:

Management of Cancer in the Older Patient, by Drs. Arash Naeim, David Reuben, and Patricia Ganz, offers the help you need to effectively diagnose, refer, and manage cancer in geriatric patients. You’ll see how to provide effective cancer screening; refer your patients to the right oncologist; deal with comorbidities, frailties, and other complications; navigate end-of-life issues; and much more. A templated, user-friendly format makes it easy to find and apply the answers you need. See how to best manage geriatric cancer patients with help from leading specialists in both geriatrics and oncology Make informed decisions as to when to refer patients to specialists. Provide the supportive care your patients and their families need on issues such as such as mental health, pain, fatigue, nausea, insomnia. Be prepared to help cancer survivors navigate their after-treatment care including adjuvant therapy, side effects, second cancers, quality of life, and other concerns. Offer accurate guidance on ethical issues like competency, end of life, hospice, the role of the caregiver, and more.

Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology

Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology
Author: Anonim
Publsiher: Anonim
Total Pages: 329
Release: 2001
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: UCLA:L0082069295
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Book Review:

Pharmacology and Physiology for Anesthesia E Book

Pharmacology and Physiology for Anesthesia E Book
Author: Hugh C. Hemmings,Talmage D. Egan
Publsiher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Total Pages: 544
Release: 2012-12-06
ISBN 10: 1455737933
ISBN 13: 9781455737932
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Pharmacology and Physiology for Anesthesia E Book Book Review:

Better understand the complexities of pharmacology and physiology relevant to your practice with the brand-new medical reference book, Pharmacology and Physiology for Anesthesia. Drs. Hugh Hemmings and Talmage Egan provide the clinical insights you need to effectively administer anesthesia, ensuring patient safety and the most optimal outcomes. Consult this title on your favorite e-reader, conduct rapid searches, and adjust font sizes for optimal readability. Access comprehensive, continually updated research on the physiology of organ systems and clinical topics in the pharmacology of anesthetic drugs. Quickly and easily reference the information you need through user-friendly tables, figures, and algorithms, all presented in lavish full color throughout. Understand the molecular mechanism of drug actions and identify key drug interactions that may complicate anesthesia with dedicated sections on these key areas.

Nanoemulsions

Nanoemulsions
Author: Seid Mahdi Jafari,D. Julian McClements
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 664
Release: 2018-02-24
ISBN 10: 0128118393
ISBN 13: 9780128118399
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Nanoemulsions Book Review:

Nanoemulsions: Formulation, Applications, and Characterization provides detailed information on the production, application and characterization of food nanoemulsion as presented by experts who share a wealth of experience. Those involved in the nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries will find this a useful reference as it addresses findings related to different preparation and formulation methods of nanoemulsions and their application in different fields and products. As the last decade has seen a major shift from conventional emulsification processes towards nanoemulsions that both increase the efficiency and stability of emulsions and improve targeted drug and nutraceutical delivery, this book is a timely resource. Summarizes general aspects of food nanoemulsions and their formulation Provides detailed information on the production, application, and characterization of food nanoemulsion Reveals the potential of nanoemulsions, as well as their novel applications in functional foods, nutraceutical products, delivery systems, and cosmetic formulations Explains preparation of nanoemulsions by both low- and high-energy methods

Omega 3 Fatty Acids

Omega 3 Fatty Acids
Author: Fereidoon Shahidi,John W. Finley
Publsiher: Amer Chemical Society
Total Pages: 330
Release: 2001
ISBN 10:
ISBN 13: UOM:39015050477580
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Omega 3 Fatty Acids Book Review:

Polyunsaturated fatty acids provide unique health benefits to consumers but also present the technician with difficult challenges in delivering these fatty acids in appealing foods that do no have the off-flavors associated with the oxidation products of these highly labile materials. This book presents a comprehensive assessment of the current state of these stability issues, the nutritional effects and the potential for delivery in foods of 0mega-3 fatty acids.

Microencapsulation and Microspheres for Food Applications

Microencapsulation and Microspheres for Food Applications
Author: Leonard M.C. Sagis
Publsiher: Academic Press
Total Pages: 434
Release: 2015-08-10
ISBN 10: 0128004185
ISBN 13: 9780128004180
Language: EN, FR, DE, ES & NL

Microencapsulation and Microspheres for Food Applications Book Review:

Microencapsulation and Microspheres for Food Applications is a solid reflection on the latest developments, challenges, and opportunities in this highly expanding field. This reference examines the various types of microspheres and microcapsules essential to those who need to develop stable and impermeable products at high acidic conditions. It’s also important for the novel design of slow releasing active compound capsules. Each chapter provides an in-depth account of controlled release technologies, evidence based abstracts, descriptions of chemical and physical principals, and key relevant facts relating to food applications. Written in an accessible manner, the book is a must have resource for scientists, researchers, and engineers. Discusses the most current encapsulation technology applied in the food industry, including radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and dynamic NMR microscopy Presents the use of microsphere immunoassay for mycotoxins detection Covers a broad range of applications of microcapsules and microspheres, including food shelf-life, pesticides for crop protection, and nanoencapsulated bacteriophage for food safety